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Metro-North Railroad's New Haven Line runs from New Haven, Connecticut, southwest to Mount Vernon, New York. There it joins the Harlem Line, where trains continue south to Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan. The New Haven Line's ridership, at 125,000 weekday and 39 million annual passengers, ranks as the busiest rail line in the United States.[1] The busiest station is Stamford, with 8.4 million passengers, or 21% of the line's ridership.[2]

New Haven Line
MNCRR M-8 at NEC Port Chester.jpg
An outbound train of M8s near Port Chester
Overview
TypeCommuter rail
SystemMetro-North Railroad
StatusOperating
LocaleNew York City (Manhattan and The Bronx) and Westchester, Fairfield and New Haven counties
TerminiGrand Central
New Haven–Union Station
New Haven–State Street (limited service)
Stations30 main; 17 branch
Services1 main line; 3 branches
Daily ridership125,000 weekday
(39 million annual)[1]
Operation
OwnerConnDOT (in Connecticut)
Metro-North (in Westchester County)
Argent Ventures (in New York City, leased to Metro-North)
Operator(s)MTA Metro-North Railroad
Character4-track main line (3 tracks between Housatonic River and Milford station)
Single-track branches
Technical
Track length74 miles (119 km) (main line)
7.9 miles (12.7 km) (New Canaan Branch)
23.6 miles (38.0 km) (Danbury Branch)
27 miles (43 km) (Waterbury Branch)
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Electrification12.5 kV 60 Hz (AC) overhead catenary north of Mount Vernon East
700V (DC) third rail south of Pelham
Route map

Amtrak NEC & Shore Line East
to New London & Boston
Amtrak Springfield Line & Hartford Line
to Springfield
New Haven State Street
Shore Line East Hartford Line
New Haven
Amtrak Shore Line East Hartford Line Greyhound Lines
West Haven
Shore Line East
Orange
proposed
Woodmont
closed
Zone 21
Zone 20
Milford
Shore Line East
Torrington Secondary
to Winsted
Waterbury
Waterbury Yard
Naugatuck
Beacon Falls
Seymour
Ansonia
Derby–Shelton
Zone 51
Zone 20
Waterbury Branch
to Waterbury
|
Devon Transfer
closed
Stratford
Shore Line East
Zone 20
Zone 19
Bridgeport Yard
Bridgeport
Amtrak Shore Line East Greyhound Lines
Zone 19
Zone 18
Fairfield Metro
Fairfield
Southport
Green's Farms
Westport
Zone 18
Zone 17
East Norwalk
Housatonic Railroad
to Pittsfield
New Milford
proposed
Brookfield
proposed
North Danbury
proposed
Zone 43
Zone 42
Danbury
Bethel
Redding
Branchville
Georgetown
proposed
Zone 42
Zone 41
Cannondale
Wilton
Kent Road
closed
Merritt 7
Zone 41
Zone 17
Danbury Branch
to Danbury
South Norwalk
Zone 17
Zone 16
Rowayton
Darien
Noroton Heights
New Canaan
Talmadge Hill
Springdale
Glenbrook
Zone 31
Zone 16
New Canaan Branch
to New Canaan
Stamford Yard
Stamford
Amtrak Shore Line East Greyhound Lines
Zone 16
Zone 15
Old Greenwich
Riverside
Cos Cob
Greenwich
Zone 15
Zone 14
Port Chester
Rye
Zone 14
Zone 13
Harrison
Mamaroneck
Larchmont
Zone 13
Zone 12
New Rochelle
Amtrak
Meadowlands
Game day service
Hutchinson River
Co-Op City
proposed
Parkchester
proposed
Hunts Point
proposed
New York – Penn Station
AmtrakMTA NYC logo.svgNJ Transit
Secaucus Junction
transfer to Meadowlands
MTA NYC logo.svgNJ Transit
Pelham
↑ overhead catenary
↓ third rail electrification
Columbus Avenue
closed
Mount Vernon East
Zone 12
Zone 2
Harlem Line
to Wassaic
Woodlawn BSicon SUBWAY.svg
Williams Bridge BSicon SUBWAY.svg
Botanical Garden
Fordham
(outbound boarding/inbound alighting)
183rd Street
closed
Tremont
Morrisania
closed
Melrose
Yankees–East 153rd Street
(game days only)
BSicon SUBWAY.svg
Mott Haven Junction
138th Street
closed
Zone 2
Zone 1
Harlem–125th Street BSicon SUBWAY.svg
110th Street
closed
86th Street
closed
72nd Street
closed
59th Street
closed
Grand Central BSicon SUBWAY.svg
New haven line map.png

This line was originally part of the mainline of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. The section from Mount Vernon to the New York-Connecticut border is owned by Metro-North, and the section from the state line to New Haven is owned by the Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT). From west to east in Connecticut, three branches split off: the New Canaan Branch, Danbury Branch, and Waterbury Branch, all owned by ConnDOT.

In addition to Metro-North trains, Amtrak's Northeast Regional and Acela Express use the line between New Rochelle, New York and New Haven, Connecticut, as part of the Northeast Corridor. Shore Line East (SLE), a commuter service operated by Amtrak for ConnDOT, also operates over the New Haven Line from its normal terminus at New Haven, with limited express service to Stamford with a single stop in Bridgeport.

