The Athens Metro (Greek: Μετρό Αθήνας, Metró Athínas) is a rapid-transit system in Greece which serves the Athens conurbation and parts of East Attica. It incorporates the former Athens-Piraeus Electric Railways (ISAP), which opened as a conventional steam railway in 1869, and which was electrified in 1904 and is now part of Line 1. Beginning in 1991, Attiko Metro constructed and extended Lines 2 and 3 and the Attiko Metro Operations Company (AMEL) operated these lines from 2000 to 2011. The metro network merged in 2011 when the Greek government created the Urban Rail Transport Company (STASY), a subsidiary of the Athens Urban Transport Organisation (OASA). First Chairman and CEO of the merged company became Kostas Vassiliadis, a former Chief Engineer and later CEO of Athens-Piraeus Electric Railways. The system is noted for being modern and efficient, in its own right and in comparison to other subway systems elsewhere. It has significantly changed Athens by providing a much-needed solution to the city's traffic and air pollution problem, as well as revitalising many of the areas it serves. An extension of Line 3 is under construction towards Piraeus and also other extensions of existing lines, as well as a new line, are under consideration. The Athens Metro is actively connected with the other means of public transport, such as buses, trolleys, the Athens Tram and the Proastiakos suburban railway. The Athens Metro is hailed for its modernity and many of its stations feature works of art, exhibitions and displays of the archeological remains found during its construction. Photography and video-taking is permitted across the whole network and street photographers often work in Athens Metro.
Athens Metro train (3rd generation stock)
|Native name||Μετρό Αθήνας|
|Owner||Attiko Metro S.A. (Stasy S.A.)|
|Locale||Greater Athens and East Attica|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||3|
|Number of stations||61 (6 under construction)|
|Annual ridership||493,800,000 (2013)|
|Operator(s)||Statheres Sygkoinonies S.A.|
|Number of vehicles||294 railcars|
25.6 km (15.9 mi) (Line 1)|
58.9 km (36.6 mi) (Lines 2 & 3)
84.5 km (52.5 mi) (Total; includes 20.7 km (12.9 mi) of mixed use suburban rail)
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Top speed||80 km/h (50 mph)|
Until 28 January 2000, Line 1 was the only rapid-transit line in Athens and Piraeus. The Athens and Piraeus Railway Company (SAP) opened the line on 27 February 1869 as a steam railway between Piraeus and Thiseio. It was electrified in 1904, and extended in stages to Kifisia in 1957.
From 1976 to 16 June 2011, the Athens-Piraeus Electric Railway Company (ISAP) operated Line 1 independently from the rest of the metro and tram networks. Unlike Lines 2 and 3, it runs almost entirely above ground.
Since the current Line 1 opened the government has proposed many expansions to the subway network, including a 1963 plan for a fourteen-line subway network. Construction of Lines 2 and 3 began in November 1992 to decrease traffic congestion and improve Athens' air quality by reducing its smog level. Both lines were constructed underground. Lines 2 and 3, built by Attiko Metro and operated until 2011 by Attiko Metro Operations Company, are known respectively as the red and blue lines and were inaugurated in January 2000. Line 3 was extended to the Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport in summer 2004, and Line 2 was extended to Anthoupoli and Helliniko in 2013.
Until 17 June 2011, the operational management of the Athens Metro network was similar to that of the London Underground network before the creation of the London Passenger Transport Board and the absorption of the Metropolitan Railway on 1 July 1933. The Greek government attempted to absorb ISAP into Attiko Metro under Law 2669/1998 so the latter would be responsible for the whole network, but this initiative failed.[why?] Athens Metro operations were consolidated when the Greek government enacted Law 3920/2011, replacing AMEL, ISAP and Athens Tram with Urban Rail Transport (STASY) (Greek: ΣΤΑΣΥ Α.Ε.), a subsidiary of OASA.
Lines and stationsEdit
The modern incarnation of Line 1 is 25.6-kilometre (15.9 mi) long, and serves 24 stations. Together, Lines 2 and 3 are 58.9-kilometre (36.6 mi) long (including 20.7 kilometres (12.9 mi) of suburban rail line from Doukissis Plakentias station to the Airport on Line 3), and serve 41 stations.
|Line||Map colour[I]||First section
|Latest station opened||Route||Length (km, mi)||Sta.|
|Green||February 27, 1869||1904||August 10, 1957||August 6, 2004
|Piraeus – Kifisia||25.6 km (15.9 mi)||24|
|Red||January 28, 2000||2000||July 26, 2013||July 26, 2013
|Anthoupoli – Elliniko||17.9 km (11.1 mi)||20|
|Light Blue[*]||January 28, 2000||2000||December 14, 2013||December 14, 2013
|Agia Marina – Doukissis Plakentias/Airport||39 km (24.2 mi)||21|
|* Dark blue on signage.|
The three-line Athens Metro network serves 61 stations. It owns and operates 57 of them, and OSE owns the remainder on the airport section. The network has four metro interchanges, enabling the lines to interchange with each other at least once. Each line also has at least one station connecting with the Proastiakos Suburban Railway and Athens Tram; however, Line 3 will not have a direct interchange with TrainOSE until the extension to Dimotiko Theatro opens.
