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Thessaloniki Metro
Interior of a Thessaloniki Metro AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro unit
Thessaloniki Metro AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro unit on display at the Thessaloniki International Fair
Overview
Native nameΜετρό Θεσσαλονίκης
OwnerAttiko Metro
LocaleThessaloniki, Greece
Transit typeRapid transit, Light metro
Number of lines2[1][2]
Number of stations34 (18 under construction, 16 planned)[3]
Daily ridership320,000 (projected)[4]
WebsiteOfficial Attiko Metro page
Operation
Operation will startNovember 2020[5][6]
CharacterUnderground subway
Number of vehicles33 AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro[7]
Headway90 seconds[7]
Technical
System length14.28 km (8.87 mi) in 2021[8][9]
31.6 km (19.6 mi) when finished[1][8][9][10]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Electrification750 V DC third rail[7]
Top speed90 km/h (56 mph)[7]

The Thessaloniki Metro (Greek: Μετρό Θεσσαλονίκης, About this soundMetró Thessaloníkis, [meˈtro θesaloˈnicis]) is an underground rapid-transit system under construction in Thessaloniki, Greece's second largest city. Estimates for the cost of the megaproject are 1.62 billion ($1.83 billion) for the main line and €640 million ($722 million) for the Kalamaria extension, for a total of €2.26 billion ($2.55 billion). The project is primarily funded with loans from the European Investment Bank and the European Regional Development Fund and funds from the Greek government. Construction by a Greek-Italian consortium is overseen by Attiko Metro, the Greek state-owned company which oversaw construction of the Athens Metro.

Proposed during the 1910s and first seriously planned in the 1980s, construction of the main line began in 2006 and on the Kalamaria extension in 2013. Although the initial proposal included three extensions to the main line, the latest Attiko Metro proposal seeks to combine the two westward extensions as a loop; the system will be made up of the main line and the Kalamaria and Evosmos extensions. The system under construction has 18 stations and 14.4 km (8.9 mi) of tunnels. Detailed planning of the airport extension went to tender in March 2019, while the Western loop went to tender in August of the same year.

After years of delays, due mainly to archaeological discoveries in the city centre during construction and in part to the Greek financial crisis, most of the main line is scheduled to open in November 2020; the rest of the main line and the Kalamaria extension will be finished by mid-2021, with one further station opening in 2023. The system will be entirely driverless and remote-controlled.

Contents

1918 and 1988 proposalsEdit

 
This map by Thomas Mawson (c. 1918) shows a metropolitan railway line, in purple, running about the same route as the modern Line 1.[11]

Ernest Hébrard and Thomas Hayton Mawson were the first to propose the creation of a metro system in Thessaloniki in 1918 as part of a commission appointed by the government of Eleftherios Venizelos to redesign the city after the Great Fire of 1917, which had devastated the city centre.[12] They proposed an underground rail line to allow easy access from the city centre to the planned outskirts of the city in the east. Although Thessaloniki has grown considerably since Hébrard's original design, Line 1 is almost identical to his plan and runs from his proposed New Railway Station to the suburb of Nea Elvetia.[13][14] The project never materialised. A circular metro line was proposed in 1968, extending to the airport and crossing the Thermaic Gulf in a tunnel.[11]

The idea of a metro was revived during the 1980s. In 1988, under Mayor Sotiris Kouvelas, the city published studies for its Thessaloniki Metro development plan and construction of the project's first phase.[15] The line was almost identical to the modern line, with 14 stations between the New Railway Station and Nea Elvetia. The plan had one additional station, Patrikiou, between 25 Martiou and Voulgari and had alternative names for three stations. Dimokratias is shown as Vardari, an alternative name for the public square served by the station; Venizelou is listed as Alkazar (Hamza Bey Mosque, on the corner of Egnatia and Venizelou Streets), and Efklidi is shown as Archaeological Museum.[15] The network would be within the city limits, excluding Kalamaria and a large portion of Thessaloniki's metropolitan area. Of the 7.77 km (4.83 mi) of track proposed, 6.26 km (3.89 mi) would be underground and 1.51 km (0.94 mi) above ground.[15]

 
Route diagram of the 1988 proposal for a 7.8 km (4.8 mi) network (in red), with future extensions in blue[15]