Contents

HistoryEdit

Before Metro-NorthEdit

 
At the Mill (Rippowam) River crossing, Stamford, Connecticut, about 1908

The rail line from New York to New Haven was completed by 1849, and commuters started using the trains soon afterward. The line was part of the New York and New Haven Railroad — after 1872, the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad — which had trackage rights over the New York Central Railroad's New York and Harlem Railroad into Grand Central.

The Great Blizzard of 1888 blocked the rail line in Westport, between the Saugatuck and Green's Farms stations. It took eight days to restore service, as snow was dug out by hand.[3]

The line was grade separated into a cut in Mount Vernon in 1893 as a result of multiple collisions between trains and horsecars.[4]

As part of the construction of Grand Central Terminal in the early 1900s, all of New York Central's lines that ran into the terminal were electrified. Third rail was installed on the Hudson and Harlem Divisions, while the New Haven Division received overhead wires on the segments that were not shared with the Harlem and Hudson Division.[5] Steam locomotives on the New Haven Division were replaced with electric locomotives, and later electric multiple units.[3][6] New Haven Division electric trains started running to Grand Central in October 1907.[7]

The New Haven was merged into Penn Central in 1969. On November 25, 1969, Penn Central, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, and the states of New York and Connecticut agreed that New York would buy its section of the line and Connecticut would lease its section as far as New Haven.[8] The acquisition took place on January 1, 1971, and included the three branches.[9] After Penn Central went bankrupt, the Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail) took over operations in 1976. The MTA took over operations in 1983, and merged Conrail's former commuter rail lines in the New York area into Metro-North. The MTA undertook to rebuild the railroad, upgrading signals, tracks, ties, roadbeds, and rolling stock.

New and closed infrastructureEdit

 
West Haven station shortly after opening in 2013

Over the years, some stations have been abandoned or closed, and some characteristics of the line have changed. The Columbus Avenue station in Mount Vernon was closed in the Penn Central era, due to its proximity to Mt. Vernon station and the expense of converting it to high-level platforms.[citation needed] It had previously been a transfer station to the overhead viaduct station of the New York, Westchester and Boston Railway; an impressive ruin remains and is easily visible from passing trains.[citation needed] Other stations abandoned along the mainline include Devon, at the junction of the Waterbury Branch, and Norwalk, replaced by South Norwalk.[10] The changeover from catenary to third rail was moved from Woodlawn to just west of Pelham in the early 1990s. The catenary poles are still intact as they carry several communications lines.[11] There is an abandoned coach yard just east of Port Chester station.

The New Haven's Harlem River and Port Chester Railroad, diverging from the main line below New Rochelle, ran local passenger service to the Harlem River Terminal in the South Bronx until 1931, and has several abandoned stations.[12][13] It was a major freight route for the New Haven to Queens, where it interchanged with the Long Island Rail Road and the Pennsylvania Railroad. Four new stations are planned along this route as part of Metro-North's Penn Station Access.

As a largely four-track electrified mainline, the New Haven Line is capable of supporting a mix of local and express service, allowing for a higher density of stations than many other commuter rail lines. By the beginning of the 20th century, there were stations in every population center along the line. Although some of these were dropped over the years due to low ridership, no new stations were added for over 100 years. Fairfield Metro opened in December 2011 to support a new commercial development.[14] After a decade-long process choosing between locations in West Haven and Orange, West Haven station opened in August 2013, filling the longest gap on the line.[15] Currently, a study is being undertaken to detail the costs and benefits of implementing more frequent service on the line. The line would have to be upgraded to accommodate additional service.[16]

Incidents and accidentsEdit

 
A 1911 wreck in Fairfield involving 4 trains

Fatal accidentsEdit

An accident occurred at the Norwalk River bridge in Norwalk, Connecticut on May 6, 1855.[citation needed] Another occurred in Westport, Connecticut in 1895, and another in that town on October 3, 1912.[3][better source needed] Another fatality occurred in August 1969 on the New Canaan branch.[citation needed] There was also a collision in Mount Vernon in 1988 that killed an engineer.[citation needed] More recently, in 2012 two people were killed by a train-car collision at an ungated grade crossing on the Danbury Branch in Redding, Connecticut,[17] and in 2013 a track worker was struck and killed in West Haven.[18]

Non-fatal incidentsEdit

The May 2013 Fairfield train crash resulted in 72 injuries after two trains collided following a derailment near Fairfield.[19]

On September 25, 2013, a Con Edison failure required the use of diesel locomotives and bus service between Mount Vernon and Harrison for 12 days.[20]

OperationsEdit

Passenger serviceEdit

Main LineEdit

New Haven Line trains primarily use electric multiple unit (EMU) consists of Kawasaki M8 railcars. The line is operated primarily in two zones: an "inner" zone from Grand Central Terminal to Stamford, CT; and an "outer" zone from Stamford to New Haven.

Trains from the outer zone generally run local, making most stops from New Haven to Stamford, and then express to Grand Central with a single stop at Harlem–125th Street and sometimes Greenwich as well. Trains from the inner zone generally originate in Stamford, running local and making most stops, also stopping at Fordham station. Passengers heading from one zone to another can make cross-platform interchanges at Stamford.