Line 2 and the Attiko Metro portion of Line 3 is entirely underground. Line 1 is primarily in the open, with a tunnel section in central Athens. The airport section of Line 3, east of the tunnel portal near Doukissis Plakentias, is open. In the tunnel sections up and down lines share a common tunnel, except for approaches to stations with an island platform (such as Egaleo).
The network uses standard gauge electric trains which in most places run on 750 V DC third rail, but the section of Line 3 running to the airport requires trains which can use overhead lines of 25 kV AC, 50 Hz. Line 1 has historically had its own fleet, but nevertheless, there are rail connections between Lines 1 and 2 near Attiki and between Lines 2 and 3 near Syntagma. Train maintenance facilities are located at Attiki, Faliro, Irini, Piraeus and Thiseio for Line 1, and Doukissis Plakentias, Eleonas and Sepolia for Lines 2 and 3.
As of April 2008 the blue line (Line 3) was 16.4 km long, not including the suburban railway line to the airport or (as of February 2008) 21.2 km of the line it shares with Proastiakos, the Athens suburban railway system. As of July 2008, the red line (Line 2) was 10.9 km, bringing the overall length of the green, red and blue lines to approximately 74 km.[needs update] The Athens Metro's three lines carry approximately 1,353,000 passengers daily.
The Athens Metro classifies rolling stock by "batch" for Line 1 and "generation" for Lines 2 and 3 because ISAP and AMEL used different classification systems for rolling stock before consolidation. Six types of rolling stock operate on the network, all equipped with third rail current collection systems; however, only seven second-generation trains have the necessary overhead line equipment to serve Line 3 from Doukissis Plakentias to Airport. Differing signalling systems prevent batch stock from running on Lines 2 and 3 and generation stock from running on Line 1.
The eighth batch (introduced in 1983) is the oldest rolling stock in passenger service, while the third generation (introduced in 2013) is the latest rolling stock in passenger service. The eighth- and tenth-batch stock is externally similar, but the former has split-flap headsigns in Johnston typeface and a cream-and-green interior colour scheme.
|2nd-generation stock||2003 & 2004|
- First series (delivery): 28 six-car electric multiple units made by Alstom–Siemens–Adtranz (2000); maximum speed 80 km/h
- Second series (delivery): 21 six-car EMU made by Hanwha-Rotem-Mitsubishi (2004). Seven of these trains can also operate on OSE lines with 25 kV AC −50 Hz overhead electrification system and are used for airport service. All second-series trains are air-conditioned. Maximum speed 80 km/h
- Third series: Athens Metro ordered 17 additional trains made by Hyundai Rotem.
- Four service hybrid locomotives made by Kaelble-Gmeinder-Siemens. They can operate from a third-rail 750 V DC system or their own diesel generators. They have a B-B configuration, with a maximum power of 550 kW under diesel traction and 600 kW under electric traction.
- One road-rail Unimog
|1st||2000||DT-M-MD+MD-M-DT||DT||A01-A56||56 EMU-3 "half-trains" operating as 28 EMU-6 trains. Made by Alsthom-Siemens-ADtranz. MD railcars have an auxiliary driving facility used only for shunting.|
|2003–2004||D-T-M+M-T-D||D||D201-D228||28 EMU-3 "half-trains" operating as 14 EMU-6 trains. Made by Hanwha-Rotem-Mitsubishi.|
|2003–2004||D-T-M+M-T-D||D||D251-D264||14 EMU-3 "half-trains" operating as 7 EMU-6 trains. Made by Hanwha-Rotem-Mitsubishi, can also operate on 25 kV AC, 50 Hz lines.|
|3rd||2012–2013||D-T-M+M-T-D||D||D301-D334||A contract for 17 air conditioned EMU-6 trains was signed on 2009-09-16 with Hanwha-Rotem. 34 EMU-3 "half-trains" entered service as 17 EMU-6 trains in June 2014.|
Railcar codes: DM: driving motor car, DT: driving trailer, M: motor car, T: trailer, MD: motor car with auxiliary driving facility.
Line 1 uses two-aspect red/green home signals, yellow/green distant signals and a passenger information system (PIS). The current system replaced 1950s-era semaphore signals.
Lines 2 and 3 use the Alstom automatic train supervision system (ATS) and a passenger information system (PIS). Two-aspect red/white colour signals are used at points and junctions only.
Fares are prepaid, either as single-ride tickets valid for 90 minutes, as one - or five-day passes, or as longer term Travel Cards. As of February 2017, there are 2 types of tickets, integrated tickets, ATH.ENA Ticket and ATH.ENA Card, both are validated by a contactless system (by tapping the ticket at the electronic validating machines) and are valid on all modes of public transport in Athens except on trains and buses to the airport, and airport tickets. Travel Cards are available in one, three, six, and twelve month periods. Reduced fares are available for seniors, disabled and persons under 18. Tickets should be validated when entering bus, tram and trolley vehicles at the start of the ride by tapping the ticket at the electronic validating machines and not when exiting the vehicles. At the metro tickets should be validated when entering and exiting the stations by tapping the ticket at the gates in order to proceed to the platform.