In 1989, construction began on the first 650 metres (2,130 ft) of tunnel along Egnatia street between the Thessaloniki International Fair grounds and Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (the present Panepistimio station).[15] Construction was carried out with the cut-and-cover method instead of a tunnel boring machine. The proposed metro was only 4.5 metres (15 ft) beneath ground level at 25 Martiou but dropped to about 10 metres (33 ft) towards the New Railway Station, creating archaeological problems similar to those encountered during construction of the current system. Although construction was scheduled to end in 1995, the project stalled and became known as "the hole of Kouvelas" (Greek: η τρύπα του Κούβελα).[15] The project ultimately failed due to a series of unsuccessful contract competitions and appeals of awarded contracts. Another obstacle was lack of interest by Greece's central government. Thessaloniki attempted to fund the project on its own, saying that European Union member states were prepared to cover 50 percent of the project costs and provide favourable loans for the remainder, but without the central-government's involvement the plan did not go forward.[15] One reason for the lack of central-government support was Greece's political polarisation during the 1980s; Kouvelas represented the centre-right New Democracy party when the country was governed by the Panhellenic Socialist Movement. Plans for a Thessaloniki metro were abandoned until the 2000s.[13]

SystemEdit

 
Evolution of the metro

In 2018, Attiko Metro was overseeing the construction of a two-line, twin-tunnel system composed of Line 1 (the base project) and Line 2 (the Kalamaria Extension). Although Line 1 has been delayed by extensive archaeological works, Line 2's construction is proceeding on schedule.[13] Construction of tunnels for both lines was finished in 2018, and track-laying began in August of that year.[16] Line 1 is scheduled to open in 2020,[17] with the exception of Aghia Sofia and Venizelou stations,[18] while Line 2 will be operational in 2021. Both lines are designed to serve a minimum of 18,000 passengers per hour in each direction, with a 90-second headway.[7][19] The completed metro will reduce Thessaloniki's greenhouse gas emissions by an estimated 5,000 tons a year, and reduce travel time by up to 66 percent.[20]

Neos Sidirodromikos Stathmos metro stationDimokratias stationVenizelou stationAghia Sofia stationSintrivani/Ekthesi stationPanepistimio metro station (Thessaloniki)Papafi stationEfklidi stationFleming stationAnalipseos station25 Martiou stationVoulgari stationNea Elvetia stationPylaia depotNomarhia stationKalamaria stationAretsou stationNea Krini stationMikra stationLine 2 (Thessaloniki Metro)Line 2 (Thessaloniki Metro)Line 1 (Thessaloniki Metro)Hellenic Railways OrganisationLine 1 (Thessaloniki Metro)Proastiakos Thessaloniki 

Line 1 (Base Project)Edit

 
Topographic map of Line 1

What is known as the Base Project (Greek: Βασικό Έργο) began in 2003, when Attiko Metro and the Greek government agreed to cooperate on a public works project[8] Government support was instrumental, since lack of government support for the 1988 proposal was the primary reason it had failed. The project issued a request for tender in 2004–2005, and the successful Greco-Italian consortium (which included AnsaldoBreda) began construction in late June 2006.[8] An alternate consortium, Macedonian Metro (Greek: Μακεδονικό Μετρό), was barred by the European Court of Justice from participating in the tender because it changed its composition after the tender proceedings began (violating EU law).[21] The project was budgeted at 1.05 billion ($1.18 billion), with 25 percent funding from the Greek government and 75 percent funded by loans from the European Investment Bank and the European Regional Development Fund.[22] The latest available Attiko Metro financial data put the official estimated cost at 1.28 billion ($1.44 billion).[23] An April 2019 update raised the estimated cost to €1.62 billion ($1.83 billion).[24] Line 1 runs within the municipality of Thessaloniki, the core of the Thessaloniki urban area, calling at 13 stations.

It has two parallel single-track tunnels on a 9.5 km (5.9 mi) route between Neos Sidirodromikos Stathmos (N. Sid. Stathmos, at the city's New Railway Station) and Nea Elvetia, with Pylaia depot further southeast. Although construction began in 2006, major archaeological finds in the city centre delayed the project considerably. Disputes between Attiko Metro, the city council, and archaeologists reached Greece's Council of State, the country's highest administrative court, in 2015.[13] The original schedule had Line 1 operational by 2012.[13] Attiko Metro redesigned several stations in a solution which became known as "antiquities and metro" (Greek: και αρχαία και μετρό).[25] Some finds discovered on the line will be put on display at permanent in-station exhibitions, while the major discoveries at Venizelou will make up the world's first publicly-accessible open-air archaeological site contained in situ within a metro station.[25]