During peak hours, trains generally run in shorter, express zones, making limited stops as they fill faster, with some overlap in start and end stations to allow for intra-zone transfers for those traveling locally. Many of these trains begin their runs at intermediate stations within their zones, and then run express to Grand Central or vice versa.

All New Haven Line electric trains change over between third rail and overhead catenary between Mount Vernon East and Pelham, at normal track speed.[21] Inbound trains to Grand Central lower their pantographs in this area, while outbound trains raise them; the third rail shoes stay in the same position both in and out of third rail territory. Both catenary and third rail overlap for a quarter-mile between Mount Vernon East and Pelham to facilitate this changeover.[citation needed]

The entire mainline is grade-separated with no grade crossings, although there are several privately marked-pedestrian crossings in many of the storage yards such as the East Side Yard in Bridgeport.[citation needed]

BranchesEdit

 
Waterbury station is the northern terminus of the Waterbury Branch

Within the Metro-North system, the New Haven Line is the only line with operating branches. The New Haven Railroad, Metro-North's predecessor, had an extensive branch network in Connecticut, including: a branch off the Danbury Branch at the appropriately named Branchville, CT to Ridgefield, CT; another branch off the main line for freight at Bridgeport known as the Berkshire (a never-used bridge spans the Merritt Parkway in Trumbull that would have accommodated this branch under potential reactivation scenarios); and the Maybrook line, which connected the Waterbury Branch with the Danbury Branch, with several branches of its own.

Branch lines generally operate as their own zones, with the first main line station as a terminus rather than Grand Central, providing transfers to other main line stations or Grand Central. During peak hours, some of these trains run express on the main line through to Grand Central, but generally remain as local service on the branch itself.

The New Canaan Branch is electrified, while the Danbury and Waterbury branches use train consists powered by diesel locomotives. Some main line trains will occasionally use diesel equipment in revenue runs for positioning or due to equipment shortages.

In contrast with the main line, the branches operate almost entirely at grade, with frequent crossings.

Sports special servicesEdit

Yankee StadiumEdit
 
New Haven Line equipment at Yankees – East 153rd Street station

Yankees–East 153rd Street station opened on May 23, 2009. Although it is a Hudson Line commuter station, it offers New Haven and Harlem Line commuters direct game-day service on weekends and after weeknight games, and shuttle service from Harlem–125th Street station during peak periods. The Yankee Stadium station, 125th Street and Fordham are the three Metro-North stations that serve New Haven Line customers without being located on the Line itself.[22]

Meadowlands game day serviceEdit

The Train to the Game service on the New Haven Line to the Meadowlands Sports Complex operated only for Sunday 1 pm New York Giants and New York Jets NFL games.[23] The first game scheduled was on September 20, 2009, when the New York Jets hosted the New England Patriots, following a successful test of trains in non-revenue service on August 23.[24][25]

The service was operated using New Jersey Transit (NJT) equipment under an operating agreement among NJT, Metro-North, and Amtrak. NJT equipment was required as its electric locomotive power was capable of running under the various catenary systems over three separate railroads using different power supplies. The program was only offered for the early afternoon games so that the NJT equipment could be moved back in place for the Monday morning rush hour.[26]

The service made limited stops on New Haven Line, and used the Hell Gate Line to access New York Penn Station and Secaucus Junction. At Secaucus, riders transferred to a shuttle on the Meadowlands Rail Line. Stops included New Haven, West Haven, Bridgeport, Fairfield, Westport, South Norwalk, Stamford, Greenwich, Rye, Larchmont, Penn Station, and Secaucus.[23]

Shared trackage and operating agreementsEdit

Although the New Haven Line shares track with the Harlem Line in the Bronx, along this line it stops only at Fordham, due to an 1848 agreement with the Harlem Line's predecessor railroad, the New York Central. This agreement granted the New Haven predecessor New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad trackage rights over the Harlem Line to Grand Central Terminal, but restricted its service in the Bronx to discharge service only (i.e. no boarding revenue passengers).[27] This agreement continued until 2019, due to the operating agreement between Metro-North and the Connecticut Department of Transportation (ConnDOT), which means passengers traveling between Fordham and Manhattan could not ride on a New Haven Line train.[28] Beginning April 14, 2019, passengers heading to and from Grand Central can also travel on New Haven Line trains. This was a result of an agreement reached with CDOT, under which revenue from tickets between Fordham and Manhattan would be split between Metro-North and CDOT.[29][30] While the New Haven Line's one stop in the Bronx is currently at Fordham, from 1848 until the 1920s that stop was instead at Woodlawn.[31]

 
Logo at all CT stations. This is also the logo for Shore Line East, a sister service to the New Haven Line.

The New Haven Line is also operated in Connecticut under an agreement between Metro-North and the ConnDOT, in which costs for main line operation are shared (currently 65% ConnDOT and 35% Metro-North) and costs for branch service are borne 100% by ConnDOT.[32]

InfrastructureEdit

Control points/signalsEdit

Since 1996, the New Haven main line and New Canaan branch have used Automatic Train Control (ATC) in conjunction with cab signals, a safety feature used in routing trains, keeping safe distances, and moderating train speeds.[33][34] Signals are controlled from a centralized location, the Operations Control Center in New York City.[6] Until the 1980s, the New Haven Line had a decentralized signaling system, and each section of track was controlled by a separate switch tower. The switch towers themselves did not get radio communication with each other until the late 1960s, when Penn Central took over the New Haven Line.[35] Track interlockings are governed within Control Point boundaries, or CPs.[36] The New Haven Line is unique in that the CPs are known (informally) by nicknames for their region.

