Metrolink (also known as Manchester Metrolink)[note 1] is a tram/light rail system in Greater Manchester, England. The system is owned by Transport for Greater Manchester (TfGM) and operated and maintained under contract by a Keolis/Amey consortium. 37.8 million passenger journeys were made on the system during 2016/17.
The network consists of seven lines which radiate from Manchester city centre to termini at Altrincham, Ashton-under-Lyne, Bury, East Didsbury, Eccles, Manchester Airport and Rochdale. Metrolink has 93 stops along 57 miles (92 km) of standard-gauge track making it the largest light rail system in the United Kingdom. It consists of a mixture of on-street track shared with other traffic; reserved track sections, segregated from other traffic, and converted former railway lines. It is operated by a fleet of Bombardier Flexity Swift M5000s.
A light rail system for Greater Manchester emerged from the failure of the 1970s Picc-Vic tunnel scheme to obtain central government funding. A light-rail scheme was proposed in 1982 as the least expensive rail-based transport solution for Manchester city centre and the surrounding Greater Manchester metropolitan area. Government approval was granted in 1988 and the network began operating services between Bury Interchange and Victoria on 6 April 1992, becoming the United Kingdom's first modern street-running rail system; the 1885-built Blackpool tramway being the only heritage tram system in the UK that had survived up to Metrolink's creation.
Expansion of Metrolink has been a key strategy of transport planners in Greater Manchester, who have overseen its development in successive projects, known as Phases 1, 2, 3a and 3b with the most recent phase, 2CC becoming operational in February 2017. Construction work on the Trafford Park Line extension from Pomona to the Trafford Centre commenced in early 2017 with an estimated operational date of 2020/21. Furthermore, TfGM have endorsed more speculative expansion proposals for new lines to Stockport, a loop around Wythenshawe, and the addition of tram-train technology.
Manchester's first tram age began in 1877 with the first horse-drawn trams of Manchester Suburban Tramways Company. Electric traction was introduced in 1901, and the municipal Manchester Corporation Tramways expanded across the city. By 1930, Manchester's tram network had grown to 163 miles (262 km) route miles, making it the third largest tram system in the United Kingdom. After World War II, electric trolleybuses and motor buses began to be favoured by local authorities as a cheaper transport alternative, and by 1949 the last Manchester tram line was closed. Trolleybuses were withdrawn from service in 1966.
Greater Manchester's railway network historically suffered from poor north–south connections due to the fact that Manchester's main railway stations, Piccadilly and Victoria, were built in the 1840s on peripheral locations outside Manchester City Centre. The central commercial district had no rail links, and over the years, a number of unsuccessful schemes were proposed to connect Manchester's rail termini. In the 1960s, transport design studies were undertaken to address the problems of increasing traffic congestion. A number of urban public transport schemes were evaluated for Manchester, including several types of monorail systems and metro-style systems.
While the monorail schemes were all abandoned, a scheme to create an underground tunnel link gained momentum. SELNEC Passenger Transport Executive — the body formed in 1969 to improve public transport for Manchester and its surrounding municipalities – promoted the Picc-Vic tunnel project. This was a proposal to link Piccadilly and Victoria stations via a tunnel under the city centre and enable train services to run across the Manchester conurbation. Greater Manchester County Council (GMC) inherited the project and presented it to the United Kingdom Government in 1974, but the council failed to secure the necessary funding and the project was abandoned in 1977. Inter-station links were provided by the Centreline shuttle bus service for many years.
Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive (GMPTE), the successor to SELNEC, continued to examine possible rail link solutions. Light rail emerged in the early 1980s as a cost-effective option that could make use of existing railway lines and run through the city centre at street level, eliminating the need for costly tunnelling works. A Rail Study Group, composed of officials from British Rail, GMC and GMPTE formally endorsed the Project Light Rail scheme in 1984. Initial abstract proposals, based on light rail systems in North America and continental Europe, illustrated a draft 62-mile (100 km) network consisting of three lines: Altrincham–Hadfield/Glossop, Bury–Marple/Rose Hill and Rochdale–East Didsbury. To promote the scheme, GMPTE held a public proof of concept demonstration in March 1987 using a Docklands Light Railway P86 train on a freight-only line adjacent to Debdale Park. The Project Light Rail proposals were presented to the UK Government for taxpayer funding; following route revisions in 1984 and 1987, Project Light Rail was approved. Because of central government's constraints on financial support for innovative transport projects, funding was granted by HM Treasury with the strict condition that the system be constructed in phases. Additional taxpayer funding came from the European Regional Development Fund and bank lending.
Parliamentary authority to proceed with Phase 1 construction was obtained with two Acts of Parliament – the Greater Manchester (Light Rapid Transit System) Act 1988 and Greater Manchester (Light Rapid Transit System) (No. 2) Act 1988.
MediaCityUK spur (2010)
Phase 1: Bury, Altrincham and Manchester city centreEdit
Beginning in July 1991, the first Phase of Metrolink involved the conversion of two suburban heavy rail lines to light rail operation — the Bury-Victoria line in the north and the Altrincham-Piccadilly line in the south — and the construction of a street-level tramway through the city centre to connect the two. Tracks were laid down along a 1.9-mile (3.1 km) route from Victoria station, via Market Street to the G-Mex, with a 0.4-mile (0.64 km) branch to Piccadilly station. This route is now known as the First City Crossing (1CC), and it was built with network expansion in mind.
A fleet of 26 T-68 light rail vehicles was procured to operate the 19.2-mile (30.9 km) network. Construction was carried out by the GMA Group (a consortium of AMEC, GM Buses, John Mowlem & Company, and GEC) at a cost of £145 million (£270,600,000 as of 2017).
Metrolink was originally scheduled to open in September 1991, but services did not begin until 1992, when the Bury Line opened as far as Victoria on 6 April. The first street-level trams began running on 27 April between Victoria and G-Mex (now Deansgate-Castlefield), the Altrincham line opened on 15 June, and the branch to Piccadilly station opened on 20 July. Metrolink was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 17 July 1992.
