East Side Access

East Side Access (internally abbreviated to ESA by the MTA) is a public works project in New York City that will extend the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) from its Main Line in Queens into a new station under Grand Central Terminal on Manhattan's East Side. A project of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) originally scheduled to open in 2009,[1] the new station and tunnels are tentatively scheduled to start service in December 2022.[2] The project's estimated construction cost has risen nearly threefold from the planned $3.5 billion to $11.1 billion as of April 2018, making it one of the world's most expensive underground rail-construction projects.

East Side Access
Interactive map
  Red and   blue: new tunnels.
  Green: existing 63rd Street Tunnel.
Points denote new stations.
Overview
StatusUnder construction
OwnerMetropolitan Transportation Authority
LocaleNew York City
Termini
Stations2
WebsiteOfficial website
Service
TypeCommuter rail
SystemLong Island Rail Road
ServicesCity Terminal Zone
Operator(s)MTA Long Island Rail Road
Ridership162,000 daily (projected)
History
CommencedSeptember 2007 (2007-09)
Planned openingDecember 2022; 4 months' time (2022-12)
Technical
Line length2 mi (3.2 km)
Track length6.1 mi (9.8 km)
Number of tracks2-8
CharacterUnderground
Track gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Electrification750 V DC third rail
Route map

East River 

Midday Storage Yard
Sunnyside
Hunterspoint Avenue
Grand Central
Long Island City
East Side Access route
Other routes

East Side Access is based on transit plans from the 1950s, though a terminal on Manhattan's East Side was first proposed in 1963.[3]: 17 (PDF p. 20)  The planned LIRR line was included in the 1968 Program for Action of transit improvements in the New York City area. Lack of funds prevented the construction of any part of the connection other than the 63rd Street Tunnel under the East River. Plans for the LIRR connection were revived in the late 1990s. The project received federal funding in 2006, and construction began the following year. The tunnels on the Manhattan side were dug from 2007 to 2011, and the connecting tunnels on the Queens side were completed in 2012. Afterward, work began on other facilities related to the line, such as new platforms at Grand Central, ventilation and ancillary buildings, communication and utility systems, and supporting rail infrastructure in Queens. The completion of the line has been delayed several times since construction started.

The new terminal will contain eight tracks and four platforms in a two-level station 100 feet (30.5 m) below street level. It is being built in conjunction with several other expansion projects across the LIRR, including an additional track along parts of the LIRR's Main Line and a new Sunnyside station in Queens. For many riders, the new terminal is planned to remove or reduce the need for subway transfers, as many office jobs are in the Midtown East section of Manhattan and many others will be reachable by a single transfer.

HistoryEdit

OriginsEdit

The East Side Access project is based on regional planning proposals that were first brought up in the 1950s.[3]: 18 (PDF p. 21)  In March 1954, the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) issued a $658 million construction program. The proposal included a tunnel for the Second Avenue Subway, which would cross the East River between 76th Street in Manhattan and Astoria in Queens before continuing onto the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR)'s Main Line in Queens.[4] The 76th Street tunnel proposal resurfaced in 1963, though the location of the tunnel was changed several times thereafter.[5] In 1965, the NYCTA finally decided to construct the subway tunnel at 63rd Street.[6]

The first proposals to bring LIRR service to a terminal in eastern Midtown Manhattan arose in 1963.[3]: 17 (PDF p. 20)  To facilitate planning for this terminal, a third track was added to the plans for the 63rd Street subway tunnel in April 1966. The track would serve LIRR trains to east Midtown, alleviating train traffic into Penn Station on Manhattan's west side while integrating the LIRR with the subway.[7] A fourth track was added to the plans in August 1966 after it was determined that LIRR trains would be too large to run on subway tracks. This amendment increased the number of LIRR tracks to two, and provided segregated tracks for the LIRR and the subway.[8]

In February 1968, the NYCTA's parent company, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), released the Program for Action, which proposed numerous improvements to subway, railway, and airport service in the New York metropolitan area. The plan included a new LIRR terminal at a proposed Metropolitan Transportation Center at Third Avenue and 48th Street in East Midtown. It also included connections to Grand Central Terminal, with a new northern entrance leading to the center, and the Second Avenue Subway, among other transit services.[9]: 5 [10] The new LIRR line was to branch off from existing lines in Sunnyside, Queens and enter Manhattan using the new two-level 63rd Street Tunnel. The upper level was to be used by the New York City Subway's 63rd Street lines and the lower level was to be used by the LIRR.[10] According to renderings of the transportation center, the mezzanine would be placed above four island platforms and eight tracks, which would be split evenly across two levels,[9]: 48–49  similar to the structure under construction at Grand Central.[11][12]

 
A ventilation tower for the 63rd Street Tunnel

Construction on the project began in 1969.[3]: 17 (PDF p. 20)  Four 38-foot-square (12 m) prefabricated sections of the 63rd Street Tunnel were constructed under the East River, the first of which was delivered in May 1971.[13] That first section was lowered into place on August 29, 1971,[14] and the last section was lowered on March 14, 1972.[15] The double-deck, 3,140-foot (960 m)[16] tunnel under the East River was "holed through" on October 10, 1972, with the separate sections of tunnels being connected.[17] The estimated cost of the project was $341 million, and the MTA applied for $227 million in Federal funds.[18]

The construction of the terminal was opposed by the residents of the Turtle Bay neighborhood, where the terminal was planned to be located, as it would have changed the character of the neighborhood.[19] Turtle Bay residents wanted the terminal moved to Grand Central. They also disliked the proposed traffic congestion the new terminal would bring.[20] The MTA contended that its studies had shown that Third Avenue was the only feasible place to put the terminal, and there would have been too great of a concentration of rail lines at Grand Central. It concluded that having the LIRR going to Grand Central would further strain the Lexington Avenue Line. If it were on Third Avenue, passengers would have been more inclined to use the Second Avenue Subway, which was partially under construction at the time.[19] On April 16, 1973, a Federal directive directed New York State to consider expanding and modernizing Grand Central before building the new terminal under Third Avenue.[18]

Preliminary planning for the Metropolitan Transportation Center had been completed by January 1975.[3]: 17 (PDF p. 20) [21] Due to continued opposition to the Transportation Center, a "Grand Central Alternative" was published in September 1976. It called for the LIRR to use Grand Central Terminal's lower level instead.[3]: 18 (PDF p. 21)  The MTA's board of directors voted to use Grand Central as the terminal for the proposed LIRR route in 1977.[22]

Plans stalledEdit

Due to the 1975 New York City fiscal crisis, the LIRR project was canceled long before the tunnel was completed. The New York Times noted that the lower level of the 63rd Street Tunnel was still under construction by 1976, even though "officials knew that the tunnel would never be used."[23] Richard Ravitch, the MTA chairman, said that to stop the work was impossible or so costly as to make it impractical subsequent to the construction of the subway portion."[23] The lower level of the 63rd Street Tunnel was completed along with the upper subway level.[3]: 17 (PDF p. 20) [23] The western end of the tunnel lay dormant under Second Avenue at 63rd Street for three decades. By the time that construction on the LIRR tunnel level stopped, the tunnel was built for a distance of 8,600 feet (2,600 m). The 8,600-foot "tunnel to nowhere" was completed "largely for structural reasons — to support the subway tunnel above."[23]

The 63rd Street subway line and LIRR tunnel were completed as far as 29th Street in Long Island City, Queens, with the subway level of the tunnel opening in 1989. The LIRR tunnel remained unused beneath the subway tracks.[24] In 1994, work began to extend the 63rd Street subway tunnel east to connect to the Queens Boulevard subway line; the LIRR tunnel was also extended east, under 41st Avenue in Queens to the west side of Northern Boulevard in Queens.[25][26] The subway connector was opened to full-time F train service in December 2001.[27][28]

Plans revivedEdit

Plans were made in 1995 to bring LIRR service to East Midtown, and had resurfaced by the turn of the century.[29]: 3  At the time, the MTA was quoted as saying that the LIRR East Side connection would not be completed within the next generation. Two years later, in 1997, U.S. Senator Al D'Amato started petitioning for an allocation of federal money to connect the LIRR to Grand Central. New York Governor George Pataki had previously proposed completing the project, but D'Amato's support, as well as the promise of financial backing, increased the likelihood that construction would actually commence. At the time, if everything went favorably, the LIRR link could open by 2010.[30] By that time, the LIRR was the busiest commuter railroad in the United States, with an average of 269,400 passengers each weekday in 1999.[3]: 4 (PDF p.7)  As of 1998, there were almost 1.77 million jobs in Manhattan. An increasing number of these jobs were white-collar "office" jobs, with most of these new jobs in East Midtown.[3]: 7 (PDF p.10)  Penn Station, located on the West Side, was operating at capacity due to a complex track interlocking and limited capacity in the East River Tunnels.[3]: 8 (PDF p.11) 

In 1999, the MTA proposed a $17 billion five-year capital budget. This budget included a $1.6 billion LIRR connection to Grand Central, as well as several subway extensions.[31] The project's final environmental impact assessment (FEIS) was released in March 2001.[32]: 1 [a] The FEIS reviewed two key options for bringing LIRR service to Grand Central. The first option was to connect the tunnels to the existing lower level at Grand Central, while the second option was to build an entirely new station underneath the Metro-North Railroad's existing upper- and lower-level platforms at Grand Central. The MTA ultimately recommended selecting the second option because it was cheaper and less disruptive to Metro-North service.[32]: 4 [29]: 4  Two months later, the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) gave a favorable "Record of Decision", a mark of approval, to East Side Access after reviewing the project's FEIS.[29]: 3 [32]