Archaeological excavations and exhibitsEdit
During construction of the metro tunnels, artifacts of archaeological interest were discovered and rescue archaeology was employed. Teams of archaeologists worked ahead of, then with, engineers for six years, protecting and recording archaeological finds (streets, houses, cemeteries, sanctuaries, public workshops, foundry pits, kilns, aqueducts, wells, cisterns, drains and sewage tunnels). This afforded new insight into the city's ancient topography, through unprecedented infrastructure development combined with the study and preservation of archaeological data. Exhibitions of ancient artifacts or replicas are found at a number of metro stations, including Monastiraki and Syntagma.
|Line||Map colour[I]||First section
|Latest station opened||Route||Length||No. of Stations|
|Orange||2026||N/A||N/A||Alsos Veikou - Goudi||11.7 km (7.3 mi)||15|
A fourth line is planned for the Athens Metro and it has been incorporated in the roadmap of Athens's mass transit system since 2005. The new line in its totality will extend over a length of 33 km, adding thirty (30) new stations to the Athens Metro system. The cost of the entire project is estimated at 3.3 billion EUR. The recommendation is for lighter rolling stock than the type used in existing lines of Athens Metro which would operate automatically without a driver.
The first phase of Line 4 will be between Alsos Veikou and Goudi stations, predicting fifteen (15) new stations and a length of 11.7 km of new track. It has been announced that an invitation to tender for the construction of the first phase of Line 4 will be issued in the summer of 2016. The construction is expected to start by mid-2017 and the opening of the line by circa 2025. The estimated cost for constructing the first phase of the new line is 1.2-1.4 billion EUR. Currently, the project of the first phase is considered to follow a PPP scheme which might be extended for constructing the whole new line. An alternative solution is a mixed funding between the EIB and the Greek State. It is also a high-profile candidate project to be included in the Juncker Plan of EU that will include also the second phase of Line 4 of Athens Metro.
As of January 2018, the proposed route for the first phase of Line 4 is:
- Alsos Veikou
- Akademia (with an underpass connection to existing Line 2 Panepistimio station)
- Evangelismos (connection with existing Line 3 station)
- Other lines
Lines 5–8 are also planned.
- "Homepage - The Company - Attiko Metro S.A." Attiko Metro S.A. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 2014-06-02.
- "Homepage - The Company - Historic Data - Transit in Athens". Attiko Metro S.A. Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- "AttikoMetro Inside – Base Project". Attiko Metro S.A. 9 September 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- Law 2669/1988, Government Gazette Issue A 283/1998-12-18, Part 7, paragraph 2.
- "synigoros.gr" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2016.
- "Urban Rail Transport SA (STASY SA): Urban Rail Transport S.A". Urban Rail Transport S.A. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- Hekimoglou, Achilleas (24 August 2013). Οραμα για 14 γραμμές Μετρό στην Αττική από το 2000 (in Greek). Το Βήμα (To Vima). Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "Law 2669/1998". Εφημερίδας της Κυβερνήσεως (in Greek). Athens: Government of Greece. A (283). 18 December 1998. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
- Law 3920, Government Gazette issue A-33, 3 March 2011.
- Ministerial Decision 28737/2637, Government Gazette issue B-1454, 17 June 2011
- "Homepage - Construction of the Athens Metro - Projects in Operation - Base Project". Attiko Metro S.A. Retrieved 2014-06-02.
- "Athens Metro Regulatory Plan" (PDF). Attiko Metro S.A. 30 January 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "Urban rail news in brief – May 2013". Railway Gazette International. 3 May 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "AMEL – Athens METRO operation:OPERATION". Amel.gr. 14 February 2009. Archived from the original on 24 April 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2009.
- G. Nathenas; A. Kourbelis; T. Vlastos; S. Kourouzidis; V. Katsareas; P. Karamanis; A. Klonos; N. Kokkinos (2007). Από τα Παμφορεία στο Μετρό (in Greek). 2. Athens: Μίλητος (Militos). pp. 703–708. ISBN 978-960-8460-91-1.
- N. Sbarounis (December 2002). "Greek". Sidirotrohia (Greek: Σιδηροτροχιά) (in Greek) (23): 30–31.
- ATHENS METRO – Completion of the tender for the supply of 17 new trainsets for the Athens Metro (16/09/2009)
- "Tickets" (PDF). OASA S.A. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
- "Travel Cards (Greek - English not available)". STASY S.A./OASA S.A. Retrieved 2015-09-23.
- "Attiko Metro Γραμμή 4 (Line 4)". Ametro.gr. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- "Athens Public Transportation Map" (PDF). Athens Urban Transport Organisation. 26 July 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Athens Metro.|
- Athens Metro Map on Google earth with geolocation
- Urban Rail Transport Company (STASY S.A.)
- Attiko Metro Company (Construction and Infrastructure)
- Athens Urban Transport Organisation (OASA S.A.)
- Hellenic Ministry of Public Works page on the Attiko Metro
- UrbanRail.Net – Athens Metro
- CityRailTransit – Athens railway map (real distance)