Phase 2: Salford Quays, EcclesEdit
In Phase 2 the Metrolink network was extended eastwards to Eccles along the new 4-mile (6.4 km) Eccles Line, as part of the 1990s urban regeneration of Salford Quays, increasing the total Metrolink route length to 24 miles (39 km). The extension cost £160,000,000 (£242,870,000 as of 2017). and was funded by the GMPTA, the ERDF and private developers. It was constructed 1997–99 by Altram (a consortium of Serco, Ansaldo and John Laing) and six new T-68A trams were bought to operate services. The line was inaugurated by Prime Minister Tony Blair on 6 December 1999, and officially opened by Princess Anne on 9 January 2001.
The Phase 3 extension project, nicknamed the "Big Bang", was promoted by GMPTE and the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities (AGMA) in the early 2000s. The project, costing £489,000,000 (£742,300,000 as of 2017), would create four new lines: the Oldham and Rochdale Line, the East Manchester Line, the South Manchester Line and the Airport Line. Phase 3 was put in doubt when central government funding was withdrawn due to increasing costs, but after negotiations with the Department for Transport, Phase 3 was split into two parts, 3a and 3b, to secure investment. Phase 3b was delayed after a failed bid to raise funding through the Greater Manchester Transport Innovation Fund and a proposed traffic congestion charge in 2008. GMPTE and AGMA instead funded Phase 3b through a combination of council tax, government grants, Metrolink fares and contributions from the Manchester Airports Group and other bodies. The new 0.25-mile (0.40 km) spur off the Eccles Line to MediaCityUK was funded separately by the Northwest Regional Development Agency (NWRDA). As part of Phase 3, the original blue T-68 trams were also phased out and replaced with a new fleet of M5000 trams, which entered service in December 2009.
Phase 3a: Oldham, Rochdale, South & East ManchesterEdit
Beginning in October 2009, Phase 3a involved converting the 14-mile (23 km) Oldham Loop heavy rail line to light rail operation and adding several new tram stops on the route; re-opening a disused 1.7-mile (2.7 km) section of Cheshire Lines Committee railway to use as the first part of the South Manchester Line (to St Werburgh's Road); and building a new 4-mile (6.4 km) East Manchester Line as far as Droylsden. When completed in 2013, Phase 3a increased Metrolink's total network length to 43 miles (69 km).
Phase 3b: Ashton-under-Lyne, East Didsbury and Manchester AirportEdit
Phase 3b involved the construction of a new 9-mile (14 km) Airport Line to Manchester Airport, and extending three of the new Phase 3a lines: the East Manchester Line to Ashton-under-Lyne; the South Manchester Line to Didsbury; and adding street-running routes through Oldham and Rochdale town centres to the Oldham and Rochdale Line. Construction work began in March 2011, and Phase 3b was completed in November 2014 with the opening of the Airport line.
Phase 2CC – Second City CrossingEdit
With increased tram traffic brought about by the expansion of the Metrolink network, it became necessary to build a new route across Manchester City Centre to alleviate congestion and improve capacity.
Known as the Second City Crossing (or 2CC), the project involved laying 0.8 miles (1.3 km) of tram tracks from St Peter's Square tram stop via Princess Street, Albert Square, Cross Street and Corporation Street to rejoin the original Metrolink line just before Victoria station. One new tram stop was built at Exchange Square. The project also involved re-ordering St Peter's Square and re-siting the Cenotaph to accommodate an enlarged tram interchange and junction. Construction began in 2014 and the 2CC route opened fully in February 2017.
Current works and future expansion plansEdit
Trafford Park ExtensionEdit
Proposed future developmentsEdit
Before inauguration, GMPTE's original concept was for Metrolink's operator to provide a service every ten minutes from Bury-to-Piccadilly and Altrincham-to-Piccadilly 6 a.m.–Midnight, Monday to Saturday. Greater Manchester Metro Limited, the system's original operator, argued for adjustments, citing the need to provide an efficient and commercially viable operation in line with vehicle running times and passenger demand. Due to power limitations, this pattern was modified to a twelve-minute service throughout the day, doubling to a six-minute service in peak periods, resulting in a "ten trams per hour" service pattern on routes running from Altrincham and Bury to Manchester every six minutes. Operators are required to provide this level of service at least 98% of the time, or incur a financial penalty charge. This six-minute service pattern has been adopted on the rest of the network as the system has grown. Heavy snowfall during the winter of 2009/10 impaired Metrolink services and the operator was criticised for failing to have cold weather procedures. This prompted a programme to improve reliability and performance of the system in freezing conditions. Metrolink operated icebreaker-style vehicles at night during snowfall in January 2013 to provide normal services.
In January 2016, Transport for General Manchester agreed a baseline Service Specification to grade bidders seeking to operate the concession from July 2017; once the Second City Crossing is in operation. In the baseline service pattern, there are no designated 'peak' periods of service operation; instead there will be an 'enhanced' service operating from start of service to 8pm Monday to Friday, and to 6pm Saturday; and a 'core' service running at all other times. In the 'enhanced' service pattern, trams will run with a 6-minute frequency to Shaw & Oldham, Bury, Ashton, Altrincham, Manchester Airport and East Didsbury; and with a 12-minute frequency to Rochdale, Eccles and MediacityUK. When the Trafford line opens, services will run to the Trafford Centre with a 12-minute frequency. In the 'core' service pattern, all lines will run with a 12-minute frequency.
The following services run 07:15–19:30 on weekdays and 09:30–18:00 on Saturdays.
Eight services which all run every 12 minutes:
- (A) Altrincham – Bury
- (B) Altrincham – Etihad Campus
- (C) Bury – Piccadilly
- (D) MediaCityUK – Piccadilly
- (E) Ashton-under-Lyne – Eccles
- (F) Deansgate-Castlefield – Manchester Airport
- (G) East Didsbury – Rochdale Town Centre
- (H) East Didsbury – Shaw and Crompton
Thus the combined frequency for some routes is at least every 6 minutes if not greater.
All day services:
The following services run all day from 06:00 until 23:30 on Mondays to Thursdays, and from 06:00 until 00:30 on Fridays and Saturdays, and from 07:00 – 22:30 on Sundays and bank holidays.
Five services which all run every 12 minutes:
- (B) Altrincham – Etihad Campus
- (C) Bury – Piccadilly
- (E) Ashton-under-Lyne – Eccles via MediaCityUK
- (F) Deansgate-Castlefield – Manchester Airport
- (G) East Didsbury – Rochdale Town Centre
Early morning service:
The early morning service operates 03:19–06:00 Monday to Saturday and 03:19–07:00 on Sundays and bank holidays.