Construction of the tunnels was completed on 31 July 2018, 12 years and one month after breaking ground.[26] That day, the architectural work on Line 1 was reported as 80 percent finished.[26] In August 2018, tracks and electronic signalling equipment began installation.[16] The line will enter service in its entirety, between N. Sid. Stathmos and Nea Elvetia, in 2020 but will not stop at Aghia Sofia and Venizelou, which will open at a later date.[17][18] By February 2019 construction on the main line was 95 percent completed and platform screen doors were beginning to be installed, while the Supreme Council for Civil Personnel Selection was planning a competition to fill the first 28 Thessaloniki Metro employee positions.[27]

Line 2 (Kalamaria Extension)Edit

 
Topographic map of Line 2

The Kalamaria Extension (Greek: Επέκταση Καλαμαριάς) extends the metro system to Kalamaria, the second-largest municipality in the Thessaloniki urban area and the 18th-most-populous in Greece. Similar in construction to Line 1, it has two parallel single-track tunnels on a 4.78 km (2.97 mi) route between 25 Martiou and Mikra and adds five stations to the network.[8] Construction on the project began in 2013, with an budget of 518 million ($583.99 million).[22][8] By 31 July 2018, the extension was 60 percent completed.[26] Although construction began seven years after Line 1, it is also expected to fully enter service in 2021.[2] This is due to the lack of major archaeological works, enabling the project to proceed without delays.[13] The latest Attiko Metro financial statement puts the extension's costs at €568 million ($640 million).[23] An April 2019 update raised the estimated cost to €640 million ($721.53 billion).[24] The line is made up of 16 stations, 11 of which are also stations served by Line 1.

After confusion about the extension's place in the system, Attiko Metro clarified in August 2018 that it would be a separate line running between N. Sid. Stathmos and Mikra without the need to change trains at 25 Martiou.[2] The extension of Line 2 to Makedonia Airport went to tender in March 2019 with an initial budget of €254,150 ($287 thousand) for topographical works in order to enable more detailed planning of the line.[28]

Future extensionsEdit

Thessaloniki Metro
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
(Development Plan)

    

Evosmos
 
 
 
 
Kordelio
 
 
Ilioupoli
Menemeni
 
 
Stavroupoli
Eptalofos
 
 
Polihni
    N. Sid. Stathmos
 
 
Neapoli
 
 
 
Dimokratias
 
Venizelou
 
Aghia Sofia
 
Sintrivani/Ekthesi
 
Panepistimio  
 
Papafi
 
Efklidi
 
Fleming
 
Analipseos
 
25 Martiou
 
 
Nomarhia
 
 
Voulgari
Kalamaria
 
 
Nea Elvetia    
Aretsou
 
 
 
Pylaia depot
Nea Krini
 
  Mikra
 
Anotera Scholi Polemou
 
 
Diavalkaniko
 
Georgiki Scholi
 
    Makedonia Airport
 

The system is planned to be extended further, with a four-station eastern extension to Line 2 (towards Macedonia International Airport) and an eight-station loop in the west.[29] The latter is a priority for Attiko Metro to connect the city's western working class suburbs with the city centre, since the airport will be serviced by a 10-minute shuttle-bus trip to Mikra (the eastern terminus of Line 2).[2] The two western extensions were originally planned as separate lines, but were merged into a single circular line in 2018.[1] Work on the western extensions was scheduled to enter the tendering process in the autumn 2018.[10] Attiko Metro confirmed in early 2019 that preliminary works for the western loop will begin in 2019.[30]

According to Attiko Metro, the double-track airport extension will be a mixture of underground, grade-level, and elevated railway elements.[10] It may be extended south to better serve commuters to and from Chalkidiki.[10] The western loop will be extended with three branches, adding four stations.[3] Detailed planning of the eastern extension to the airport is set to begin in March 2019 and be finished in time for the project to be financed as part of the 2021–2027 funding cycle of the European Regional Development Fund.[31] This happened on 18 March.[28] The proposed route starts at the airport and follows Greek National Road 67 before joining Greek National Road 16 and then connecting with Mikra station and the rest of Line 2.[32]

Stations, depot and rolling stockEdit

All 18 stations currently under construction were designed with platform screen doors for maximum protection, while the trains will be driverless.[7] Eighteen AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro units will be in service on Line 1, and 15 on Line 2.[7] The articulated, four-car trains will be 50 metres (160 ft) long.[33] They will have seating for 96 passengers and standing room for 370 more.[33] The trains will use 750 V DC third rail electrification, while tracks have been laid to the standard gauge of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in).[7] A carriage was on display at the September 2018 Thessaloniki International Fair before trial runs in 2019.[34] As of August 2019 two complete train sets have been delivered to the depot, with an additional train set expected every 2 to 3 months.[35] The system's level of automation has prompted Attiko Metro to call it "the most modern metro in Europe".[8]