 
New Haven Line catenary pole at CP 257 showing one remaining old-style signal (no longer used) and track-level dwarf signals that replaced it.

Signals on the New Haven Line had once been mounted on the catenary bridges; these were all replaced throughout the 1990s and into the early 2000s with wayside "dwarf" signals at track level along the right-of-way. The form of signalization known as Centralized Traffic Control, or CTC, is used on the main line and the New Canaan Branch,[37] as well as on the Danbury Branch starting in 2013.[38] The Waterbury Branch is currently "manual block", or unsignaled, territory.[37]:1.1

Traction power substationsEdit

The New Haven's traction power system was originally constructed to operate at 11 kV, 25 Hz, using power supplied by the Cos Cob Power Station. The power station was shut down around 1986 and Metro-North converted the traction power system to 60 Hz operation. Traction power is converted from utility-supplied 115 kV (single phase) to 27 kV (single phase with center tap), which is distributed using an auto-transformer system.[39] Power is supplied to the catenary at 12.5 kV, 60 Hz.

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX
New Haven Line traction power substations
Milepost Name Coordinates Comments
14.0 Fulton Ave 40°54′41″N 73°49′42″W / 40.9114°N 73.8283°W / 40.9114; -73.8283 (Fulton Ave Substation) Bridge 23
16.6 New Rochelle 40°54′25″N 73°47′23″W / 40.90694°N 73.78972°W / 40.90694; -73.78972 (New Rochelle Substation) Anchor bridge
30 Cos Cob 41°01′49″N 73°35′48″W / 41.030233°N 73.5967°W / 41.030233; -73.5967 (Cos Cob Substation) Cos Cob supply
33.0 Stamford 41°2′52″N 73°32′15″W / 41.04778°N 73.53750°W / 41.04778; -73.53750 (Stamford Substation) Anchor bridge
40 Norwalk 41°05′53″N 73°25′10″W / 41.098185°N 73.419527°W / 41.098185; -73.419527 (Norwalk Substation) Anchor bridge
41 East Norwalk 41°06′09″N 73°24′28″W / 41.102525°N 73.407882°W / 41.102525; -73.407882 (East Norwalk Substation) Anchor bridge
47.6 Sasco Creek ? Sasco Creek supply
59.2 Devon (Stratford) 41°11′53″N 73°7′34″W / 41.19806°N 73.12611°W / 41.19806; -73.12611 (Devon Substation) Devon supply
72.3 New Haven 41°17′18″N 72°56′17″W / 41.28833°N 72.93806°W / 41.28833; -72.93806 (New Haven substation) Union Ave supply

StationsEdit

The following connecting rail services are available from Amtrak[40], Metro North Railroad[41] and Shore Line East.[42]

Main LineEdit

Milepost Zero on the New Haven Line is at the north property line of 42nd St (i.e. 200–300 ft south of the ends of the tracks).