One service which runs every 20 minutes:
This is largely to support airport shift workers and people with early flights.
|Metrolink service map and routes|
|(A) Altrincham – Bury
|(B) Altrincham – Etihad Campus||(C) Bury – Piccadilly|
|(D) MediaCityUK – Piccadilly
|(E) Eccles – Ashton-under-Lyne
(via MediaCityUK at offpeak times)
|(F) Manchester Airport – Deansgate-Castlefield|
|(G) East Didsbury – Rochdale Town Centre||(H) East Didsbury – Shaw and Crompton
Metrolink fares were originally set by the system's operator, but are now set by the TfGM Committee at levels that cover both the running costs and the cost of borrowing that has part-funded the expansion of the system; Metrolink receives no public subsidy. Fares typically rise each January above the rate of inflation. The fare tariff is based on a division of the network's stops into fare zones. Persons under 16 years of age, persons of pensionable age, and people with disabilities qualify for concessionary fares, some of which are mandatory and others discretionary, as determined by the Greater Manchester Combined Authority. The Greater Manchester Combined Authority permits reduced fares for persons under 16 years of age, and free or reduced fares on Metrolink after 9:30 a.m. for pensioners. In normal circumstances, tickets cannot be purchased on board Metrolink vehicles, and must be purchased from a ticket vending machine before boarding the vehicle.
Fare evasion in 2006 was estimated at 2–6% of all users, and in 2012 at 2.5% of all users. Checking tickets and passes and issuing Standard fares is the responsibility of Metrolink's Passenger Services Representatives (PSRs), who provide security and assistance on the network; between 1992 and 2008, Greater Manchester Police had a dedicated Metrolink unit responsible for policing the system.
The original ticket vending machines were designed by Thorn EMI. In 2005 GMPTE announced that rail passengers travelling from within Greater Manchester into Manchester city centre can use the Metrolink service between the nine City Zone stops for free. Passengers must present a valid rail ticket, correctly dated with Manchester Ctlz as the destination. In 2007 TfGM rolled out new ticket vending machines, designed to accept credit/debit card payments and permit the purchase of multiple tickets in a single transaction. These were replaced in 2009 with touchscreen machines, designed with the Scheidt & Bachmann Ticket XPress system. In October 2012, TfGM announced it was devising a simpler zonal fare system, comparable to London fare zones, and preparing to introduce get me there, the region's new contactless smartcard system, for use on all public transport modes in Greater Manchester, including Metrolink.
Metrolink trams and stops have been designed to be accessible to disabled passengers: each stop has been provided with access ramps or lifts, tactile paving, high visibility handrails, disabled boarding points and help points on the platforms. The trams have also been designed with large areas available for the provision of wheelchairs and pushchairs.
Mobility scooters were originally banned from Metrolink, however in 2014 a scheme was introduced whereby scooters could be allowed on trams, provided they have a permit which can be obtained after an assessment of the scooter's size and manoeuvrability.
Metrolink does not allow full sized bicycles on to trams, but does permit the carriage of "fully covered" folding bicycles. The ban on non-folding bicycles was upheld in 2010, despite a campaign by cycling and green groups for the trams to be adapted to allow them. Campaigners against the policy had argued that the ban on bicycles was anomalous, as other large objects such as ironing boards and deckchairs were allowed on the trams under current rules.
Metrolink is owned by TfGM and operated and maintained by private transport firms under an operating and maintenance (O&M) contract. Between 1992 and 1997 Metrolink was operated and maintained as a concession by Greater Manchester Metro Limited, between 1997 and 2007 by Serco. When next tendered, a 10 year contract was awarded to the Stagecoach Group from 15 July 2007. On 1 August 2011, RATP Group bought the balance of the contract from Stagecoach.
In October 2015, TfGM announced RATP Group, Keolis/Amey, National Express and Transdev had been shortlisted to bid for the next contract starting in July 2017. In January 2017, the Keolis/Amey consortium were announced as the successful bidder for the seven-year contract from 15 July 2017.
The standard corporate identity across the Metrolink system uses a pale yellow and metallic silver colour scheme, with a logotype that consists of a diamond motif formed from a pattern of repeating circles and the Metrolink name. The logo, signage and publicity use the Pantograph sans regular typeface. Tram livery features yellow at the vehicle ends with grey sides and black doors, and a pattern of circles.
The corporate identity was created in October 2008 by Hemisphere Design & Marketing Consultants of Manchester, in collaboration with designer Peter Saville and the transport design agency Design Triangle. The Pantograph typeface was specially commissioned from the Dalton Maag type foundry. The design standard was applied to the Metrolink network when the new M5000 trams were introduced to the network. Yellow was chosen by Hemisphere for its high visibility and to reflect Greater Manchester's culture of confidence and optimism.
When the Metrolink network first came into operation in 1992, it used a system-wide colour scheme and vehicle livery of aquamarine, black and grey, along with a stylised "M" monogram placed at an angle within a circle. This branding, along with the Metrolink brand name, was devised by Fitch RS and Design Triangle, and first revealed at a press launch in June 1988. Prior to this, during the planning stage, the system was known as "Light Rapid Transit" (LRT) and promotional material used an orange and brown identity used by Greater Manchester Transport and GM Buses.
Transport planners in Greater Manchester describe Metrolink as both "an icon of Greater Manchester", and "an integral part of the landscape in Greater Manchester". The Guardian describes Metrolink as "Manchester's efficient and much-loved tram system". Under ownership of the Guardian Media Group, the Manchester Evening News spearheaded the Get Our Metrolink Back on Track campaign in 2004–05. Under Trinity Mirror ownership, the Manchester Evening News used the Freedom of Information Act 2000 to reveal that Metrolink received over 10,000 complaints between May 2011 and May 2012.
Metrolink has had close connections with popular culture in Manchester, and has taken advantage of the city's strong associations with football culture. Metrolink has been a "Football Development Partner" with the Manchester Football Association since August 2010, meaning it is the association's Official Travel Partner, and supports grassroots association football in Greater Manchester by selecting a "Team of the Month". In 2013, then Manchester City F.C. manager Roberto Mancini and players Joe Hart, Vincent Kompany and James Milner recorded special stop announcements to be used on Metrolink's East Manchester Line on dates when Manchester City play at home at the City of Manchester Stadium (served by the Etihad Campus tram stop). The announcements were first used on 17 February 2013, for Manchester City's FA Cup Fifth Round tie against Leeds United A.F.C..