A 50,000 m2 (540,000 sq ft) depot is under construction with the intention of serving both lines, with a total built-up area of 120,000 m2 (1,300,000 sq ft) and a total cost of €130.5 million ($147.13 million).[8][36] Apart from being the system's automated remote control command centre, the complex will also house the offices of Attiko Metro, the Thessaloniki Transport Authority (TheTA), and the Thessaloniki Metro operating company, as well as railway stock maintenance facilities, two restaurants, and a crèche.[37][38] It is expected that the development of the depot will attract investment to the area, and there have been calls to make provisions for a passenger station at the depot.[37] The depot complex is expected to be finished in May 2019.[38]

Fares and park and rideEdit

As part of the initial design, 3,700 park and ride parking spaces were created – 1,050 spaces at N. Sid. Stathmos, 650 spaces Nea Elvetia, and a further 2,000 at Panepistimio, the system's halfway point serving Greece's largest university.[8] Additional parking will be created at Mikra, the terminus of Line 2.[39]

Attiko Metro conducted a 2005 survey to determine Thessaloniki residents' preferred fare for the metro compared to the standard price of a Thessaloniki Urban Transport Organization (OASTH) bus ticket (€0.50 at the time). Of the 400 respondents, 47.6 percent said that they were willing to pay the same price and 48.1 percent said they would pay more. Of the latter, 19.9 percent said that they would pay €0.60; 19.6 percent would pay €0.70, and 8.6 percent would be willing to pay €1.00 (double the cost of a bus ticket).[40] The remaining 4.7 percent responded with another fare. A standard 2018 single-trip OASTH bus ticket is €1.00, or €0.50 with a discount.[41]

Thessaloniki Metro will utilise an electronic card ticketing system as well as fare gates,[42] a system not originally implemented on the Athens Metro.

ArchaeologyEdit

 
The Thessaloniki Metro line (marked in yellow) runs through the city's historic centre below its Decumanus Maximus.

A large number of important archaeological finds, primarily Roman and early Christian and Byzantine, have been discovered during the metro's construction. The project triggered the largest archaeological dig in northern Greek history, covering a 20-square-kilometre (7.7 sq mi) area.[10] Between the New Railway Station and Sintrivani/Ekthesi, the metro runs below Egnatia Street (one of Thessaloniki's main arteries). Egnatia follows the Roman Via Egnatia, which connected Rome and Constantinople as one of the two most important roads in the Roman and Byzantine empires.[43] The portion of the Via Egnatia which passed through Thessaloniki was the city's Decumanus Maximus (main road), and runs below present-day Egnatia Street at 5.4 metres (18 ft) below ground level.[13]

Although the location of the Via Egnatia in Thessaloniki was known when the metro line was planned, it was uncertain what else was buried nearby. The metro was planned to run at 8 metres (26 ft) below ground, leaving only 2.6 metres (8.5 ft) between it and the ancient road. The discovery of a Byzantine road at Venizelou station was a major archaeological find: 75 metres (246 ft) of the marble-paved and column-lined road was unearthed, with shops, other buildings, and plumbing which one scholar called "the Byzantine Pompeii".[44] A crossroads, marked with a tetrapylon, was found at Venizelou where the Decumanus Maximus crossed a cardo (a north-south road).[45] An additional 22 metres (72 ft) of the same road was discovered at the Aghia Sofia station.[45] Issues concerning archaeological finds and the display of artefacts in the metro system are more complex than similar issues surrounding the construction of the New Acropolis Museum.[45]

Other important discoveries included a headless statue of Aphrodite, fourth-century-AD mosaics, a golden wreath, a bath complex, urban villas, and 50,000 coins.[46][47][48][49] Artefacts from the 1917 fire were also found.[50]

The discovery sparked controversy in Thessaloniki; Attiko Metro wanted to remove the antiquities and re-assemble them elsewhere, and the city's archaeological services wanted the company to alter the depth of the line and the station entrances. The city council sided with the archaeological services in 2015, three years after the metro was originally planned to begin service.[13] Mayor Yiannis Boutaris took the case to the Council of State, Greece's highest administrative court.[51] Attiko Metro redesigned the line, sinking the tunnels to depths from 14 to 31 metres (46 to 102 ft) and providing for mini-museums in the stations similar to the Syntagma metro station in Athens (which houses the Syntagma Metro Station Archaeological Collection).[52] The Venizelou station will contain an open archaeological site, the world's first metro station to do so.[10][25]

The archaeological excavations are currently budgeted at €132 million ($149 million),[10] compared with the original archaeological budget of €15 million ($17 million),[13] and employ 300 archaeologists.[52] Over 300,000 artefacts have been unearthed to date.[10] The archaeological work is being carried out by the Ministry of Culture and Sports' Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities and the Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities.