 
East Side Access Project Information Center

After the September 11, 2001, attacks, the MTA announced plans to accelerate the timeline for constructing East Side Access. LIRR president Kenneth J. Bauer stated, "The incident of September 11 shows the importance of East Side Access to a greater degree. If something happened at the East River tunnel, you wouldn't be able to run trains to Penn Station."[33] The MTA and Governor Pataki supported East Side Access and the Second Avenue Subway, both of which involved building new railroad infrastructure on the East Side.[34] In 2002, Congress passed a bill that allocated $132 million for infrastructure projects in New York State, of which $14.7 million was to go toward funding East Side Access.[35] Approval of a final design for East Side Access was granted in 2002, and the first properties for East Side Access were acquired in 2003.[29]: 4 

In 2004, some business owners in Midtown announced their opposition to a proposed 16-story ventilation building at 50th Street east of Madison Avenue. They stated that the building would cause pollution and that it could be vulnerable to terrorist attacks.[36] In particular, Catholic Archbishop Cardinal Edward Egan of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York was concerned about the impact of East Side Access on St. Patrick's Cathedral, which faced Fifth Avenue with its back on Madison Avenue north of 50th Street.[37] Despite this, the MTA affirmed its plans for the ventilation tower at that location.[38] After continued opposition from the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York and other nearby entities, the MTA reduced the size of the building and relocated the structure's cooling towers.[39]

Construction progressEdit

Funding for MTA capital projects such as East Side Access, the Second Avenue Subway, and the 7 Subway Extension were included in the Rebuild and Renew Transportation Bond Act of 2005. As part of this act, the state would take on $2.9 billion in debt to issue bonds to fund these projects.[40] Voters ultimately approved the bond issue by a margin of 55% to 44%.[41] The federal government committed to provide $2.6 billion to help build the project by signing a full funding grant agreement in December 2006.[42][43] The construction contract for a 1-mile (1.6 km) tunnel in Manhattan westward and southward from the dormant lower level of the 63rd Street Tunnel to the new 100-foot-deep (30 m) station beneath Grand Central Terminal was awarded in July 2006. The contract went to Dragados/Judlau, a joint American–Spanish venture whose American headquarters were in College Point, Queens, close to the East Side Access site.[44][45]: 10  The total contract award was $428 million[27][44][45]: 10  and used two large tunnel boring machines.[27] After Hurricane Sandy flooded the East River Tunnels between Queens and Penn Station in 2012, officials prioritized the construction of East Side Access so that LIRR trains could be diverted to Grand Central, allowing the East River Tunnels to be renovated.[12]

Manhattan sideEdit

 
A tunnel cavern deep under Park Avenue, to the north of the new LIRR station, which will house a switch

Work on the Manhattan side included building a new 8-track train station with storage tracks extending to 38th Street.[46]: 1 (PDF p. 2) [29]: 3  North of the station, the tunnels would connect to the 63rd Street Tunnel's lower level.[46]: 1 (PDF p. 2) [29]: 2  The new station would be housed in two gigantic caverns blasted out of the Manhattan schist rock formation under the station.[47][46]: 3 (PDF p. 4)  A three-level structure was being built in each cavern, with one 1,020-foot-long (310 m) train platform and two tracks each on the top and bottom levels. A passenger concourse was being constructed between each cavern's upper and lower levels.[29]: 3 [11] An upper-level concourse, accessed by a series of stairs, elevators, and escalators,[48] would replace ten tracks on the west side of Metro-North's Madison Yard.[49]: 3  The cavern structure is located under the Park Avenue Viaduct, which surrounds Grand Central Terminal, while the storage tracks are located under the Park Avenue Tunnel, which is located south of Grand Central Terminal.[46]: 6 (PDF p. 7) 

 
Construction of the station's upper concourse in the Grand Central Terminal's Madison Yard in May 2014. Two of the yard's tracks were kept in service during construction to bring in equipment and remove debris.
 
Concept art for the 50th Street Commons pocket park

The track connections from the new station to the 63rd Street Tunnel were excavated using tunnel boring machines.[50] The first machine was delivered in May 2007.[27] Dragados/Judlau created a launch chamber for the tunnel boring machines under Second Avenue at 63rd Street in Manhattan using a controlled drill-and-blast method, then assembled and launched each 640-ton machine.[51] The first tunnel boring machine was launched westbound then southbound from the 63rd Street Tunnel in September 2007, and it reached Grand Central Terminal in July 2008.[52] The second machine began boring a parallel tunnel in December 2007 and had completed its tunnel at 37th Street on September 30, 2008.[51][53] Geocomp Corporation was hired to monitor the boring, using a battery of instruments to record vibration, ground settlement and any tilting or drift suffered by the tunnel boring machines. The instruments include inclinometers, extensometers, seismographs, observation wells, dynamic strain gauges, tilt meters and automated motorized total stations with prismatic targets.[54] The tunnel boring machines bored an average of 50 feet (15 meters) per day. Cross-connections between the tunnels were created under Park Avenue, between 49th and 51st Streets, by controlled drill-and-blast. The work began in mid-July 2008 and required between six and eight months to complete.[52]

In April 2008, the MTA awarded Dragados/Judlau another contract. The $506 million contract was for excavating caverns for the three-level platform structures, mezzanine, escalators, passageways, and track crossovers.[45]: 12  The MTA gave Gramercy Group Inc. the $38.9 million contract to reconfigure part of Madison Yard in March 2009.[45]: 14  In September 2009, the MTA awarded Yonkers Contracting Company a $40.8 million contract to demolish a building at 47 East 44th Street and construct a ventilation plant & concourse entrance on the building site, along with constructing a station entrance at an existing office tower at 245 Park Avenue (at East 46th Street).[45]: 16  Smaller contracts for electrical installations and structural repairs were also awarded in 2008.[45]: 16, 18  In 2010, the New York City Business Integrity Commission found that a subcontractor for the East Side Access project was involved with an organized crime family. The subcontractor, who had been hired to haul away the dirt from the excavation process, was replaced.[55]

In July 2011, after the tunnel boring machines finished drilling through the Grand Central station box, they were left in place under 38th Street and Park Avenue, as it was more economical than disassembling them in Queens and selling them for scrap, which could have added $9 million to the project's final cost.[56] The next step in construction was to make cast-in-place concrete sections to create the tunnel lining.[57] Each tunnel was 22 feet (7 meters) in diameter, with an average depth of 140 feet (43 m) beneath street level.[58]

In September 2014, the MTA opened a 2,400-square-foot (220 m2) pocket park, at 48 East 50th Street between Madison and Park Avenues, created along with a $97 million ventilation facility at that location. The pocket park, known as 50th Street Commons, has a capacity of 100 people standing, or 40 people sitting down.[59] The park, containing abundant greenery along a granite backdrop with tables and chairs,[60] was meant to reduce noise pollution from the ventilation facility, which also served as an emergency exit.[61][62]

 
Tracks being laid in the 63rd Street Tunnel

On October 26, 2015, a 1,920-square-foot (178 m2) seating area in Grand Central Terminal's lower-level dining concourse was closed in order to build structural framework that would allow for the construction of stairways and escalators between the concourse and new LIRR station. This was deemed a major milestone in the construction of East Side Access by Dr. Michael Horodniceanu, President of MTA Capital Construction.[63] On November 10, 2015, a groundbreaking ceremony was held to celebrate the emergence of the project into Grand Central Terminal.[64]

On January 27, 2016, the final major contract for the construction of East Side Access was awarded to Tutor Perini Corporation. The contract was for the construction of four railroad platforms and eight tracks for the new Grand Central Terminal.[65] The first tracks inside the 63rd Street Tunnel were laid in September 2017.[66] The pre-cast platforms inside Grand Central Terminal were completed in May 2018, followed by the completion of the tracks in August 2018. The MTA also started installing escalators between the lower concourse and the platform mezzanine. Beginning in April 2018, the MTA began conducting site tours of the project; it had given 35 tours by September 2018.[67]: 26  In advance of the planned deconstruction of 270 Park Avenue above East Side Access,[68] the MTA and 270 Park Avenue's owner JPMorgan Chase signed an agreement in July 2019, in which JPMorgan agreed to ensure that the deconstruction of 270 Park Avenue would not disrupt the timeline of East Side Access.[69]: 22 

Queens sideEdit

 
Construction site in Queens, nicknamed the "Q-tip," where tunnels under the Sunnyside Yard were launched and the connection under Northern Boulevard to the 63rd Street Tunnel was made

Previous work extending subway service through the upper level of the 63rd Street Tunnel to lines in Queens also extended the lower level to a point west of Northern Boulevard, across from the Sunnyside Yard.[70] Work in Queens included extending the tunnel under Northern Boulevard and boring four tunnels under Sunnyside Yard. This was a particularly delicate and expensive task due to the existence of the elevated BMT Astoria Line and the underground IND Queens Boulevard Line directly above. In addition, the existing tunnel bell mouth west of Northern Boulevard was expanded to serve as the staging area for the Manhattan work, bringing in workers, equipmen,t and supplies, and bringing out the muck and debris from excavation.[71][72] A temporary narrow-gauge railway and a conveyor belt system were constructed behind the tunnel boring machines and through the 63rd Street Tunnels to the Queens bell mouth.[57] Due to its shape, the Queens work site was nicknamed the "Q-tip".[73]