Metrolink is a sponsor of the annual Manchester Food and Drink Festival.
Metrolink has also featured in television drama. On 6 December 2010, the popular soap opera Coronation Street featured a storyline with an explosion which caused a crash on the Metrolink system at Weatherfield. The episode was written to celebrate the soap opera's 50th anniversary. Although a fictitious event, at least six calls were made to GMPTE asking if services had been affected.
As of December 2015, Metrolink has a network length of 57 miles (92 km) and 93 stops — along seven lines which radiate from a "central triangular junction at Piccadilly Gardens which forms the hub of the Metrolink system" in the City Zone.
The lines are: the Airport Line (which terminates at Manchester Airport), the Altrincham Line (which terminates in Altrincham), the Bury Line (which terminates in Bury), the East Manchester Line (which terminates in Ashton-under-Lyne), the South Manchester Line (which terminates in East Didsbury), the Eccles Line (which terminates in Eccles), and the Oldham and Rochdale Line (which terminates in Rochdale).
|Line or zone||First
|Route type(s)||Length||Number of
|Airport Line||3 November 2014||On and off-street[a]||23.2 km
|15||12 minute||Barlow Moor Road||Manchester Airport|
|Altrincham Line||15 June 1992||Converted railway track||12.2
(less before Trafford Bar)
|Bury Line||6 April 1992||Converted railway track||15.9 km
|10||6 minute||Queens Road||Bury|
|City Zone||27 April 1992||On and off-street||9||Various||Victoria||Deansgate-Castlefield
or New Islington
|East Manchester Line||11 February 2013||On and off-street||9.7
(6 minute before Etihad Campus)
|Eccles Line||6 December 1998||On and off-street||6.4 km
(6 minute before Harbour City)
|MediaCityUK spur[b]||3 September 2010||Off-street||0.3 km
|Oldham and Rochdale Line||13 June 2012||Converted railway track||23.8 km
(6 minute before Shaw and Crompton)
|South Manchester Line||7 July 2011||Converted railway bed||7.1 km
(4 minute before St Werburgh's Road)
|Trafford Park Line||2020–21[c]||5.5 km
There are 93 tram stops on Metrolink, as of 2016. Low-floor platforms commonly used for light rail throughout the world were ruled out for Metrolink because the system inherited 90-centimetre (35 in) high-floor platforms from British Rail on lines formerly used for heavy rail. The original stops on the Bury Line and Altrincham Line, opened in phase one, were formerly railway stations, and were changed little from British Rail days, as available funding only allowed minimum upgrades to be made. When the Oldham and Rochdale Line was converted from a railway however, all of the former railway stations were completely rebuilt.
Some stops, such as Cornbrook, are shared between lines, and may be used as interchange stations; others, such as Altrincham Interchange, or Ashton-under-Lyne are transport hubs which integrate with heavy rail and bus stations.
Metrolink stops are unstaffed, each contains at least two ticket vending machines, and are provided with help/emergency call points to enable passengers to speak to control. Each stop is monitored by CCTV for public safety, and the images are continuously recorded. Route maps and general information are provided on each platform. Each stop has at least one high-floor platform measuring a minimum of 2 metres (6.6 ft) wide, accessed by ramp, stairs, escalator, lift or combination thereof. Shelters and canopies at stops were supplied by JCDecaux, and ticket vending machines by Scheidt & Bachmann. Card readers are installed on all stop platforms, ready for the TfGM 'My Get Me There' smart card initially trialled in 2014; when this is fully implemented all smart card users will touch-in and touch-out at these platform readers.
The trams are electrically powered from 750 V DC overhead lines. Between 1992 and 2007, electricity for the Metrolink system was procured by the operator, based on price only. In 2007, GMPTE changed the contractual requirements to ensure that sustainable power would be factored into choosing an energy supplier, and in July 2007, Metrolink became the first light rail network in the UK with electricity supplied entirely from sustainable energy via hydropower. Now, energy for the system is generated by biomass.
Metrolink has two depots, at Queens Road and Old Trafford: Metrolink House at Queens Road in Cheetham Hill was the original headquarters of Metrolink. Constructed during Phase 1 alongside the Bury Line, it served jointly as a control centre, HQ, office space, and depot for the storage, maintenance and repair of vehicles. Under the original proposals, Metrolink House was intended to be much larger, with a design which would support network expansion, but this design did not obtain the necessary planning permission from Manchester City Council. Consequently, Metrolink House was scaled down to a 4-hectare (9.9-acre) £8,000,000 site with limited capacity, and, in light of Phase 3a network expansion, a second depot in Old Trafford was built in 2011. This second depot, adjacent to the Old Trafford tram stop, occupies the site of a former warehouse, and can stable up to 96 vehicles, it also has a washing plant and maintenance workshops; major work on trams however is still carried out at Queens Road. On 7 May 2013 Metrolink completed the transfer of its main operational functions from Queens Road to Old Trafford, meaning its control room – known as the Network Management Centre – is housed jointly with the Customer Services team by its newer depot.
In July 2013, the Transport for Greater Manchester Committee announced that it planned to enhance the experience of travelling on Metrolink by tapping into Manchester City Council's grant from the UK Urban Broadband Fund and using it to provide Metrolink passengers with free Wi-Fi when on board. The scheme began with a trial on a single tram – number 3054 – connected to the FreeBeeMcr broadband network with the intention of rolling it out across the whole Metrolink network by Spring 2015. It was rolled out fleet wide in March 2015.
Metrolink is operated by fleet of 120 M5000 trams, which were first introduced in 2009, and continued to be delivered until 2016. These replaced the original fleet of thirty-two T-68 and T-68A trams, which had operated the network since opening in 1992, and were withdrawn from service during 2012–14.
Because low-floor tram technology was in its infancy when Metrolink was in its planning stages, and in order to be compatible with the former British Rail stations Metrolink inherited, the network uses high-floor trams with a platform height of 900 mm (35 in), the same height as main line trains.