In popular cultureEdit

Construction delays have made the Thessaloniki Metro the subject of a number of jokes in Greece.[53][54][55][56] News satire websites such as To Koulouri have satirised the metro on numerous occasions with stories such as "Thessaloniki Metro will operate on a 24-hour basis during the Christmas rush"[57] and "Thessaloniki Metro enters its 763rd day of strike",[58] and it has been cited in satirical lyrics by the Greek rapper Tus.[59] Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras joked about the delays at the 2018 Thessaloniki International Fair: "What's happening with the metro, guys? Will it get built here?"[60]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Attiko Metro S.A. "Extensions". www.ametro.gr. Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018. To this end, ATTIKO METRO S.A. is designing and suggesting a solution combining both individual extensions into a circular line of a unified form.
  2. ^ a b c d "Η Συνέντευξη τoυ Γιάννη Μυλόπουλου για το Μετρό Θεσσαλονίκης" [Giannis Mylopoulos' interview about the Thessaloniki Metro]. www.ypodomes.gr. Archived from the original on 12 September 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  3. ^ a b Attiko Metro S.A. "Thessaloniki Metro Lines Development Plan" (PDF). www.ametro.gr. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  4. ^ "Μυλόπουλος: Το 2020 θα κυκλοφορούν καθημερινά 320.000 επιβάτες με το μετρό της Θεσσαλονίκης" [Mylopoulos: In 2020 320,000 people will travel on the Thessaloniki metro system]. www.movenews.gr. Archived from the original on 12 August 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  5. ^ "Μετρό Θεσσαλονίκης: Χαμόγελα στα εργοτάξια μετά από χρόνια" [Thessaloniki Metro: Smiles at the construction sites after years]. www.iefimerida.gr (in Greek). 2 March 2016. Archived from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  6. ^ "Θεσσαλονίκη: Νοέμβριο του 2020 παραδίδεται η 1η γραμμή μετρό Νέα Ελβετία-Συντριβάνι" [Thessaloniki: The 1st line from Nea Elvetia to Sintrivani will be opened in 2020]. www.iefimerida.gr (in Greek). 20 March 2018. Archived from the original on 7 August 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Technical Description (PDF), Attiko Metro S.A., 1 December 2014, archived from the original (PDF) on 11 September 2018
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Attiko Metro S.A. "Ιστορικό" [History]. www.ametro.gr (in Greek). Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  9. ^ a b Attiko Metro S.A. "Extension to Kalamaria". www.ametro.gr. Archived from the original on 19 September 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h "ΑΤΤΙΚΟ ΜΕΤΡΟ: "Το Μέτρο στη πόλη μας" με το πρώτο του βαγόνι. Συμμετοχή της Αττικό Μετρό Α.Ε. στην 83η Δ.Ε.Θ." [Attiko Metro: "The Metro in our city" with the first carriage. The participation of Attiko Metro S.A. at the 83rd Thessaloniki International Fair]. www.ametro.gr (in Greek). Archived from the original on 9 September 2018. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  11. ^ a b Naniopoulos, Aristotelis; Nalmpantis, Dimitrios. Συστήµατα σταθερής τροχιάς στην πόλη της Θεσσαλονίκης. Ιστορική αναδροµή (1889-1968) [Fixed-track systems in Thessaloniki. Historical Retrospective (1889-1968)]. www.docplayer.gr (in Greek). Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Archived from the original on 14 September 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  12. ^ Gerolympou, Alexandra (1995). Η Ανοικοδόμηση της Θεσσαλονίκης Μετά την Πυρκαγιά του 1917 [The Rebuilding of Thessaloniki after the Great Fire of 1917] (in Greek) (Second ed.). Aristotle University of Thessaloniki University Press.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Skai TV. "Ιστορίες: Μετρό Θεσσαλονίκης" [Stories: Thessaloniki Metro]. www.skai.gr (in Greek). Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  14. ^ "Πώς το σχέδιο Εμπράρ άλλαξε την εικόνα της Θεσσαλονίκης" [How the Hébrard plan changed the image of Thessaloniki]. www.voria.gr (in Greek). Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g "Κι όμως! Το ΜΕΤΡΟ Θεσσαλονίκης είναι έτοιμο (στα χαρτιά) από το 1987!" [It's true! The Thessaloniki Metro was ready (on paper) in 1987 already!]. www.karfitsa.gr (in Greek). Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  16. ^ a b "Γ. Μυλόπουλος: Όλοι οι σταθμοί του Μετρό Θεσσαλονίκης έχουν ολοκληρωθεί κατασκευαστικά" [G. Mylopoulos: construction on all Thessaloniki Metro stations has finished] (in Greek). Archived from the original on 11 September 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  17. ^ a b "TΗESSALONIKI METRO: "The Metro in our City" – ΑΤΤΙΚΟ ΜΕΤΡΟ Α.Ε." www.ametro.gr. 12 November 2018. Archived from the original on 23 November 2018. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  18. ^ a b Karagiannis, Nikos (8 November 2018). "Μετρό Θεσσαλονίκης: Ανατροπή με λειτουργία το 2020 σε όλη τη γραμμή από το Νέο Σιδηροδρομικό Σταθμό μέχρι Νέα Ελβετία - ypodomes.com" [Thessaloniki Metro: Operational in 2020 on the entire line from the New Railway Station to Nea Elvetia]. www.ypodomes.gr (in Greek). Archived from the original on 23 November 2018. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  19. ^ Technical Description (PDF), Attiko Metro S.A., 18 June 2018, archived from the original (PDF) on 11 September 2018
  20. ^ "New metro improves quality of life in Thessaloniki". www.ec.europa.eu. European Commission. Archived from the original on 22 September 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  21. ^ ""Φρένο" στη Μακεδονικό Μετρό από την Ε.Ε." [The EU has put "the brakes" on Makedoniko Metro]. www.tanea.gr (in Greek). Ta Nea. 24 January 2003. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  22. ^ a b Attiko Metro S.A. "Funding". www.ametro.gr. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  23. ^ a b "Χρηματοοικονομικές Καταστάσεις για τη χρήση που έληξε την 31 Δεκεμβρίου 2017" [Annual Financial Statements for the Year Ending on 31 December 2017] (PDF). www.ametro.gr (in Greek). Attiko Metro. 31 December 2017. p. 9.
  24. ^ a b "Χρηματοδότηση – ΑΤΤΙΚΟ ΜΕΤΡΟ Α.Ε." [Funding – Attiko Metro]. www.ametro.gr (in Greek). Attiko Metro. 3 August 2019. Archived from the original on 3 August 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  25. ^ a b c "The first Metro network with ancient monuments". www.yougoculture.com. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. 16 March 2018. Archived from the original on 11 September 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  26. ^ a b c Attiko Metro S.A. "THESSALONIKI METRO: The Metromole activities have come to an end". www.ametro.gr. Archived from the original on 30 August 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  27. ^ "Εξοπλισμένες με θύρες ασφαλείας οι αποβάθρες των σταθμών του Μετρό Θεσσαλονίκης" [The Thessaloniki Metro platforms are equipped with safety doors]. www.ypodomes.com (in Greek). 12 February 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  28. ^ a b "Τοπογραφικές μελέτες για την επέκταση του Μετρό Θεσσαλονίκης προς Αεροδρόμιο «Μακεδονία»" [Topographical studies for the extension of the Thessaloniki Metro to the "Makedonia" Airport] (PDF) (in Greek). Attiko Metro. 18 March 2019. Archived from the original (pdf) on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  29. ^ Attiko Metro S.A. "Thessaloniki Metro Map". www.ametro.gr. Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  30. ^ "ΜΕΤΡΟ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ: Ξεκινά η επόμενη μέρα για τις συγκοινωνίες στη Θεσσαλονίκη" [Thessaloniki Metro: A new beginning for transport in Thessaloniki]. www.ametro.gr (in Greek). Attiko Metro. 14 January 2019. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  31. ^ Karagiannis, Nikos (12 March 2019). ""Ντεμπούτο" για την επέκταση του Μετρό Θεσσαλονίκης στο Αεροδρόμιο Μακεδονία" ["Deput" for the expansion of the Thessaloniki Metro to Makedonia Airport] (in Greek). Retrieved 13 March 2019.
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