Pile Foundation Construction Company built an $83 million cut structure, which extends the tracks under Northern Boulevard into the Sunnyside Yard. It created an area that served as both the launch chamber for soft-bore Queens tunnels, connecting the 63rd Street line to the main LIRR branches, and an interlocking and emergency exit and venting facility. The cut was then covered with a deck.[74] In August 2009, Perini Corp. was awarded a $144 million contract to reconfigure the Harold Interlocking, increasing its capacity to accommodate trains bound for Grand Central Terminal and to construct new yard lead tracks to allow trains to enter the storage yards.[45]: 24  Smaller contracts for structural work, environmental monitoring, and data measurement were also awarded.[45]: 21–23  Some Amtrak buildings in Sunnyside Yard were demolished to make room for the East Side Access portals in Queens.[45]: 24 

In September 2009, the MTA awarded Granite-Traylor-Frontiere Joint Venture a $659.2 million contract to employ two 500-ton slurry tunnel boring machines to create the tunnels connecting the LIRR Main Line and the Port Washington Branch to the 63rd Street Tunnel under 41st Avenue.[45]: 23 [75] The four tunnels, with precast concrete liners, total 2 miles (3.2 km) in length.[76] The contract included a $58 million option to dig three tunnel pits and three emergency shafts, as well as complete an open cut.[45]: 23 [75] The two custom-built slurry TBMs, which could dig through several types of earth, were the first such machines to be used in the New York City area.[75]

The two tunnel boring machines began digging on the Queens side in April 2011.[77] On December 22, 2011, breakthrough was achieved in Tunnel "A" of the four Queens tunnel drives from the 63rd Street Tunnel bellmouth.[72] By July 25, 2012, all four Queens tunnel drives were complete.[50] In April 2014, contracts were awarded for the final modifications for the tunnels, as well as for communication systems.[78]

 
Rail laying for the Amtrak westbound bypass tunnel in Queens

The scope of the project within Queens also included the construction of two bypass tunnels for Amtrak trains within Harold Interlocking. While eastbound Amtrak trains to New England would be able to go through the interlocking without crossing the paths of East Side Access trains, westbound Amtrak trains to Penn Station would use tracks that intersected East Side Access tracks. East Side Access trains to Grand Central came from the east and would diverge to the northwest while Amtrak trains to Penn Station came from the north and would continue west, so the final environmental impact statement called for a bypass for westbound trains.[79] Around $295 million was allocated for the bypass in 2011,[80][81] and work on this project started in 2013.[82] However, by October 2015, the tunnels were behind schedule because Amtrak and the MTA could not cooperate on track access schedules.[83] These delays ultimately raised construction costs by almost $1 billion as of April 2018,[84] and in a report that month, the MTA attributed the delays to a lack of cooperation on Amtrak's part.[85]: 27–31  The work at Harold Interlocking also included the installation of a microprocessor-based signal system, replacing the old track circuit-based signal system.[86][87]

In July 2018, workers started realigning tracks to make way for the construction of the Queens tunnel portal, which was the final major contract not underway at the time.[88] The realignment of the three westbound Main Line and Port Washington Branch tracks, as well as the construction of a new eastbound Main Line track to replace an existing track, were completed by the end of summer 2018.[67]: 26  The last major construction contract, a $60 million contract for the relocation of tracks in Harold Interlocking and the construction of a tunnel portal structure for Tunnel B/C, was awarded to Skanska in October 2018.[89][90] Work on the tunnel structure was expected to begin in mid-2019 and be complete by mid-2021.[91][92] Work on the Midday Storage Yard also progressed, and by 2019, tracks were being laid in the storage yard.[69]: 14–18, 23  By May 2021, the yard was 99 percent complete.[93]: 9 

Final workEdit

By May 2021, finishes were being placed in the station; the third rail, signals, and other right-of-way equipment were being tested.[93]: 9–10  On October 31, 2021, Governor Kathy Hochul rode the first passenger test train through the East Side Access tunnels to Grand Central Terminal.[94][95] In May 2022, MTA chairman Janno Lieber announced that the project was still on track for completion by the end of the year, and Hochul announced that the new station would be named "Grand Central Madison".[96] More extensive tests of operation and safety features (e.g., the positive train control system) are underway and are expected to be completed in September or October 2022.[97]

RouteEdit

 
Starting point for the four Queens tunnels under Sunnyside Yard. The top three tunnels (Tunnels A, B/C, and D, from left to right) will connect to the LIRR Main Line, while the bottom tunnel will connect to storage and maintenance tracks.

Extending between Sunnyside Yard in Queens and Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan, the East Side Access project is creating an LIRR branch from its Main Line through new track connections at Harold Interlocking within Sunnyside Yard, and through the lower level of the existing 63rd Street Tunnel under the East River. A storage yard adjacent to Sunnyside Yard is also being built, connecting to the 63rd Street Tunnel via a loop. In Manhattan new tunnels begin at the western end of the 63rd Street Tunnel at Second Avenue, curving south under Park Avenue and entering a new LIRR terminal beneath Grand Central.[98] Excluding storage tunnels, the project is about 2 miles (3.2 km) long, consisting of 5,500 ft (1,700 m) of new route in Queens, 8,600 ft (2,600 m) of preexisting route under the 63rd Street Tunnel, and 7,200 ft (2,200 m) of new route in Manhattan.[99]: 8 

On the Queens side, four tunnels merge into two tracks and enter the lower level of the 63rd Street Tunnel. Three of them (Tunnels A, B/C, and D) will connect to the busy Harold Interlocking, splitting off the Main Line. A fourth tunnel on a lower level will connect to the Midday Storage Yard.[72] The Midday Storage Yard, located to the northwest of the existing Sunnyside Yard, comprises 33 acres (13 ha) and will contain 24 storage tracks once completed.[100] Tutor Perini is constructing the $291 million yard just south of the existing Harold Interlocking.[101]

The line will then fan out into a bi-level station under Grand Central Terminal with eight tracks, four on each level.[11] South of the station, the four tracks on each level will merge into two 1,700-foot-long (520 m) storage tracks, with one in each cavern on each level. These storage tracks, which extend under Park Avenue south to 38th Street, will be able to store one 1,020-foot-long (310 m), 12-car train. The storage tracks were not part of the original proposal, as they were added in a 2008 modification to the plans for East Side Access.[102]

The project also includes the construction of several ventilation plants. One is located at 44th Street, near the Yale Club of New York City, while another is located at 50th Street east of Madison Avenue.[49]: 11 [103] Ventilation facilities are also located on Park Avenue at 38th Street and at 55th Street, as well as on 63rd Street at York Avenue and at 2nd Avenue.[103]

StationEdit

 
Lower-level platform of the new terminal under construction, January 2019

The new LIRR terminal at Grand Central, located 14 stories below ground, will have 350,000 square feet (33,000 m2) with four platforms and eight tracks, plus a new retail and dining concourse with 25 retail spaces. There will be two caverns containing one platform and two tracks on each of two levels; a mezzanine would be located between the two platform levels.[11][12] The LIRR terminal would initially be accessed via stairwells, 22 elevators, and 47 escalators connecting to the existing food court at the lower level of Grand Central. The number of elevators in this terminal would exceed the 19 escalators in the remainder of the LIRR system combined.[48]

The MTA originally planned to build and open additional entrances at 44th, 45th, 47th, and 48th Streets.[29]: 3 [57][104]: 5  The station would connect to existing entrances at Grand Central North. The new LIRR station would also contain entrances at 335 Madison Avenue, near the southeast corner with 44th Street; at 270 Park Avenue and 280 Park Avenue near 47th and 48th–49th Streets, respectively; and at 347 Madison Avenue, on the east side of the avenue at 45th Street. An entrance on 46th Street between Lexington and Park Avenue was also built, connecting with Grand Central North.[104]: 5–6  However, the MTA later announced its intent to defer construction of an entrance at 48th Street because the owner of 415 Madison Avenue wanted to undertake a major construction project on the site.[104]: 7  The MTA would also connect the new station to the existing 47th Street cross-passage.[29]: 3 [57] The escalators would be up to 180 feet (55 m) long and descend more than 90 feet (27 m). The escalators and elevators would be among the few privately operated escalators and elevators in the entire MTA system.[48]

Proposed service patternsEdit

Trains are expected to run 20 hours a day.[105] Plans call for 24 trains per hour to run to Grand Central during peak morning hours, with an estimated 162,000 passenger trips to and from Grand Central on an average weekday.[57][47][106] Bilevel rail cars, such as the LIRR's DM30AC and C3 fleet, would not be able to serve Grand Central because of low height clearances in the 63rd Street Tunnel.[107]: 10–11 [108] The project is likely to increase passenger loads on the already overcrowded IRT Lexington Avenue Line and on surface bus routes on the East Side. At the same time, the project will reduce the load on rush-hour E train service between Pennsylvania Station and Midtown East and 7 train service across the East River.[109]