Trams on Metrolink can operate either singly, or coupled together to form double units. Double units regularly run during rush hours.
In December 2009, Metrolink took delivery of the first M5000 tram. Built by Bombardier Transportation and Vossloh Kiepe, the initial eight M5000s were ordered to allow services to be increased. They are part of the Flexity Swift range of light rail vehicles, and have a design similar to the K5000 vehicle used on the Cologne Stadtbahn.
With the approval of the spur to MediaCityUK, a further four were ordered. To provide rolling stock for the phase 3 extensions and replace the existing fleet, the order was increased successively to 94. In December 2013, a further ten M5000s were ordered to provide trams for the Trafford Park Line planned to open in 2020, while in the interim supporting a service between MediaCityUK and Manchester city centre and other capacity enhancements. In September 2014, a further 16 were ordered; the final one of which was delivered in October 2016, bringing the fleet up to 120.
|Class||Image||Type||Top speed||Length||Capacity||Number||Fleet Numbers||Routes
|M5000||Tram||50||80||28.4 metres||60–66||146||120||3001–3120||All lines||2009–2016||2009–present|
Metrolink has one Special Purpose Vehicle from 1991. Numbered 1027 with its support wagon 1028, it is a bespoke diesel-powered vehicle with a crane, inspection platform, mobile workshop, and capacity for a driver and three passengers. It was designed to assist with vehicle recovery and track and line repairs.
To commence operations, a fleet of 26 T-68 trams manufactured by AnsaldoBreda in Italy were delivered in 1992. To provide extra trams for the Eccles Line, six modified T-68A trams were purchased in 1999. The T-68A vehicles were based on the original T-68s, but had modifications replacing destination rollblinds with dot matrix displays, and retractable couplers and covered bogies necessary for the high proportion of on-street running close to motor traffic.
Three of the earlier T-68 fleet were similarly equipped, and were known as T-68Ms. Mechanically and electrically the T-68M vehicles remained essentially a T-68, but had modifications to its brakes, mirrors, and speed limiters to suit the Eccles line. Initially only these vehicles were permitted to operate the Eccles line but the entire fleet except for 3 (1018, 1019, 1020) were modified between 2008 and 2012 for universal running, under a programme known as the T-68X Universal Running programme.
The newer M5000 trams proved to be considerably more reliable than the T-68/A fleet; which averaged 5,000 miles between breakdowns, while the M5000's averaged 20,000 miles. This led to a decision in 2012 to withdraw the entire fleet from service and replace them with M5000's. All of the T-68 and T-68As were withdrawn between April 2012 and April 2014.
|Class||Image||Type||Top speed||Length||Capacity||Number||Fleet Numbers||Routes operated||Built||Years operated|
In 2002, in the lead up to Manchester hosting the Commonwealth Games, a requirement to increase capacity on for the event led to Metrolink investigating the purchase of redundant second-hand USSLRV vehicles from the Muni Metro system in San Francisco. To this end, two were procured for testing and shipped to the UK, with one taken to Metrolink's Queen's Road depot. In the end, the proposal was not taken forward as the vehicles were found to be unsuitable for use in the UK.
The Department for Transport reported passenger journeys for the 2015/16 financial year at 34.3 million; a 10.1% increase from 31.2 million the previous year. Patronage has risen steadily since its opening, from a start-point of 8.1 million in the 1992/93 fiscal year. Travel increased from 18.2 million journeys in 2001/02 to 20 million journeys in 2008/09; numbers fell to 18.7 million in 2009 while parts of the system were closed for upgrades, but recovered to 19.6 million for the 2009/10 fiscal year. Metrolink revised its method for calculating passenger boardings in 2010/11, meaning figures are not directly comparable with previous years.
A survey in 2012 revealed that 12%, or around one in 10 people in Greater Manchester use Metrolink to travel to work, and 8% use the system every day. The system is most commonly used by 21- to 30-year olds, and was used most markedly by residents of the Metropolitan Borough of Bury — accounting for around a third of their commuter journeys.
|Estimated passenger journeys made on Metrolink per financial year|
|Year||Passenger journeys||Year||Passenger journeys||Year||Passenger journeys||Year||Passenger journeys|
|Estimates provided by TfGM to the Department for Transport, based on sales from ticket machines.[note 2]|
A survey in 2012 revealed that passengers who used Metrolink everyday for commuting rated service levels as poor and/or unreliable, with those respondents particularly frustrated by delays and disruptions. TfGM recognised that the older vehicles in its fleet – the T68/T68As — were outdated and the cause of much disruption, and agreed to replace them with M5000s by 2014. Among those who used Metrolink less regularly, the system scored far better in the survey. A survey in 2013 by the non-departmental government body Passenger Focus found that of the five major light rail systems in the United Kingdom – Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, NET, Midland Metro and Blackpool tramway – Metrolink had the lowest overall satisfaction rating in the United Kingdom. Respondents were surveyed on value for money, punctuality, seating availability, tram stops and overall satisfaction. Metrolink was below average on all criteria, and 47% believed Metrolink was value for money compared to a national average of 60%.
A further survey in late 2015 by watchdog Transport Focus, found that satisfaction levels had increased; 89% of passengers surveyed said they were either ‘very’ or ‘fairly’ satisfied with their overall journey, up from 83% in 2013, but still below the national average of 92%. It also found that 58% felt the service was value for money. The national average rating for value for money on all tram networks was 69%.
Unlike some Metro systems in the United Kingdom, the Manchester Metrolink has a high degree of street interaction between pedestrians and motorists with on-street running trams – this is most notable in Manchester city centre. All trams are equipped with a standard horn and a warning horn. A number of fatal incidents have occurred on the network since opening in 1992:
- On 18 October 2002, a pedestrian died after a collision with a tram after falling onto tram tracks near Manchester Central.
- On 25 June 2005, a pedestrian died after a collision with a tram at Navigation Road stop.
- On 5 June 2011, a pedestrian died after a collision near Piccadilly Gardens.
- On 15 December 2011, a blind man died after a collision with a tram near St Peters' Square.
- On 6 February 2013, a pedestrian died after a collision with a tram at the Failsworth stop.
- On 11 January 2014, a pedestrian died after a collision with a tram at the Market Street stop.
- On 16 February 2016, a cyclist died after a collision with a tram at the Robinswood Road stop.