Zone Station Miles (km)
from GCT
Date
opened
Date
closed
Connections / notes
1 Grand Central   0.0 (0.0) October 6, 1871[43]   Metro-North: Harlem and Hudson Lines
  NYC Subway:       ​​  (at Grand Central – 42nd Street)
M1, M2, M3, M4, M42, M101, M102, M103, Q32, X27, X28, X37, X38, X63, X64, X68, SIM4C, SIM6, SIM8, SIM8X, SIM11, SIM22, SIM25, SIM26, SIM30, SIM31, SIM33C[44][45]
  MTA Bus: BxM1, BxM3, BxM4, BxM6, BxM7, BxM8, BxM9, BxM10, BxM18, BM1, BM2, BM3, BM4, BM5, QM21, QM31, QM32, QM34, QM35, QM36, QM40, QM42, QM44[45]
  Academy Bus: SIM23, SIM24[45]
Originally Grand Central Depot, then Grand Central Station
59th Street
72nd Street
86th Street May 15, 1876[46] c. 1903[46]
110th Street c. 1900
Harlem–125th Street   4.2 (6.8) 1897[12]   Metro-North: Harlem and Hudson Lines
  NYC Subway:      (at 125th Street)
  NYCT Bus: M1 (NB), M35, M60 SBS to LGA, M98, M100, M101, Bx15[44]
Manhattan / Bronx border
2
138th Street 1886[47] 1972[12][31] Also named Mott Haven and The Bronx
Hudson Line diverges at Mott Haven Junction
Melrose 6.1 (9.8) c. 1890[48] Served by Harlem Line trains
Morrisania c. 1858[49] 1972[12][31]
Claremont Park c. 1960[12][31]
Tremont 7.9 (12.7) c. 1890[48] Served by Harlem Line trains
183rd Street 1972[31]
Fordham   8.9 (14.3)   Metro-North: Harlem Line
  NYCT Bus: Bx9, Bx12, Bx12 SBS, Bx15, Bx17, Bx22, Bx34, Bx41, Bx41 SBS
  MTA Bus: BxM4
  Bee-Line Bus: 60, 61, 62[50][51]
Botanical Garden   9.5 (15.2) 1893[52] Served by Harlem Line trains
Williams Bridge 10.5 (16.9) c. 1842 Served by Harlem Line trains
Woodlawn 11.8 (19.0) 1848 Served by Harlem Line trains
Harlem Line diverges at Woodlawn Junction
Bronx County / Westchester County border
12 Mount Vernon East   14.0 (22.5)   Bee-Line Bus: 7, 40, 41, 42, 52, 53, 54, 55, 91[51]
Originally Mount Vernon
Columbus Avenue
Power change from third rail to overhead catenary
Pelham   15.1 (24.3) 1893[53]   Bee-Line Bus: 53[51]
Northeast Corridor converges at Shell Interlocking
New Rochelle   16.6 (26.7) 1848   Amtrak: Northeast Regional
  Bee-Line Bus: 7, 30, 42, 45, 60, 61, 62, 66, 91[51]
13 Larchmont   18.7 (30.1)   Bee-Line Bus: 60, 61, 66, 70, 71[51]
Mamaroneck 20.5 (33.0) 1888   Bee-Line Bus: 60, 61, 70
Harrison 22.2 (35.7) c. 1870   Bee-Line Bus: 5, 61
14 Rye   24.1 (38.8)   Bee-Line Bus: 61, 75
Port Chester 25.7 (41.4) 1890   Bee-Line Bus: 13, 61[51]
  CT Transit Stamford: 311A, 311B[54]
Westchester County, New York / Fairfield County, Connecticut border
15 Greenwich   28.1 (45.2)   CT Transit Stamford: 311, I-BUS Express (971)[54]
  Norwalk Transit: Greenwich Commuter Shuttle[55]
Cos Cob 29.6 (47.6) 1848[56]
Riverside 30.2 (48.6)
Old Greenwich 31.2 (50.2) 1892   CT Transit Stamford: 311, 324[54]
Originally Sound Beach
16 Stamford   33.0 (53.1) 1849   Amtrak: Acela Express, Northeast Regional, Vermonter
  Metro-North: New Canaan Branch
  CTrail: Shore Line East (limited service)
  CT Transit Stamford: 311, 312, 313, 321, 322, 323, 331, 332, 333, 334, 341, 342, 343, 344, I-BUS Express (971), Stamford Commuter Shuttle, Bulls Head, North, Route 1 East[54]
  Greyhound Lines
  Peter Pan Bus Lines
  UConn Stamford Shuttle
New Canaan Branch diverges
Noroton Heights 36.2 (58.3)   CT Transit Stamford: 342[54]
Darien   37.7 (60.7) 1870s   CT Transit Stamford: 341, 342[54]
Rowayton 39.2 (63.1)   Norwalk Transit: 12[55]
17 South Norwalk   41.0 (66.0)   Metro-North: Danbury Branch
  Norwalk Transit: 10, 11, 12, Evening Shuttle, Sunday Shuttle, Norwalk Commuter Shuttle[55]
Originally Norwalk & South Norwalk
Danbury Branch diverges
East Norwalk 42.0 (67.6)   Norwalk Transit: 8, 11[55]
18 Westport   44.2 (71.1)   Norwalk Transit: S1, S2, S3, S4, Imperial Avenue Shuttle, Nyla Farms Shuttle[55]
Also known as Saugatuck
Green's Farms 47.2 (76.0)   Norwalk Transit: G1, G2, Nyla Farms Shuttle[55]
Southport 48.9 (78.7) 1884   Greater Bridgeport Transit: Coastal Link[57]
Fairfield 50.5 (81.3) 1882   Greater Bridgeport Transit: 7, Coastal Link[57]
  Fairfield University Shuttle
Fairfield Metro   52.3 (84.2) 2011   Greater Bridgeport Transit: 5, 7[57]
19 Bridgeport   55.4 (89.2) 1840[58]   Amtrak: Northeast Regional, Vermonter
  Metro-North: Waterbury Branch
  CTrail: Shore Line East (limited service)
  Greater Bridgeport Transit: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 17, 19X, 22X, 23, Coastal Link[57]
  Greyhound Lines
  Peter Pan Bus Lines
 
Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Ferry
 
Sacred Heart University Transit Shuttle
 
University of Bridgeport Shuttle
Barnum 2021 (Planned)[59]
20 Stratford 59.0 (95.0)   CTrail: Shore Line East (limited service)
  Greater Bridgeport Transit: 1, 10, 16, 23, Coastal Link[57]
Fairfield County / New Haven County border
Waterbury Branch splits at site of former Devon Station
Milford 63.2 (101.7   CTrail: Shore Line East (limited service)
  Milford Transit: 2, 3, 4, Coastal Link, Milford Commuter Connection
  CT Transit New Haven: 271[54]
Orange 2021 (Planned)[16]
21 West Haven   69.4 (111.7) 1848
2013
c. 1925   CTrail: Shore Line East (limited service)
  CT Transit New Haven: 265B, 265R[54]
  University of New Haven: Courtesy Van, Dattco Shuttle
New Haven   72.3 (116.3) 1920   Amtrak: Acela Express, New Haven–Springfield Shuttle, Northeast Regional, Vermonter
  CTrail: Hartford Line, Shore Line East
  CT Transit New Haven: 271, New Haven Commuter Connection, Union Station Shuttle[54]
  Yale University Shuttle: Red, Blue
  Greyhound Lines
  Megabus
  Peter Pan Bus Lines
New Haven State Street   72.7 (116.9)   Amtrak: New Haven–Springfield Shuttle
  CTrail: Hartford Line, Shore Line East
  CT Transit New Haven: 204, 212, 213, 215, 223, 224, 237, 274, New Haven Commuter Connection[54]
Limited service
Line continues as the Northeast Corridor