On June 2, 2022, the MTA announced draft timetables for the proposed service pattern after East Side Access and related infrastructure projects were completed.[110][111] This is the first major overhaul of LIRR timetables in over 30 years.[96] LIRR president Catherine Rinaldi described these changes as "revolutionary", stating that "in one stroke, we are increasing service by 40%."[110] A virtual public meeting pertaining to service changes is scheduled for July 13, 2022,[110] and the final timetables (which may see further changes) are scheduled to be released in fall 2022.[111]

The draft timetables call for off-peak and reverse-peak service to be significantly increased on most branches. For example, there would be half-hourly off-peak service on the Main Line to and from Ronkonkoma and hourly off-peak service on the West Hempstead Branch. Additionally, the draft timetables would eliminate reverse-peak service gaps of over 90 minutes along the Main Line.[b][96][113] Most branches will also provide service to both Manhattan terminals, with a considerable increase in the total number of trains to and from Manhattan during peak hours.[110][113] The inconsistent service patterns of most branches will be restructured into simpler patterns with western and eastern zones.[114] The draft timetables call for more evenly spaced trains.[110][115]

Critical receptionEdit

These changes have met generally positive reception for introducing additional flexibility to peak commuters, especially those traveling to the East Side, and facilitating the development of job centers on Long Island for reverse commuters.[116] In the June 2022 MTA board meeting, chairman Janno Lieber described increased reverse peak service as having a "potential boom to Long Island's economy".[117]

Some proposed service changes were not well-received.[115][116] The proposed timetables have been criticized for greatly reducing the amount of through service to Atlantic Terminal and not sufficiently augmenting peak service,[110][115] with some stations even seeing a slight reduction in peak service.[c] Additionally, reconfiguration of the track layout of Jamaica station will require Brooklyn-bound riders to perform up-and-over transfers to a new Platform F; this has been criticized as being much less convenient than cross-platform transfers, especially for disabled customers.[117][118] Riders have also criticized the elimination of timed connections at Jamaica, which will no longer be built into the schedule; the MTA claims that this change will reduce delays and allow more trains to run.[d][96] Some have stated that poorly-timed connections, especially to and from Brooklyn shuttles,[119][120] could lengthen their daily commutes by over 20 minutes.[120] Diesel branches[e] are also not slated to see considerably increased service, as noted by one blogger.[114] Despite this backlash, Lieber urged customers to "give it a chance" and declared that the MTA was "making no apologies" for the proposed service plan.[117]

ControversiesEdit

Costs and construction delaysEdit

The project's estimated cost has increased from $3.5 billion when first proposed[121] to $4.3 billion in 1999,[121][122][123] $5.3 billion in 2003,[84] $6.3 billion in 2004,[121][122][84][124] $7.2 billion in 2008,[84][51] $8.4 billion in 2012,[121][122][125] and either $9.7 billion[84] or $10.8 billion in 2014.[109][121] By 2017, the projected cost was either $12 billion[126] or $10.2 billion,[2] making it the most expensive construction project of its type in the world by either measure.[2][126] The MTA budgeted a total of $10.178 billion to the project over five 5-year capital programs, up to and including the 2015–2019 capital program. Of these, 27% are federal funds and the other 73% are local funds. As of November 2017, the MTA had spent $7.397 billion of the available funding.[127]: 40  As of April 2018, the project was expected to cost $11.1 billion, an increase from a previous estimate of $10.2 billion.[2][84][128] The project had $10.3 billion in funding, which allowed construction to continue through 2020.[12] The state legislature had to approve an additional $798 million to allow construction to be completed, but this had not been approved by late 2019.[129]

 
West cavern, seen in January 2014
 
Cavern in January 2013

The completion date for the project has also been pushed back multiple times. Once planned to be operational by 2009 at a cost of $4.3 billion,[109] East Side Access was then rescheduled to open in 2017,[130] 2016,[131] 2018,[132] 2019,[124] September 2023,[133] and then either December 2023[134] or late 2023.[66] However, by April 2018, the MTA was looking to start passenger service in December 2022, at an estimated cost of $11.1 billion.[2][84][85]: 36  As of July 2020, the MTA had a "target revenue service" date of May 2022 (whereupon construction would be essentially complete), while the line was planned to open to the public in December 2022.[99]: 13  The timeline was only slightly delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City, although social distancing measures related to the pandemic could potentially delay the timeline more.[99]: 18 

In 2012, the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT)'s Inspector General announced that it wanted an audit done on the project, after the USDOT learned of the fourteen-year delay in the completion date and the more-than-100% cost increase.[135][125] In 2015, the USDOT's Deputy Principal Assistant Inspector General for Auditing and Evaluation, Joseph W. Come, testified before the United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform's Subcommittee on Transportation and Public Assets. Come said that several New York City transportation projects also experienced significant delays and cost overruns. This was due to a variety of factors, such as fraud, poor management, and a lack of oversight.[136]

The New York Times reported in 2017 that the project was slated to become the most expensive of its kind in the world. With an estimated cost of $12 billion, or approximately $3.5 billion per mile ($2.2 billion per kilometer) of new tunnel, the East Side Access tunnels were seven times as expensive as comparable railroad tunnels in other countries.[126][128] Over the years, the projected cost of East Side Access had risen by billions of dollars due to unnecessary expenses. Contractors for the MTA were paid more than those working in other cities, even though that provided no construction benefits. Planning for East Side Access cost upward of $2 billion, and planning for MTA projects in general also made up a more significant part of the cost than in other cities' projects. In addition, politicians and trade unions had forced the MTA to hire more workers than were needed. In 2010, an accountant had found that the project was hiring 200 extra workers, at a cost of $1,000 per worker per day, for no apparent reason.[126] The bidding process for MTA construction contracts also raised costs because, in some cases, only one or two contractors would bid on a project.[126][84] Similar construction projects in New York City, such as the Second Avenue Subway and 7 Subway Extension, had been more expensive than comparable projects elsewhere for the same reasons, even though other cities' transit systems faced similar, or greater, problems compared to the MTA.[126] Other delays were attributed to the fact that dozens of contracts, some of which conflicted with each other, were bid out separately. Cost increases also occurred due to changing the design while construction was underway; ordering components that were the wrong size; failing to cooperate with other transit agencies in Sunnyside Yard; and making infeasible construction-timeline estimates.[84]

In September 2018, in an effort to alleviate the high costs and shorten delays, the LIRR hired Arthur R. Troup, who previously worked in high-level positions at Atlanta's and Washington, D.C.'s rapid transit systems, as the new leader for the East Side Access project.[137][138]

Incidents and accidentsEdit

Several major accidents have occurred during construction, and as a result, East Side Access has been cited for numerous safety violations.[139] In late 2011, a construction worker died after a tunnel collapsed on him.[139][140] In October 2014, a contractor who was digging wells on the Queens side accidentally punctured the subway tunnel underneath, grazing an F train with passengers inside.[141][142]

Associated projectsEdit

Arch Street Yard and Shop FacilityEdit

 
The Arch Street Yard and Shop, which was built for East Side Access
 
Street entrance

The Arch Street Yard and Shop is located in Long Island City, near the Hunterspoint Avenue station.[143]: 249  The yard itself has been in use since at least 1910.[144] The Arch Street Facility includes tracks that were built on the right-of-way of the LIRR's former North Shore Branch. Although the branch formerly extended west to what is now the Gantry Plaza State Park on the East River shoreline,[143]: 252  the Arch Street Facility's storage tracks only extend as far as 11th Street, several blocks away from the river.[143]: 255 

The LIRR planned a maintenance facility in the yard as part of the East Side Access project.[145] The building was completed in either December 2004[146]: 4  or June 2005.[143]: 252  The $80.4 million facility was built using a mix of federal and non-federal funds.[146]: 4  The LIRR had built the Arch Street Facility in advance so it could test its then-new M7 cars. When the MTA planned the facility in 2002, it had anticipated that East Side Access would open in 2011 and that the Arch Street Shop could be used to maintain the LIRR fleet. It was thought that the Hillside Facility would not be able to maintain the expanded LIRR fleet on its own. However, after the East Side Access project was repeatedly delayed, the Arch Street Facility was ultimately leased and licensed for other uses.[146]: 5 

Just south of the Arch Street Yard, the Montauk Cutoff connected the Main Line to the Montauk Branch until it was decommissioned in 2015.[147] As part of East Side Access, a portion of the cutoff was demolished to make room for the Midday Storage Yard.[148][101]

New Sunnyside stationEdit

A new LIRR train station in Sunnyside on the west side of Queens Boulevard and Skillman Avenue[149][150]: 20–21  along the Northeast Corridor (which the LIRR uses to get into Pennsylvania Station) would be built, which would provide one-stop access for area residents to Midtown Manhattan.[151] The station would have two side platforms and one island platform, all of which would be able to accommodate 12-car trains.[150]: 20–21  In its 2015–2019 capital program, the MTA budgeted $76.5 million for the construction of the station.[152] Construction is scheduled to start in January 2021, and is expected to be completed in December 2022.[153]

Capacity increaseEdit

The East Side Access project, along with several readiness-improvement projects, will allow the LIRR to run 24 more twelve-car trains during rush hours. This will boost its rush-hour passenger capacity from 300,000 to 425,000 daily commuters, a 45% increase.[12]