On 14 May 2017, the whole system was shut down by technical issue from about 15:50 BST to the end of the day.
- The system is branded Metrolink. The Department for Transport refers to the system as Manchester Metrolink, an alternative unofficial name. It is defined in Acts of Parliament and Byelaws as the Greater Manchester Light Rapid Transit System; and sometimes (unofficially) called Greater Manchester Metrolink.
- Estimates excludes free travel such as Concessionary Bus Pass for pensioners and tickets sold through other vendors.
- "LTRA World Systems List index". lrta.org. Light Rail Transit Association. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- "Light Rail and Tram Statistics: England 2016/17" (PDF). Department for Transport. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 4.
- Department for Transport (2009). "Explanatory Memorandum to the Greater Manchester (Light Rapid Transit System) (Exemptions) Order 2009". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
The Order grants exemptions from certain requirements of railways legislation currently applying to the Greater Manchester Light Rapid Transit System ("Metrolink") ...
- Slatcher, Adrian (17 December 2010). "Procurement of hydro-electricity for Metrolink – the Greater Manchester light rapid transit system.". Manchester: Energy Planning Knowledge Base. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
GMPTE own the Greater Manchester light rapid transit system – known as Metrolink.
- "Light Rail and Tram Statistics: England 2015/16" (PDF). Department for Transport. 7 June 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 106.
- "£500m tram extension unveiled". BBC News. 22 March 2000. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 39.
- "Salford Infrastructure Delivery Plan" (PDF). Salford City Council. February 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "RATP buys Manchester Metrolink operator". Railway Gazette International. London. 2 August 2011.
- Scheerhout, John (31 March 2014). "Passenger trams start running to and from Rochdale town centre for first time in 80 years". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "New Metrolink line to Wythenshawe and Manchester Airport to open on November 3 – a year ahead of schedule". Manchester Evening News. 13 October 2014. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Manchester Metrolink, United Kingdom". railway-technology.com. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- "Manchester Metrolink, United Kingdom". Railway Technology. 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Kingsley, Nick (19 October 2007). "Manchester plays catch-up with Metrolink expansion". Railway Gazette International. London. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- Transport for Greater Manchester (March 2014). "Greater Manchester Growth and Reform Plan: Transport Strategy and Investment Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- "Ground broken on Manchester’s Trafford Park Line". Global Rail News. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- Wordsworth, Nigel (14 October 2016). "Manchester Metrolink Trafford Park extension approved". Global Rail News. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
- "A Short History of Public Transport in Greater Manchester". Museum of Transport Greater Manchester. Archived from the original on 10 November 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
- Williams 2003, p. 273.
- Holt 1992, pp. 6–7.
- Fitzgerald, Todd (11 August 2015). "Revealed: 100 years of failed transport plans for Manchester – monorail and underground tube included". men. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- Starkie, D. N. M. Transportation Planning, Policy and Analysis: Urban and Regional Planning Series. Elsevier. p. 35. ISBN 9781483156439. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- "Monorail for Manchester?". archive.commercialmotor.com. 28 January 1966. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- De Leuw, Cather & Partners; Hennessey, Chadwick, O'Heocha & Partners, eds. (August 1967). Manchester Rapid Transit Study, Volume 2.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 22.
- "Green light for Manchester tube project". The Guardian. 18 July 1967. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016.
- Holt 1992, p. 5.
- Donald, Cross & Bristow 1983, p. 45.
- Brook, Richard; Dodge, Martin (2012). Infra_MANC – Post-war infrastructures of Manchester (PDF). RIBA/CUBE Gallery. p. 134. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016. (exhibition catalogue)
- Wainwright, Martin (14 March 2012). "Manchester's tube train that never was". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, pp. 26–27.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 37.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 25.
- GMPTE 2000.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, pp. 30–31.
- Kessell, Clive (30 November 2011). "Manchester Metrolink 20 Years of Evolution". The Rail Engineer. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, pp. 73–74.
- "Metrolink in the City Centre". LRTA. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
- "Metrolink : Routes : city centre routes". TheTrams. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
- Holt 1992, p. 94.
- Ogden & Senior 1991, p. 17.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 51.
- UK Consumer Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Gregory Clark (2016), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", MeasuringWorth.com.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 82.
- Holt 1992, p. 90.
- GMPTE 2003, p. 9.
- "Manchester's oldest Metrolink trams to be replaced". BBC News. 17 July 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- "Salford Quays Milestones: The Story of Salford Quays" (PDF). Salford City Council. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- "More money for UK light rail". Railway Gazette International. London. 1 January 2003. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- GMPTE 2003, p. 10.
- Officer, Tony Williams LRTA Manchester Area. "News 1998 & 1999 — Manchester Metrolink — LRTA". Light Rail Transit Association. Archived from the original on 12 July 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- "Whistle-stop Princess takes home hat souvenir". Manchester Evening News. 9 January 2001. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- "Metrolink extension is announced". BBC News. 6 July 2006. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "Greater Manchester Local Transport Plan 2" (PDF). Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Authority. March 2006. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Ward, David (2 August 2004). "Tram fury rattles ministers". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- "Government scraps trams extension". BBC News. 20 July 2004. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Metrolink 'to axe hospital route'". BBC News. 22 June 2005. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Metrolink: back on track?". BBC News. 13 May 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- TfGM & GMCA 2011, p. 80.
- "Metrolink trams pull in to MediaCityUK station for first time". Manchester Evening News. 20 September 2010. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- "A new generation of trams for Greater Manchester". Metrolink. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
- Kirby, Dean (1 October 2009). "Signalman reaches end of line". Manchester Evening News. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
- "End of era as loop line is replaced". Manchester Evening News. 26 September 2008. Archived from the original on 14 January 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
- "Metrolink trams reach Oldham Mumps". Railway Gazette International. London. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- "First line opens under £1·4bn Manchester tram expansion". Railway Gazette International. London. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Next stop: Rochdale!" (Press release). Transport for Greater Manchester. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Next stop: Rochdale!". Rochdale Online. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Manchester Metrolink starts Phase 3b". Railway Gazette International. London. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- "Ashton and Didsbury Metrolink extensions funded". Railway Gazette International. London. 8 March 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Kirby, Dean (14 May 2013). "Metrolink extension to East Didsbury to open next week- three months early". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- Young 2008, p. 163.