New Canaan BranchEdit

Zone Station Miles (km)
from GCT
Date
opened
Date
closed
Connections / notes
Northeast Corridor / New Haven Line continue south
16 Stamford   33.0 (53.1) 1849   Amtrak: Acela Express, Northeast Regional, Vermonter
  Metro-North: New Haven Line
  Shore Line East (limited service)
  CT Transit Stamford: 311, 312, 313, 321, 324, 327, 328, 331, 333, 334, 335, 336, 341, 342, 344, 345, 351, 971 I-BUS Express
  Greyhound Lines
  Peter Pan Bus Lines
  UConn Stamford Shuttle
East Stamford Proposed station[60]
New Canaan Branch splits from the New Haven Line
31 Glenbrook 35.2 (56.6) 1868   CT Transit Stamford: 344
Springdale 36.9 (59.4) 1868   CT Transit Stamford: 334
Springdale Cemetery Closed by Penn Central
Woodway Closed by Penn Central[61]
Talmadge Hill 39.0 (62.8) 1868
New Canaan 41.2 (66.3) 1868[62]

Danbury BranchEdit

Zone Station Miles (km)
from GCT
Date
opened
Date
closed
Connections / notes
Northeast Corridor / New Haven Line continue south
17 South Norwalk   41.0 (66.0)   Metro-North Railroad: New Haven Line
  Norwalk Transit: 10, 11, 12, Evening Shuttle, Sunday Shuttle, Norwalk Commuter Shuttle
Originally Norwalk & South Norwalk
Danbury Branch splits from the New Haven Line
Wall Street 1860 1936
41 Merritt 7 45.0 (72.4) 1985[63]   Norwalk Transit: Route 7 Link, Norwalk Commuter Connection
Wilton   48.5 (78.1) 1852   Norwalk Transit: Route 7 Link
Cannondale   50.2 (80.8) 1852   Norwalk Transit: Route 7 Link
Georgetown Proposed station
42 Branchville   54.0 (86.9) 1852   Norwalk Transit: Route 7 Link
Redding   58.7 (95.5) 1852 Also known as West Redding
Bethel   62.2 (100.1) 1852   HARTransit: 5
Danbury   64.9 (104.4) 1852   HARTransit: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, Route 7 Link, Danbury–Brewster Shuttle, Newton Road Loop
Replaced former Danbury Union Station
43 North Danbury Proposed station
Brookfield Proposed station
New Milford 1886 1971 Proposed station

Waterbury BranchEdit

Zone Station Miles (km)
from GCT
Date
opened
Date
closed
Connections / notes
19 Bridgeport   55.4 (89.2) 1840[64]   Amtrak: Northeast Regional, Vermonter
  Metro-North: New Haven Line
  Shore Line East (limited service)
  Greater Bridgeport Transit: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 17, 19X, 22X, 23, Coastal Link
  Greyhound Lines
  Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Ferry
20 Stratford 59.0 (95.0)   Metro-North: New Haven Line
  Shore Line East (limited eastbound service)
  Greater Bridgeport Transit: 1, 10, 16, 23, Coastal Link
Limited service (one train, peak direction)
Fairfield County / New Haven County border
Waterbury Branch splits from the New Haven Line in Milford
51 Derby–Shelton 69.5 (111.8) 1849   Greater Bridgeport Transit: 15, 23
  CT Transit New Haven: 255

  Valley Transit District - Dial-A-Ride

Ansonia 71.1 (114.4) 1849   CT Transit New Haven: 255
Seymour 75.0 (120.7) 1849   CT Transit New Haven: 255
Beacon Falls 78.5 (126.3) 1849
Naugatuck 82.5 (132.8) 1849   CT Transit Waterbury: N1, N2, T74
Waterbury 87.5 (140.8) 1849   CT Transit CTfastrak: 925, 928

Rolling stockEdit

ElectricEdit

 
M2 rolling stock at Pelham station
 
M8 rolling stock at Mamaroneck station
 
F10 locomotive at Bridgeport station

Since the main line and the New Canaan Branch are equipped with 12.5 kV 60 Hz overhead catenary, as opposed to just the 750 V DC third rail of the Hudson and Harlem Lines, different rolling stock that can operate with either power system runs on the New Haven Line. This rolling stock, originally produced by General Electric in two batches (144 in 1972–73 and 100 in 1975–77), was initially branded as the M2 Cosmopolitan, with later versions being made on license by Tokyu Car (model M4, 1988) and Morrison-Knudsen (model M6, 1994). Cosmopolitans can be easily spotted by their red stripe along the side, the presence of pantographs on the lead cars in each set, and a dynamic braking grid on the roof.

M2s operate in married pairs, differentiating them from their predecessor equipment of Pullman Standard and 4400-series washboard MU's (retired since the late 1970s and early 1980s). M4s and M6s also operate in triplets, with the middle "D" car not having a cab. Many M2s were reconditioned to extend their useful life beyond the expected 25 years (as of 2014 most are over or approaching 40 years old), undergoing a Critical Systems Repair (CSR) program.