Main Line third trackEdit

 
A bridge, built in October 2017 to accommodate a third track on the Main Line

Related to the MTA's East Side Access project is its long-planned widening of the two-track LIRR Main Line by adding a third track.[154][155] Completion of Main Line third track construction was assumed during East Side Access project planning and referenced in the original East Side Access environmental impact statement as necessary to support service level increases caused by adding service to and from Grand Central.[156] The MTA has said that it considers the Main Line third track an "essential" project to support East Side Access,[157] and that the Main Line third track will "complement the East Side Access megaproject, which is doubling the LIRR's capacity into Manhattan."[155]

Main Line third track construction was deferred indefinitely by the MTA in 2008 due to budget constraints.[154][158] In January 2016, Governor Cuomo and the MTA announced plans to restart construction of the Main Line third track.[154][155] In December 2017, the LIRR awarded a contract for the project to the consortium 3rd Track Constructors for $1.8 billion. Completion was estimated for 2022, in time for the opening of East Side Access.[159][160][161] A groundbreaking ceremony for the third track project was held on September 5, 2018.[162][163]

Readiness projectsEdit

Five "readiness projects" are also under construction across the LIRR system to handle the expanded peak-hour service planned when East Side Access opens. Together, they are expected to cost $495 million.[164][165][166]

The largest of these projects is at Jamaica station, where the MTA is re-configuring track layouts, installing high-speed switches, and adding a new Platform F for the Atlantic Branch.[167] The changes will allow the Atlantic Branch to function as a high-frequency shuttle service to Atlantic Terminal, and most trains from Long Island will proceed to either Long Island City station, Penn Station, or Grand Central via the Main Line.[168] The first phase of the project, including the new platform, was to be complete in the fourth quarter of 2019 at a cost of $301.6 million.[169]

Another project will add train storage capacity at two LIRR stations. A 1,700-foot (520 m) siding near Massapequa station on the Babylon Branch will be used to store trains that originate or terminate at the station, enabling more peak-hour service to and from Penn Station/Grand Central. It was originally planned for completion in April 2019,[166] though was delayed until June 2021.[170]: 57  The MTA is also extending Track 2 on the Port Washington Branch, which ends as a pocket track east of Great Neck station, eastward by 1,200 feet (370 m) so it can store two trainsets. Additionally, a new bridge was built at Colonial Road near the station; it opened in May 2016 and replaced a 114-year-old span.[171][172][173][174][175] The construction of the pocket track was originally scheduled for completion in December 2018 at a total cost of $45.2 million.[166] However, the completion date was pushed back several times,[176]: 60  and as of November 2021, the extended pocket track is expected to be ready for use in August 2022.[170]: 59 

Finally, the MTA planned to expand two yards. The MTA expanded the rail yard along the Main Line/Ronkonkoma Branch next to Ronkonkoma station, increasing the number of tracks in the yard from 12 to 23.[177] The project was budgeted for $128 million.[166][178] Construction started in July 2017[179] and the expanded yard went into service in late 2020.[170]: 62 [176]: 62  Additionally, the Port Washington Yard, next to Port Washington station on the Port Washington Branch, was planned to be expanded to store two more ten-car trains. As of 2017, construction was scheduled to begin in late 2020 or early 2021 at a cost of $500,000.[166][180] However, this project met significant community opposition, primarily because of proposed reduction of parking spaces near the station.[181] As of November 2021, the MTA has not come to an agreement with the Town of North Hempstead,[176]: 65  resulting in the project being postponed indefinitely.[170]: 61 

New railcarsEdit

 
M9 railcars, which are being purchased before the opening of East Side Access

The LIRR also plans to purchase new railcars—up to 160 M9 cars—to handle the increased passenger traffic expected when East Side Access opens. They are being paid for with federal grant money attached to the project.[182][12] As of June 2022, the delivery of M9s was almost three years behind schedule, reportedly due to supply chain issues and labor shortages. Only 132 of 202 cars in the base order have yet been delivered,[183][184] and the additional 160 M9As will not arrive before the opening of East Side Access.[185]: 35  The MTA thus plans to reintroduce some of the older M3 cars (which first entered service the mid-1980s) to provide the advertised additional service, until the remaining M9s for fleet expansion are delivered.[186]

Penn Station AccessEdit

Redirecting LIRR trains from Penn Station to Grand Central Terminal would free up tracks and platforms at Penn. This new capacity, as well as track connections resulting from the East Side Access project, would allow Metro-North Railroad trains on the New Haven Line to run to Penn Station via Amtrak's Hell Gate Bridge. Four new local Metro-North stations in the Bronx are planned as part of this project, at Co-op City, Morris Park, Parkchester, and Hunts Point. The MTA also proposes a second connection from the Metro-North's Hudson Line to Penn Station using Amtrak's West Side Line in Manhattan.[187] The Penn Station Access project would provide direct rides from Connecticut, Westchester County, the Lower Hudson Valley, and the Bronx to West Midtown; ease reverse-commuting from Manhattan and the Bronx to Westchester County, the Lower Hudson Valley, and Connecticut; and provide transportation service to areas of the Bronx without direct subway service.[188] In December 2021, it was announced that the project would be completed in 2027,[189] several years later than initially proposed.[190]

See alsoEdit

Route map:

KML is from Wikidata

NotesEdit

  1. ^ For the full FEIS, see:
    • "East Side Access Final Environmental Impact Statement: Overview". mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. March 6, 2001. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  2. ^ This includes the Main Line west of Hicksville and the Oyster Bay, Port Jefferson, and Ronkonkoma Branches. Prior to the opening of the third track, reverse-peak service is severely limited by the need to utilize both Main Line tracks in the peak direction during the busiest period of rush hour.[112]
  3. ^ This includes various stations on different branches,[114] as well as Penn Station, which will be served by 10 fewer AM peak trains.[110]
  4. ^ Until 2022, several trains going in the same direction have been scheduled to arrive at Jamaica at the same time, a system through which passengers had quick cross-platform transfers to reach their desired branch. Under the new system, connections will not be timed, requiring riders to wait an arbitrary amount of time for the next train to their destination.
  5. ^ The Oyster Bay Branch, Port Jefferson Branch east of Huntington, Montauk Branch east of Babylon, and Main Line east of Ronkonkoma