- Holt 1992, pp. 92–93.
- "Manchester Metrolink Phase 3b confirmed". Railway Gazette International. London. 5 August 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Bringing Metrolink to Oldham and Rochdale" (PDF). Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Authority. 2000. Retrieved 15 January 2013.[permanent dead link]
- "Metrolink – The Airport Line has landed".
- "Metrolink line to Manchester Airport opens a year early". BBC News. 3 November 2014.
- "Metrolink second city crossing 'vital' for Manchester". BBC News. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- TfGM & GMCA 2011, p. 84.
- "Ministers clear way for second city centre Metrolink line". Place North West. 7 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
- Linton, Deborah (25 January 2014). "Workmen start on cenotaph relocation". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- "26th February 2017:Second City Crossing opens". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- "Metrolink line to the Trafford Centre will go ahead despite objections from Coronation Street and Manchester United". Manchester Evening News. 14 October 2016.
- "Metrolink's Trafford Park £350m Tramline Approved". BBC News. 13 October 2016.
- "Powers granted for Manchester Metrolink Trafford Park extension". Railway Gazette International (London). 14 October 2016.
- "Enabling works begin on new Trafford Park Metrolink line".
- Ogden & Senior 1992, pp. 124–127.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 124.
- "Getting to The Quays and MediaCityUK". Transport for Greater Manchester. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "Brightening up your day" (PDF) (Press release). Metrolink. 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "Metrolink firm slammed over 'unacceptable' service". Manchester Evening News. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "Get some de-icer: Passengers fume as Metrolink trams are 'severely disrupted' by first frost of the winter". Manchester Evening News. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- Britton, Paul (16 January 2013). "Five inches of snow to hit Manchester". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "Metrolink tram times". Transport for Greater Manchester. 26 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- "Route Map" (PDF). Transport for Greater Manchester. 26 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- TfGM & GMCA 2011, p. 97.
- "The Tram: It's great ... apart from when it breaks". Manchester Evening News. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 126.
- "Metrolink set to move to new 'zone' ticket prices". Manchester Evening News. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Call to rethink rise in Greater Manchester tram fares". BBC News. 18 November 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 128.
- Holt 1992, p. 83.
- Dauby, Laurent; Kovacs, Zoltan (January 2007). "Fare Evasion in Light Rail Systems" (PDF). Transportation Research Circular. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board (E-C112 – Proceedings Joint International Light Rail Conference, St. Louis, Missouri, 9–11 April 2006): 230–247. ISSN 0097-8515. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- Cox, Charlotte (29 June 2013). "Metrolink bosses on track to halt the 900 fare dodgers". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
- TfGM 2012, p. 20.
- Cox, Charlotte (19 March 2013). "Racist attack on dad and daughter sparks tram policing review". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Free tram rides for train riders". BBC News. 28 October 2005. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Freedom of the City". Transport for Greater Manchester. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Freedom of the City" (PDF). Transport for Greater Manchester. p. 4. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- TfGM & GMCA 2011, p. 79.
- GMPTE 2009, p. 4.
- "Making Metrolink accessible for all". Rail Magazine. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- "Mobility scooter ban on Manchester Metrolink trams lifted after trial". BBC News. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- "Metrolink tram bicycle ban stays in place". BBC News. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- "Should bikes be allowed on the city's Metrolink trams?". BBC. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Kirby, Dean (2 August 2011). "Stagecoach hand over control of Metrolink system to French firm RATP". Manchester Evening News.
- "Stagecoach signs Manchester Metrolink contract" (Press release). Stagecoach Group. 29 May 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- "Stagecoach take over tram service". BBC News. 15 July 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
- "Stagecoach ousts Serco to run Manchester trams" Rail Magazine issue 563 25 April 2007 page 6
- "Stagecoach takes on trams" Rail Magazine issue 571 1 August 2007 page 15
- Manchester Metrolink operations shortlist announced Railway Gazette International 17 October 2015
- KeolisAmey Awarded Contract to run Greater Manchester's Metrolink Keolis
- Southern Rail operator to take over running of Metrolink Manchester Evening News 18 January 2017
- "Work: a taster". Hemisphere Design and Marketing Consultants. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-04-22. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- "Tram design on the right track". Manchester Evening News. 2008-10-14. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 2009-01-31.
- "Linking It All Up". Infoletter. Dalton Maag. March 2009. Archived from the original on 20 February 2012. Retrieved 2009-06-20.
- "New look for new trams". GMPTE. 2008-10-08. Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 2009-06-20.
- GMPTE 2009, p. 3.
- Ogden & Senior 1991, p. 42.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 143.
- Holt 1992, pp. 26–27.
- GMPTE 2003, p. 4.
- Holt 1992, p. 24.
- Holt 1992, p. 30.
- TfGM 2012, p. 23.
- Satchell, Clarissa (6 September 2004). "Moving plea to save Metrolink". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Oldham Metrolink line a huge success with 250,000 passengers in first three months". Manchester Evening News. 15 September 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- "10,000 complaints about Metrolink in one year". Manchester Evening News. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Metrolink". Manchester Football Association. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Team of the month: Swinton FC". Manchester Evening News. 3 October 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Leonard, Ian (13 February 2013). "AUDIO: This is your Droylsden service, next stop is zee Etihad Campus". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- Keegan, Mike (12 February 2013). "Manchester City are tram-pions as they voice the announcements for new Etihad Metrolink stop". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- Bainbridge, Pete (17 September 2010). "Metrolink offers travel pass for Food and Drink Festival". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Coronation Street tram crash pulls in 13m viewers". BBC News. 7 December 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- Kirby, Dean (8 December 2010). "Are the trams still running?: 'Confused' viewers called Metrolink to check service after Coronation Street crash". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- TfGM & GMCA 2011, pp. 136–137.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 61.
- "Tram Frequencies". Metrolink. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 73.
- Kirby, Dean (6 February 2013). "Video: Sneak preview of Metrolink's brand new East Manchester Line to Droylsden". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- GMPTE 2003, p. 15.
- Holt 1992, p. 31.
- "Metrolink Stops". LRTA. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- "Metrolink History 1". LRTA. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- "Manchester to Oldham and Rochdale". LRTA. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, pp. 89–90.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, p. 102.