To replace its aging M2 fleet and increase its total fleet size, Metro-North and ConnDOT have undertaken to purchase from Kawasaki Rail Car an initial order of 300 M8 EMUs. The initial order consists of a "base order" of 210 and a "first option" of 90 cars. This order is estimated to cost $760 million. The base order cost is to be split as per the ConnDOT/MTA operating agreement (65%/35%, respectively).[32]

Although the cost sharing is to conform with the operating agreement, due to Metro-North's capital budgeting process, Metro-North will initially pay only the first $100 million of the order, and ConnDOT will pay the remaining $660 million. Metro-North will bring its contribution to the required 35% upon passage of its 2010–2014 capital budget. Until then, ConnDOT will retain title to any rail cars which exceed its 65% share.

M8s are similar to the M7As running on the Harlem and Hudson lines. They each have two single-leaf doors on each side and a full-width operator's cab, eliminating the so-called "railfan" windows at the front and rear of each train and restricting passengers' ability to walk between car pairs.

M8s have the additional capability of running east of New Haven and along the Hell Gate Line west of New Rochelle to Penn Station over the former Harlem River and Port Chester Railroad. In order to run east of New Haven, the M8s are equipped with Advanced Civil Speed Enforcement System (ACSES) as required by Amtrak. In order to run from New Rochelle to Penn Station, the cars will be equipped with third rail shoes that can operate on both over- and under-running third rail systems. Third rail will have to be extended in Queens for the M8s to overcome a gap between suitable catenary (Amtrak's catenary supply changes in Queens from the compatible 12.5 kV 60 Hz system to the incompatible 12.5 kV 25 Hz) and the third rail utilized by the Long Island Rail Road.

Originally, delivery of the first six cars for testing was to be in July 2009, but was delayed until December 2009 for varied reasons such as design revisions and production delays. The contract allows for additional options for ConnDOT of an additional 80 cars, which may be used for Cafe Cars or for use on Shore Line East at ConnDOT's sole expense, an option that has since been exercised.[65] Procurement of more than 380 cars would require additional authorization (PA 05-4 JSS provides funds to acquire at least 342 rail cars at slightly under $900 million).

On July 20, 2011, the Connecticut Department of Transportation announced the order of 25 unpowered M8 railcars, with options for up to 25 more, at a cost of US$93 million to replace the 48-car M6 fleet.[66]

The CSR program was modified in 2008 as the delivery of M8s neared. Cars that underwent CSR earlier in the program were undergoing additional renovation. Funding was identified in the MTA's 2010 capital program to continue the CSR program if the M4 and M6 cars were not retired. The M2's are slated for retirement as sufficient numbers of the Kawasaki-made M8s enter service and alleviate current equipment shortages.

A new rail car facility to accommodate the new M8 cars is being built in New Haven. Although the project itself is not controversial, the building of it is. Originally estimated at $300 million, the facility is now expected to cost in excess of $1 billion.[67]

DieselEdit

As with the Harlem and Hudson Lines, diesel-powered trains are driven by BL20-GH and dual-mode Genesis P32AC-DM locomotives, paired with Shoreliner coaches. While some peak-period trains operate directly to and from Grand Central Terminal with Genesis P32AC-DM dual-mode locomotives only, most New Haven Line diesel-only territory is operated as shuttle service between Danbury and South Norwalk, or between Waterbury and Bridgeport.


Pool serviceEdit

Rolling stock used for Metro-North diesel service is in pool service, meaning that diesel consists feature both ConnDOT-owned red-striped and Metro-North-owned blue-striped coaches operating on any of Metro-North's three lines, along with diesel power in either Metro-North or ConnDOT paint schemes.

Service expansionsEdit

Planned and proposed stationsEdit

DevonEdit

 
Devon Transfer station in April 2015

A 2010 study of the New Canaan and Waterbury branches considered the construction of a station at Devon Wye in Milford, Connecticut, where the Waterbury Branch joins the New Haven mainline. The station would allow service to be increased on the branch by running some trains to the new station with connections to New Haven trains, rather than taking up slots on the busy mainline. The two station alternatives would have cost $73 to $114 million.[68]

For six months in 2015, a temporary Devon Transfer station served as the transfer point between mainline service and Waterbury Branch trains. The first phase of repairs to the adjacent Housatonic River Railroad Bridge over the Housatonic River prevented Waterbury Branch trains from accessing the normal transfer point at Bridgeport, necessitating the temporary transfer station.[69] The Devon Transfer station was re-activated in 2016 from April until October to accommodate additional repairs and catenary wire work.[70]

BarnumEdit

On July 16, 2014, Connecticut Governor Malloy approved $2.75 million to be spent for the planning of a station in the East End of Bridgeport, Connecticut. The new station, called Barnum after showman and former Bridgeport mayor P.T. Barnum,[71] is planned to open in 2021. The station will have two island platforms, allowing for improved express service on the New Haven Line, increasing capacity.[59]

OrangeEdit

After several years of contention, West Haven was chosen over Orange in December 2001 as the site for a new station, which opened in 2013. However, local advocates continued to push for an additional station in Orange. In July 2011, Governor Malloy signed a bill that sought a funding source, but that committed no funds to the project.[72] On February 1, 2017, the Connecticut State Bond Commission authorized $21 million for design work for the station, in addition to funding for the upgrade of a station on the Danbury Branch.[73] Design on the station began in January 2017, and construction on the station will begin in spring 2019, before being completed in fall 2021.[16]

GeorgetownEdit

In connection with the planned redevelopment of the Gilbert & Bennett Wire Mill as a residential neighborhood, reopening a Georgetown station on the Danbury Branch has been approved, though not yet scheduled or funded.[74][75] The previous station was abandoned in the 1970s due to low ridership.