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Penner, Larry (May 27, 2021). "Digging deeper on the (very deep) East Side Access project". Empire Center for Public Policy. Archived from the original on August 8, 2022. Retrieved June 1, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e Siff, Andrew (April 16, 2018). "MTA Megaproject to Cost Almost $1B More Than Prior Estimate". NBC New York. Archived from the original on April 17, 2018. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Chapter 1: Purpose and Need". East Side Access Environmental Impact Statement (PDF). mta.info. MTA Capital Construction. March 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  4. ^ "Improvements That Are Planned for Subways" (PDF). The New York Times. March 24, 1954. Archived from the original on August 8, 2022. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
  5. ^ Bennett, Charles G. (May 25, 1963). "61st St. Tunnel to Queens Sped" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 1. Archived from the original on May 7, 2022. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  6. ^ Bennett, Charles G. (January 15, 1965). "63d Street Tube Approved By City; Hearing Heated" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 1. Archived from the original on May 7, 2022. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  7. ^ "L.I.R.R. Will Run In Queens Tunnel; 3d Track In 63d St. Tube To Provide East Side Outlet" (PDF). The New York Times. April 28, 1966. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 7, 2022. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  8. ^ "Tunnel From Queens to 63d St. To Have 4 Tracks Instead of 3" (PDF). The New York Times. August 12, 1966. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 7, 2022. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  9. ^ a b "Full text of "Metropolitan transportation, a program for action. Report to Nelson A. Rockefeller, Governor of New York."". Internet Archive. November 7, 1967. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
  10. ^ a b * Bennett, Charles G. (February 29, 1968). "Transportation Funding Would Have 4 Sources; Plan's Financing Would Be Varied" (PDF). The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 7, 2022. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  11. ^ a b c d Dobnik, Verena (November 4, 2015). "Massive East Side Access Project Rolling On Under Grand Central". nbcnewyork.com. Archived from the original on December 1, 2019. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  12. ^ a b c d e f "East Side Access transforming the LIRR". Herald Community Newspapers. August 21, 2018. Archived from the original on August 13, 2021. Retrieved September 23, 2018.
  13. ^ "Harbor Welcome Is Given Tube for Queens Subway". The New York Times. May 19, 1971. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  14. ^ Prial, Frank J. (August 30, 1971). "First Section of 63d St. Tunnel Lowered to Bottom of East River". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved December 25, 2016 – via The New York Times Archive.
  15. ^ Prial, Frank J. (March 14, 1972). "City's First Subway Tunnel in 40 Years Cut Through". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  16. ^ "To Break Ground For 63rd St., East River Tunnel" (PDF). New York Leader-Observer. November 20, 1969. p. 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 16, 2018. Retrieved July 29, 2016 – via Fultonhistory.com.
  17. ^ "Governor Rockefeller and Mayor Lindsay Attend 'Holing Through' of 63d St. Tunnel". The New York Times. October 11, 1972. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  18. ^ a b Tolchin, Martin (June 7, 1973). "Grand Central Is Favored Over a 3d Ave. Terminal". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on September 28, 2017. Retrieved December 25, 2016 – via The New York Times Archive.
  19. ^ a b Prial, Frank J. (July 8, 1973). "Turtle Bay Residents, Fighting M .T .A. Rail Plan, Heartened by Killing of Proposed Bridge Over Sound". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on September 28, 2017. Retrieved December 25, 2016 – via The New York Times Archive.
  20. ^ Tolchin, Martin (June 15, 1973). "A 3d Ave Rail Terminal Foreseen by U.S. Official". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 28, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
  21. ^ Burks, Edward C. (1975). "L.I.R.R. Terminal Delayed by M.T.A." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 5, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  22. ^ "GRAND CENTRAL GETS VOTE AS L.I.R.R. SITE". The New York Times. July 9, 1977. Archived from the original on December 25, 2018. Retrieved December 24, 2018.
  23. ^ a b c d Andelman, David A. (October 11, 1980). "Tunnel Project, Five Years Old, Won't Be Used". The New York Times. p. 25. Archived from the original on July 22, 2018. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  24. ^ Lorch, Donatella (October 29, 1989). "The 'Subway to Nowhere' Now Goes Somewhere". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 18, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  25. ^ "About NYC Transit: History". October 19, 2002. Archived from the original on October 19, 2002. Retrieved September 18, 2016.
  26. ^ Silano, Louis G.; Shanbhag, Radmas (July 2000). "The Final Connection". Civil Engineering. Vol. 86, no. 7. pp. 56–61.
  27. ^ a b c d Neuman, William (May 11, 2007). "Awaiting Rock-Eating Beast, L.I.R.R. Tunnel Is Poised to Finish Trip to Grand Central". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 4, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  28. ^ Kershaw, Sarah (December 17, 2001). "V Train Begins Service Today, Giving Queens Commuters Another Option". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 7, 2017. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Appendix B: Upper Level Loop Analysis". East Side Access Modification to Environmental Impact Statement (PDF). mta.info. MTA Capital Construction. April 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 25, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  30. ^ Perez-Pena, Richard (February 16, 1997). "Proposed L.I.R.R. Link To Grand Central Gains". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  31. ^ Lueck, Thomas J. (September 26, 1999). "M.T.A. to Propose Spending Billions on Rail Expansion". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  32. ^ a b c Record of Decisions (PDF). mta.info. United States Department of Transportation; Federal Transit Administration; Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 21, 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 20, 2017. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  33. ^ Ain, Stewart (December 23, 2001). "Pushing to Speed Up East Side Rail Link". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 4, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  34. ^ Luo, Michael (November 26, 2003). "Weighing Transit Possibilities, New Study Follows the Money". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 4, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  35. ^ Associated Press (February 4, 2002). "NY received $132 million under bin" (PDF). Salamanca Press. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 7, 2022. Retrieved July 29, 2016 – via Fultonhistory.com.
  36. ^ Urbina, Ian (November 20, 2004). "Plan to Connect L.I.R.R. to Grand Central Hits Snag". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  37. ^ Yates, Maura (February 10, 2005). "East Side Access Draws Opponents". The New York Sun. Archived from the original on October 31, 2010. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
  38. ^ Chan, Sewell (March 30, 2005). "M.T.A. Continues to Favor Plan for a Midtown Ventilation Tower". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  39. ^ Chan, Sewell (December 7, 2005). "M.T.A. Scales Back Midtown Ventilation Project". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  40. ^ Chan, Sewell (October 25, 2005). "Stakes High for M.T.A. and City in Vote on $2.9 Billion Bond Act". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 4, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  41. ^ "General Election: Proposal Number Two: A Proposition 'Rebuild And Renew New York Transportation Bond Act Of 2005'" (PDF). New York State Board of Elections. November 8, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 3, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  42. ^ "U.S. Transportation Secretary Signs Record $2.6 Billion Agreement To Fund New Tunnel Network To Give Long Island Commuters Direct Access to Grand Central Station" (Press release). U.S. Department of Transportation. December 18, 2006. Archived from the original on January 3, 2007. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  43. ^ L.I.R.R. Access to Grand Central. The New York Times (video). October 1, 2006. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  44. ^ a b Cuza, Bobby (July 12, 2006). "MTA Takes Major Step Towards Completing East Side Access Plan". NY1.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "East Side Access Quarterly Report Q3 2009" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. September 2009. p. 16. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 27, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  46. ^ a b c d Sarkar, Subal; Mukherjee, Amitabha; Benslimane, Aomar (2004). "Rock Tunnelling with TBMs on the East Side Access Project a New Perspective". International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering. Vol. 13. Missouri University of Science and Technology. Archived from the original on February 4, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  47. ^ a b Harshbarger, Rebecca (November 4, 2015). "350-million-year-old rock pulverized for new rail tunnels". am New York. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  48. ^ a b c Mann, Ted (April 26, 2012). "MTA Focuses on Ups, Downs". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on January 10, 2021. Retrieved August 5, 2016.
  49. ^ a b "Chapter 1: Purpose and Need". East Side Access Modification to Environmental Impact Statement (PDF). mta.info. MTA Capital Construction. April 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  50. ^ a b "MTA Completes Tunnel Boring On East Side Access". CBS New York. July 26, 2012. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  51. ^ a b c Neuman, William (July 18, 2008). "A 640-Ton Machine Drills a Long Island Rail Road Tunnel to Grand Central". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  52. ^ a b "East Side Access Tunnel Boring Machine Reaches Grand Central Terminal" (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 2, 2008. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
  53. ^ "MTA ESA Progress Map" Archived April 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved October 9, 2008.
  54. ^ "Geocomp Corporation Brochure" Archived February 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine (PDF). Geocomp Corporation.
  55. ^ Rashbaum, William K. (May 19, 2010). "M.T.A. Tunnel Job Loses Dirt Hauler Over Mob Ties". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 5, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  56. ^ Grynbaum, Michael M. (July 24, 2011). "Deep Below Park Avenue, a 200-Ton Drill at Rest". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 20, 2017. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  57. ^ a b c d e Ocean, Justin (November 4, 2015). "Inside the Massive New Rail Tunnels Beneath NYC's Grand Central". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on February 4, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  58. ^ "MANHATTAN TUNNELS EXCAVATION" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 8, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
  59. ^ "50th Street Commons Pocket Park Opens as Part of East Side Access". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. September 16, 2014. Archived from the original on September 19, 2014. Retrieved September 16, 2014.
  60. ^ "MTA opens "pocket park" on 50th Street". Newsday. Archived from the original on September 17, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
  61. ^ "MTA Inaugurates New Pocket Park 'Oasis' in Midtown New York". Inhabitat New York City. September 17, 2014. Archived from the original on September 19, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
  62. ^ "Photos: MTA Opens Adorable "Pocket Park" On East 50th Street: Gothamist". Gothamist. Archived from the original on September 19, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
  63. ^ "MTA | news | Milestone for East Side Access: Workers to Break Through Lower Level Floor To Build Housing for Escalators and Stairways to Future LIRR Concourse". www.mta.info. Archived from the original on February 24, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  64. ^ "Long Island Committee Meeting December 2015" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 14, 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 25, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  65. ^ "MTA OK's contract for East Side Access". TimesLedger. Archived from the original on February 14, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  66. ^ a b "MTA starts laying track for long-awaited East Side access for LIRR commuters". Spectrum News NY1. September 25, 2017. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  67. ^ a b "Capital Program Oversight Committee Meeting - September 2018" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. September 24, 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 23, 2018. Retrieved September 23, 2018.