- "Pages – TfGM Green Facts".
- Holt 1992, p. 79.
- Ogden & Senior 1991, p. 43.
- GMPTE 2010, p. 6.
- "Manchester, City South". LRTA. Archived from the original on 26 February 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
- "Metrolink Completes Move To Old Trafford". Manchester Confidential. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
- "Manchester unveils revised Superconnected Cities plans". The Manchester Gazette. 7 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Wi-Fi tram test-trial on track for Metrolink". The Manchester Gazette. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "Free wifi rolled out on all Metrolink trams". 30 March 2015.
- "Milestone moment as Metrolink’s final M5000 tram leaves Vienna depot". Railway Technology Magazine. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- "T68 and T68a — Metrolink phase 1 and 2". Light Rail Transit Association. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- "Metrolink : Trams". TheTrams. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- "£2m tram is up and running". Manchester Evening News. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- "Future's yellow for trams". Manchester Evening News. 13 July 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- "Happy birthday Metrolink: Old trams axed as network turns 20". Manchester Evening News. 17 July 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- "A new generation of trams for Greater Manchester". Metrolink. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Kirby, Dean (26 September 2012). "Metrolink's next trams to have extra seats following passenger plea". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Williams, Jennifer (28 October 2013). "Second cross-city tram link gets green light". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- Bombardier to Supply 10 Additional Light Rail Vehicles to Manchester Metrolink in the UK Bombardier 23 December 2013
- More M5000s for Metrolink British Trams Online 7 July 2014
- "Metrolink investment confirmed" Tramways & Urban Transit issue 921 September 2014 page 360
- Charlotte Cox (16 September 2014). "Watch: Metrolink airport line on test as TfGM order new trams worth £34m". men.
- Holt 1992, p. 48.
- Holt 1992, p. 42.
- Ogden & Senior 1992, pp. 114–115.
- Coward & Henderson 2014, p. 29.
- Coward & Henderson 2014, pp. 31–32, 59.
- Kirby, Dean (30 April 2014). "End of the line for Metrolink's first tram fleet". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "Two Metrolink T68s to be preserved". British Trams Online News. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Lelchuk, Ilene (January 14, 2002). "Muni cars on a roll into city junkyard: Even preservationists reject the clunkers". San Francisco Chronicle. p. B-1. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "Metrolink : Trams : San Francisco Muni tramcar No. 1326". thetrams.co.uk. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "Passenger journeys, vehicle miles and occupancy (LRT01) – GOV.UK".
- "Light rail and tram statistics: 2011/12". Department for Transport. 19 July 2012. Light rail and tram statistics 2011/12 and XLS tables (Table LRT0101). Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- TfGM & GMCA 2011, p. 27.
- "Manchester's Metrolink does not give value for money, say passengers". Manchester Evening News. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
- "Metrolink passengers are 89 per cent satisfied with overall tram service, claims new survey". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- "Tram Passenger Survey reveals continual rise in passenger satisfaction". Euro Transport Magazine. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- "Looking out for your safety" (PDF). Transport for Greater Manchester. Retrieved 2016-03-27.
- "Tragedy of student in tram horror". Manchester Evening News. 15 February 2007. Retrieved 2016-03-27.
- "Boy, 16, in tram tragedy". Manchester Evening News. 30 June 2005. Retrieved 2016-03-27.
- Rail Accident Investigation Branch https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/410839/120530_R082012_Piccadilly_Gardens.pdf
- "Blind health and safety adviser falls to death under tram". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
- "Oldham News – News Headlines – First fatality on Oldham’s new Metrolink line – Chronicle Online".
- Wheatstone, Richard (11 January 2014). "Man dies after being hit by a tram in Manchester city centre".
- "Cyclist dies after collision involving tram in Wythenshawe". Manchester Evening News. 16 February 2016.
- "Manchester Metrolink tram network 'operating as normal'". BBC. BBC. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
- Coward, Andrew; Henderson, John E. (2014). Superb: A Tribute to the Manchester Metrolink T68 & T68A Light Rail Vehicles. Bacup, Lancashire. ISBN 978-1-62407-917-7.
- Docherty, Iain; Shaw, Jon (20 July 2011). A New Deal for Transport: The UK's struggle with the sustainable transport agenda. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-5551-2.
- Donald, T.; Cross, M.; Bristow, Roger (1983). English Structure Planning. Routledge. ISBN 0-85086-094-6.
- GMPTE (2000). Metrolink, Transforming Our Future: A Network for the 21st Century. Manchester: GMPTE Promotions.
- GMPTE (2003). Metrolink: A Network for the 21st Century (PDF). Manchester: GMPTE Promotions.
- GMPTE (2009). The Link/2: Metrolink news and developments from GMPTE (PDF). Manchester: GMPTE Promotions.[permanent dead link]
- GMPTE (2010). The Link/3: Metrolink news and developments from GMPTE (PDF). Manchester: GMPTE Promotions.
- Holt, David (1992). Manchester Metrolink. UK light rail systems; no. 1. Sheffield: Platform 5. ISBN 1-872524-36-2.
- Ogden, Eric; Senior, John (1992). Metrolink. Glossop, Derbyshire: Transport Publishing Company. ISBN 0-86317-155-9.
- Ogden, Eric; Senior, John (1991). Metrolink: Official Handbook. Glossop, Derbyshire: Transport Publishing Company. ISBN 0-86317-164-8.
- TfGM (2012). Annual Report 2011/2012: Connecting Greater Manchester (PDF). Manchester: Transport for Greater Manchester.
- TfGM; GMCA (2011). Greater Manchester's third Local Transport Plan 2011/12 – 2015/16 (PDF). Transport for Greater Manchester.
- Williams, Gwyndaf (2003). The Enterprising City Centre: Manchester's Development Challenge. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-25262-1.
- Worthington, Barry (2014) The Metrolink Companion. Sigma Leisure. ISBN 978-1-85058-977-8
- Young, Tony (2008). Tramways in Rochdale: Steam, Electric and Metrolink. Light Rail Transit Association. ISBN 978-0-948106-34-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Manchester Metrolink.|
Route map: Google
- Official website
- Official route map
- www.tfgm.com Official website of Transport for Greater Manchester
- www.lrta.org/manchester, a historical account of Metrolink from the Light Rail Transit Association