Wilbur Cross ParkwayEdit

The Waterbury and New Canaan Branch study also considered a new station on the Waterbury Branch as a park-and-ride station off the Wilbur Cross Parkway near where it meets the Merritt Parkway in Milford. The station was estimated to cost $41 million to construction.[68]

Danbury Branch studyEdit

 
The Danbury Branch (which currently ends at Danbury) may be extended further north

Although not yet past the Draft Environment Impact Statement stage, a study of enhancing service on and extending the Danbury Branch would include additional stations in North Danbury (Federal Road), Brookfield, and New Milford.[76] The draft EIS was due by 2010, and the final EIS by 2011.[77] The Spring 2009 Update for the first time held out the possibility of extension all the way to Pittsfield, MA, the original route of the New Haven Berkshire Division. Trackage rights would have to be negotiated with the Housatonic Railroad, which owns the line beyond Danbury to New Milford.

Enhancements to the Danbury Branch being studied also include re-electrification of the branch (the branch was electrified from 1925 to 1961), addition of passing sidings, realignment and/or super-elevation of track to eliminate or alleviate curvature and enhance speeds, and installation of automated train control signalling. The new signal system finally began operation in 2013, but extensive work was still ongoing in 2014 because of unresolved problems with the drop gates at grade crossings.[78][79]

Earlier versions of the study examined service to Newtown and Brewster along the Beacon/Maybrook line, as additional branches off the Danbury Branch. These options were not recommended due to limited ridership potential versus additional cost.[80]

Penn Station AccessEdit

As part of the 2015–2019 MTA Capital Program, additional service from the New Haven Line will be provided to New York Penn Station over the Hell Gate Line of the Northeast Corridor, owned by Amtrak. Trackage rights and union agreements would have to be negotiated for this service. Commuter service over this line, formerly the Harlem River Branch of the predecessor New Haven, ended in 1931. New stations will be built at Hunts Point, Parkchester–Van Nest, Morris Park, and Co-Op City.[81]

This project was dormant from approximately 2002 to 2009, but an environmental assessment was announced by Metro-North, to be completed by 2011. The study was in conjunction with ongoing studies for the best uses of Penn Station. The study advances a single option of full (both peak and off-peak) service to Penn on the New Haven and Hudson Lines. Separate options for off-peak service are still being considered separate from the study, as implementation could take place with existing infrastructure and equipment.[82] However, the project was delayed, so environmental and federal reviews are to be completed by 2017.[83]

On January 8, 2014, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo voiced support for the project in his 2014 State of the State address.[59]

In its 2015–2019 Capital Program, the MTA budgeted $695 million for New Haven Line Penn Station Access work, including track, structures, signal, power and communications work along the Hell Gate Line, specifications for rolling stock for the line, and construction of the four new stations.[84] New track will be installed between the Parkchester/Van Nest station and north of the Co-Op City station. Three bridges along the route will be rehabilitated or replaced.[81] The MTA plans to complete necessary environmental and federal reviews by 2017.

Service will begin after East Side Access service commences. The opening of that project would divert some Long Island Rail Road trains to Grand Central Terminal, therefore opening up slots at Penn Station for Metro-North service. During peak hours there will be between six and ten trains to Penn Station. There will be four trains per hour to Connecticut in the reverse peak direction, and there will be two trains per hour to and from Penn Station during off-peak and weekends.[85] In a limited form, it already takes place with the Jets/Giants game-day service to the Meadowlands, although it is not intended as service to Penn.[86]

Waterbury–Bristol–New Britain–HartfordEdit

As of February 2009, Connecticut legislators were discussing service on an old New Haven passenger line that ceased passenger service decades prior known as the Highland Line, part of the original New England Railroad, also known as the Central New England Railway, both eventual subsidiaries of The New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad.[87]

Currently, this is a freight-only line operated by Pan Am Railways. Station stops would include two in Bristol, as well as in New Britain, between Waterbury and Hartford. The next step is a preliminary scoping study, which would be followed by environmental studies.[88] It is unknown if this will be a Metro-North extension of the Waterbury Branch.

Tappan Zee Bridge / I-287 CorridorEdit

The New York State Department of Transportation, the New York State Thruway Authority, and Metro-North conducted extensive studies concerning the replacement of the deteriorated Tappan Zee Bridge. Proposals for rail connections to the New Haven Line were ultimately rejected as too expensive.

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

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  5. ^ Sprague, J. L.; Cunningham, J. J. (2013). "A Frank Sprague Triumph: The Electrification of Grand Central Terminal [History]". IEEE Power and Energy Magazine. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). 11 (1): 58–76. doi:10.1109/mpe.2012.2222293. ISSN 1540-7977.
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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

Route map:

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