  68. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (February 21, 2018). "Out With the Old Building, in With the New for JPMorgan Chase". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 9, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  69. ^ a b "Capital Program Oversight Committee Meeting" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 22, 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 19, 2019. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  70. ^ Final Environmental Impact Statement for the 63rd Street Line Connection to the Queens Boulevard Line. Queens, New York, New York: Metropolitan Transportation Authority, United States Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration. June 1992. Archived from the original on June 18, 2017. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  71. ^ Nasri, V.; Lee, W.S.; Rice, J. (2004). "Comparison of the predicted behavior of the Manhattan TBM launch shaft with the observed data, East Side Access Project, New York". North American Tunneling. Taylor & Francis. pp. 537–544. ISBN 9781439833759. Archived from the original on May 22, 2020. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  72. ^ a b c Metropolitan Transportation Authority. East Side Access 1/24/2012 Update. Archived from the original on April 10, 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2012 – via YouTube.
  73. ^ "Risk Assessment Overview: ESA Queens Tunneling Program" (PDF). mta.info. MTA Capital Construction. September 26, 2011. p. 11. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 7, 2016. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  74. ^ "New York's Subway System Finally Starting Major Expansion" Archived May 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. newyork.construction.com. May 2006 issue.
  75. ^ a b c "East Side Access - Queens Bored Tunnels & Structures". Engineering News-Record. June 1, 2010. Archived from the original on July 12, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  76. ^ "Granite/Traylor/Frontier-Kemper Venture Awarded $659 Million for Queens Bored Tunnels and Structures". Construction Equipment. September 30, 2009. Archived from the original on December 25, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
  77. ^ "MTA Officials Dedicate Tunnel-Boring Machines". NY1. March 18, 2011. Archived from the original on August 25, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
  78. ^ Castillo, Alfonso (April 16, 2014). "MTA: Two key East Side Access contracts awarded". Newspaper. Newsday. Archived from the original on April 22, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
  79. ^ "28". East Side Access in New York, Queens, and Bronx Counties, New York, and Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York: Environmental Impact Statement (PDF). mta.info. MTA Capital Construction. March 2001. p. 47. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  80. ^ Colvin, Jill (May 9, 2011). "New York Awarded $350 Million for High-Speed Rail Projects". DNAinfo.com. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
  81. ^ "New York Gets $354.4 Million For High-Speed Rail Projects". CBS New York. May 9, 2011. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  82. ^ "East Side Access trackwork to speed LIRR and Amtrak trains". Railway Track & Structures. July 18, 2013. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  83. ^ Castillo, Alfonso A. (October 3, 2015). "MTA 'megaproject' challenged by Amtrak". Newsday. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  84. ^ a b c d e f g h i Castillo, Alfonso A. (April 15, 2018). "East Side Access price tag now stands at $11.2B". Newsday. Archived from the original on April 15, 2018. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  85. ^ a b "Capital Program Oversight Committee Meeting" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. April 23, 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  86. ^ Castillo, Alfonso A. (March 1, 2018). "MTA: Another snag for East Side Access project". Newsday. Archived from the original on April 16, 2018. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  87. ^ "LIRR to test upgraded signal system for East Side Access project. For Railroad Career Professionals". Progressive Railroading. April 5, 2018. Archived from the original on April 16, 2018. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  88. ^ "LIRR relocates tracks for Grand Central tunnel". Newsday. July 19, 2018. Archived from the original on September 23, 2018. Retrieved September 23, 2018.
  89. ^ "Press Release - MTA Headquarters - MTA Awards Final Major Construction Contract for East Side Access". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 31, 2018. Archived from the original on November 6, 2018. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  90. ^ "EAST SIDE ACCESS: Bringing Long Island Rail Road Service to the East Side of Manhattan LIRR Committee Report" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. November 13, 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 24, 2019. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  91. ^ "Skanska Awarded Final Heavy Civil Contract for East Side Access". Tunnel Business Magazine. January 10, 2019. Archived from the original on January 12, 2019. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  92. ^ Walker, Ameena (January 11, 2019). "New $60M contract will bring delayed East Side Access closer to completion". Curbed NY. Archived from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  93. ^ a b "Capital Program Oversight Committee Meeting May 2021". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 26, 2021. Archived from the original on May 26, 2021. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  94. ^ Duggan, Kevin. "Test run: Hochul takes first LIRR ride to Grand Central a year ahead of East Side Access completion | amNewYork". www.amny.com. Archived from the original on November 1, 2021. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  95. ^ Fan, Christina (October 31, 2021). "East Side Access One Step Closer For Long Islanders As MTA Unveils 350,000 Square-Foot Terminal At Grand Central". CBS New York – Breaking News, Sports, Weather, Traffic And The Best of NY. Archived from the original on November 1, 2021. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  96. ^ a b c d "Governor Hochul Announces New Long Island Rail Road Terminal in Midtown Manhattan Will Be Named Grand Central Madison". governor.ny.gov. May 31, 2022. Archived from the original on June 3, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  97. ^ Stabile, Tom (May 11, 2022). "MTA Chugs Toward Finish Line In East Side Access Marathon". Engineering News-Record. Archived from the original on August 8, 2022. Retrieved July 12, 2022.
  98. ^ "Capital Programs East Side Access". web.mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  99. ^ a b c "Capital Program Oversight Committee Meeting". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 22, 2020. Archived from the original on July 21, 2020. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  100. ^ "East Side Access Newsletter" (PDF). nyc.gov. Winter 2018. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  101. ^ a b Lancaster, Maggie (May 2, 2017). "MTA awards Tutor Perini $291.5-million contract for the Mid-Day Storage Yard project". Railway Track and Structures. Archived from the original on May 2, 2017. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  102. ^ "MTA LIRR East Side Access Technical Memorandum Assessing Design Refinement: Tail Tracks Ventilation Plenum and Grate" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. February 2008. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 22, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  103. ^ a b "MTA awards contract for LIRR-Grand Central tunnel ventilation facility". New York Post. September 24, 2012. Archived from the original on February 4, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  104. ^ a b c "MTA LIRR East Side Access Environmental Re-Evaluation Consultation Form Review" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 4, 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 7, 2019. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  105. ^ "City Terminal Zone This pamphlet shows the proposed December 2022 schedule at the following stations". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on June 23, 2022. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  106. ^ "ESA Facts & Figures" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. November 2, 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  107. ^ "Chapter 28: Comments and Responses on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement". East Side Access Environmental Impact Statement (PDF). mta.info. MTA Capital Construction. March 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  108. ^ Penner, Larry (January 6, 2020). "The Real Co$ts of LIRR East Side Access to Grand Central Terminal". Long Island Weekly. Archived from the original on July 9, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  109. ^ a b c Donohue, Pete (January 27, 2014). "MTA walks back targets on East Side Access yet again, completion now not expected until 2023". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on March 5, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
  110. ^ a b c d e f g Castillo, Alfonso A. (June 3, 2022). "LIRR's issues Grand Central Madison draft timetables, with some critics". Newsday. Archived from the original on June 12, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  111. ^ a b "LIRR to Grand Central: Draft Schedules". mta.info. June 2, 2022. Archived from the original on June 11, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  112. ^ "Project Benefits". amodernli.com. Archived from the original on July 27, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  113. ^ a b Hoogensen, Finn (June 2, 2022). "Grand Central Madison: LIRR releases draft timetables for new terminal". PIX 11. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  114. ^ a b c "East Side Access service plan proposes measly peak service increases". thelirrtoday.com. June 9, 2022. Archived from the original on June 9, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  115. ^ a b c Geberer, Ranaan (June 6, 2022). "LIRR's new Manhattan terminal means more trains from Brooklyn, but most will be Jamaica shuttles". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Archived from the original on June 14, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  116. ^ a b Genn, Adina (June 7, 2022). "East Side Access touted as economic game changer for LI". Long Island Business News. Archived from the original on June 9, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  117. ^ a b c Castillo, Alfonso A. (June 29, 2022). "MTA chairman making no 'apologies' for East Side Access plan". Newsday. Archived from the original on June 29, 2022. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  118. ^ "PCAC Press Release on LIRR East Side Access Proposed Service Plans: Calls For More Public Meetings and Participation Opportunities for Commuters" (Press release). Permanent Citizens Advisory Committee to the MTA. June 21, 2022. Archived from the original on July 14, 2022. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  119. ^ Castillo, Alfonso A. (May 25, 2019). "New amenitites coming to Jamaica station, but it might be bad marriage for Brooklyn". Newsday. Archived from the original on June 14, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  120. ^ a b Castillo, Alfonso A. (June 18, 2022). "LIRR commuters not pleased with proposed changes". Newsday. Archived from the original on June 18, 2022. Retrieved June 18, 2022.
  121. ^ a b c d e Penner, Larry (February 26, 2016). "East Side Access wastes time and money". TimesLedger. Archived from the original on February 5, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  122. ^ a b c Hawkins, Andrew J. (November 5, 2015). "Inside New York City's East Side Access, the biggest transportation project in America". The Verge. Archived from the original on February 4, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  123. ^ "East Side Access wastes time and money". TimesLedger. Archived from the original on February 5, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  124. ^ a b Taylor, Alan (February 22, 2013). "The Tunnels of NYC's East Side Access Project". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on January 6, 2015. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  125. ^ a b Moynihan, Colin (May 21, 2012). "L.I.R.R. East Side Access Plan to Need More Time and Money". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 5, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  126. ^ a b c d e f Rosenthal, Brian M. (December 28, 2017). "The Most Expensive Mile of Subway Track on Earth". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 29, 2017. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  127. ^ "Metro-North Railroad and Long Island Rail Road Committee Meeting" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 11, 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 5, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  128. ^ a b "As Cost of Train Link Passes $11 Billion, M.T.A.'s Credibility Shrinks". The New York Times. April 25, 2018. Archived from the original on October 4, 2018. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
  129. ^ Guse, Clayton (September 19, 2019). "MTA seeks another $798 million to finish East Side Access project long plagued by delays and rising costs". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on July 21, 2020. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  130. ^ Donohue, Pete (July 21, 2009). "Second Avenue Subway Setback: New Hurdles Will Likely Push Phase One Completion from 2015 to 2017". Daily News. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
  131. ^ Redwine, Tina (July 7, 2011). "NY1 Exclusive: East Side LIRR Terminal under Construction for 2016". NY1. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2011.
  132. ^ Shutack, Jackie. LIRR-Grand Central Tunnel Project Delayed until 2018. FiOS1. Archived from the original on July 9, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2012 – via YouTube.
  133. ^ Castillo, Alfonso A. (January 27, 2014). "East Side Access completion date extended – again". Newsday. Archived from the original on March 21, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2014. The MTA's monumental East Side Access project to link the Long Island Rail Road to Grand Central Terminal could carry a price tag $2.6 billion over budget and not be completed until 2023, four years behind schedule, according to a new report.
  134. ^ "MTA and LIRR East Side Access cost and schedule continue to change". Metro US. August 10, 2017. Archived from the original on February 4, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  135. ^ Redwine, Tina (May 21, 2012). "Feds Audit East Side Access Project as MTA Stands by New Completion Date". NY1. Archived from the original on May 23, 2012. Retrieved May 24, 2012.
  136. ^ Come, Joseph W. (June 8, 2015). "Oversight of Major Transportation Projects: Opportunities To Apply Lessons Learned" (PDF). United States Department of Transportation. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 12, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  137. ^ Castillo, Alfonso A. (September 25, 2018). "New boss tagged for LIRR East Side Access project". Newsday. Archived from the original on September 27, 2018. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  138. ^ "MTA taps Troup for ESA". Railway Age. September 25, 2018. Archived from the original on September 27, 2018. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  139. ^ a b Kates, Brian (November 18, 2011). "Young sandhog dies in tunnel collapse". NY Daily News. Archived from the original on February 4, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  140. ^ Grynbaum, Michael M.; Haughney, Christine (November 19, 2011). "Sandhog Killed in Railroad Tunnel Accident". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  141. ^ "MTA battling 'stupidity' on the East Side Access project". ABC7 New York. November 18, 2014. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  142. ^ Donohue, Pete; Rosenberg, Eli; Otis, Ginger Adams (October 30, 2014). "Drill bit blunder in MTA's East Side Access project nearly cuts into occupied F train in Queens". nydailynews.com. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  143. ^ a b c d "Transit and Railroad Yards: Queens". Inventory of Decking Opportunities Over Transportation Properties (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. September 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 28, 2017. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  144. ^ Correal, Annie (December 6, 2015). "In Long Island City, Now Arriving in No Man's Land". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  145. ^ "Chapter 17: Construction and Construction Management". East Side Access Environmental Impact Statement (PDF). mta.info. MTA Capital Construction. March 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  146. ^ a b c DiNapoli, Thomas P. (December 2017). "Utilization of the Arch Street Yard and Shop Facility" (PDF). New York State Office of the State Comptroller. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  147. ^ Kensinger, Nathan (December 3, 2015). "In Long Island City, a Community Seeks to Reclaim an Urban Wilderness". Curbed NY. Archived from the original on February 7, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  148. ^ "Capital Program Oversight Committee Meeting" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. April 17, 2017. pp. 65–66. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  149. ^ "East Side Access". Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  150. ^ a b "Chapter 2: Project Alternatives". East Side Access Environmental Impact Statement (PDF). mta.info. MTA Capital Construction. March 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  151. ^ Vandam, Jeff (February 4, 2007). "An Enclave at Once Snug and Inclusive". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 11, 2011. Retrieved February 14, 2008. When the Long Island Rail Road's East Side Access project is completed in 2013, its trains, too, will go to Grand Central. Sunnyside's new station in the system will create a nonstop commute to Midtown.
  152. ^ "MTA Capital Program 2015–2019" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 31, 2017. p. 164. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 10, 2021. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  153. ^ "ESA RI: Sunnyside Station". mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on September 7, 2017. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  154. ^ a b c Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (January 5, 2016). "Cuomo Revives Long-Stalled Plan to Add Track to L.I.R.R." The New York Times. p. A18. Archived from the original on January 7, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  155. ^ a b c "LIRR Main Line Expansion Will Ease Commuting and Attract Businesses and Jobs" (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. January 5, 2016. Archived from the original on January 19, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  156. ^ 2013 Long Island Index Special Analysis: How the Long Island Rail Road Could Shape the Next Economy (PDF) (Report). 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 22, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  157. ^ "Main Line Corridor Improvements Project Presentation" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 25, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  158. ^ Nardiello, Carolyn (September 16, 2008). "Third-Track Plan Isn't Dead, L.I.R.R. Insists". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 19, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  159. ^ Berger, Paul (December 13, 2017). "MTA Awards $1.8 Billion Contract to Expand Long Island Rail Road". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on January 25, 2018. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  160. ^ Castillo, Alfonso A. (December 13, 2017). "MTA approves $1.9B contract to design, build LIRR 3rd track". Newsday. Archived from the original on January 26, 2018. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  161. ^ Klar, Rebecca (December 20, 2017). "MTA approves $1.8B contract for third track project". The Island Now. Archived from the original on January 26, 2018. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  162. ^ "LIRR Third Track Project Moving Forward Despite Concerns Of Residents". CBS New York. September 5, 2018. Archived from the original on September 6, 2018. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  163. ^ Rivoli, Dan (September 5, 2018). "Cuomo continues infrastructure tour with Long Island Rail Road groundbreaking". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on September 6, 2018. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
  164. ^ Anuta, Joe; Newman, Philip (June 5, 2013). "Queens Tomorrow: LIRR headed to Grand Central". TimesLedger. TimesLedger Newspapers. Archived from the original on May 25, 2018. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  165. ^ "MTA Capital Program Oversight Meeting" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. January 2013. p. 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 25, 2017. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  166. ^ a b c d e "MTA Long Island Rail Road Committee Meeting" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. November 2017. p. 35. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 5, 2018. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  167. ^ Kulick, Beth (2014). "Jamaica Interlocking Reconfiguration Operations Simulation" (PDF). apta.com. TranSystems Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  168. ^ "$121 Million Initiative to Rebuild Hicksville Station Begins Construction; $64.9 Million Contract Award to Improve Jamaica Station". www.mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. September 21, 2016. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  169. ^ "MTA Capital Program Oversight Committee Meeting" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 21, 2018. p. 59. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 3, 2018. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  170. ^ a b c d Joint Metro-North and Long Island Committees Meeting. mta.info (Report). November 2021. Archived from the original on July 7, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  171. ^ Kreitzman, Wendy Karpel (November 19, 2010). "MTA Announces Second Pocket Track Proposed for LIRR in Great Neck". Great Neck Record. Archived from the original on December 9, 2010. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  172. ^ "MTA LIRR Proposed Colonial Road Improvement Project". MTA Long Island Rail Road. March 23, 2011. Archived from the original on December 19, 2021. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
  173. ^ "MTA LIRR - Colonial Road Improvement Project". web.mta.info. Archived from the original on October 24, 2016. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  174. ^ Zambuto, Sam; Arena, Salvatore (March 28, 2011). "LIRR Opens Info Center at Great Neck Station for Proposed Colonial Road Improvement Project". MTA Long Island Rail Road. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
  175. ^ "The Completion of Colonial Road Bridge". Great Neck Record. July 23, 2016. Archived from the original on October 17, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  176. ^ a b c Joint Metro-North and Long Island Committees Meeting. mta.info (Report). November 2020. Archived from the original on October 13, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  177. ^ "Mid-Suffolk Yard". mta.info. Archived from the original on July 18, 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  178. ^ "Mid-Suffolk Yard Schedule". mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
  179. ^ Rumsey, Spencer (July 12, 2017). "LIRR's Third Track Gets Key NY Senate Approval to Move Ahead". Long Island News from the Long Island Press. Archived from the original on October 3, 2018. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  180. ^ "L60601YL Port Washington Yard Reconfiguration". web.mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on September 3, 2017. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
  181. ^ Castillo, Alfonso A. (November 29, 2015). "Outta space: Few places to park at LIRR lots". Newsday. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  182. ^ "LIRR seeks M9A EMUs". Railway Age. December 6, 2017. Archived from the original on April 24, 2021. Retrieved September 23, 2018.
  183. ^ Spivack, Caroline (June 28, 2022). "Labor shortage at Nebraska plant delays delivery of new subway cars". Crain's New York Business. Archived from the original on July 20, 2022. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  184. ^ Castillo, Alfonso A. (June 27, 2022). "LIRR's M9 cars 17 more months behind schedule". Newsday. Archived from the original on July 20, 2022. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  185. ^ Capital Program Committee Meeting (Report). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 2022. Archived from the original on July 6, 2022. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  186. ^ "LIRR to use decades-old rail cars to fill in gap once Grand Central Station access is complete". News 12 The Bronx. July 18, 2022. Archived from the original on July 19, 2022. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  187. ^ "Metro-North Penn Station Access" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 26, 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  188. ^ "MTACC Quarterly Progress Report to CPOC Penn Station Access Project Overview December 12, 2016" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 12, 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  189. ^ "Penn Station Access". mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on December 16, 2021. Retrieved December 16, 2021.
  190. ^ Penner, Larry (October 27, 2021). "Letter: Metro-North Penn Station Access still not a done deal". Bronx Times. Archived from the original on October 27, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2022.

External linksEdit

External video
  "What Is East Side Access?", Metropolitan Transportation Authority; January 29, 2010; one-minute YouTube video clip
  "The East Side Access Project", MTA Long Island Rail Road; February 18, 2010; 6:19 YouTube video clip
  "East Side Access Soft Ground TBM Launch", Metropolitan Transportation Authority; April 7, 2011; 2:22 YouTube video clip
  "East Side Access – 1/24/2012 Update", Metropolitan Transportation Authority; January 24, 2012; 1:51 YouTube video clip
  "East Side Access Project Update 2", MTA Long Island Rail Road; March 5, 2012; 7:39 YouTube video clip
  "East Side Access 9/21/2012 Update", Metropolitan Transportation Authority; September 21, 2012; 2:27 YouTube video clip
  "East Side Access 9/11/2015 Update", Metropolitan Transportation Authority; September 11, 2015 YouTube video clip