Open main menu

Darien, Connecticut

Darien (/dɛəriˈæn/) is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States, 37 miles northeast of New York City. With a population of 20,732 for the 2010 census and a land area of just under 13 square miles, it is the smallest town on Connecticut's "Gold Coast".[2] Darien is one of the wealthiest communities in the U.S.; it was listed at #2 on CNN Money's list of "top-earning towns" in the United States as of 2010.[3] In 2018, data from the American Community Survey revealed that Darien was the wealthiest municipality in the United States, with a median household income of $208,125.[4] Bloomberg's 2018 "America's 100 Richest Places" ranking placed Darien in the top 10, with an average household income of $327,901.[5]

Darien, Connecticut
Town of Darien
Boston Post Road in Darien's retail district
Boston Post Road in Darien's retail district
Official seal of Darien, Connecticut
Seal
Location within Fairfield County and the state of Connecticut
Location within Fairfield County and the state of Connecticut
Darien is located in Connecticut
Darien
Darien
Location within Connecticut
Darien is located in the US
Darien
Darien
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 41°03′04″N 73°28′45″W / 41.05111°N 73.47917°W / 41.05111; -73.47917Coordinates: 41°03′04″N 73°28′45″W / 41.05111°N 73.47917°W / 41.05111; -73.47917
Country United States
U.S. state Connecticut
CountyFairfield
Metropolitan areaBridgeport-Stamford
Incorporated1820
Government
 • TypeRepresentative town meeting
 • First selectmanJayme J. Stevenson (R)
 • SelectmenSusan J. Marks (R)
Charles "Kip" Koons (R)
Marc Thorne (D)
Pamela Sparkman (D)
[1]
Area
 • Total23.4 sq mi (60.6 km2)
 • Land12.9 sq mi (33.4 km2)
 • Water10.6 sq mi (27.4 km2)
Elevation
52 ft (16 m)
Population
(2010)
 • Total20,732
 • Density886.0/sq mi (342.1/km2)
Time zoneUTC-5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-4 (Eastern)
ZIP code
06820
Area code(s)203/475
FIPS code09-18850
GNIS feature ID0213416
WebsiteDarien, Connecticut

Situated on Long Island Sound between the cities of Stamford and Norwalk, the town is a bedroom community with relatively few office buildings. Many residents commute to Manhattan with two Metro-North railroad stations – Noroton Heights and Darien – linking the town to Grand Central Terminal. For recreation, the town boasts eleven parks,[6] two public beaches, three country clubs including the first organized golf club in Connecticut, a hunt club, and Noroton Yacht Club.

Contents

HistoryEdit

According to early records, the first clearings of land were made by men from the New Haven and Wethersfield colonies and from Norwalk in about 1641. It was not until 1739, however, that the Middlesex Society of the Town of Stamford built the first community church, now the First Congregational Church of Darien (which stands on the original site at the corner of Brookside Road and the Boston Post Road).[7]

The area became Middlesex Parish in 1737. It was incorporated as the Town of Darien in 1820. Tories (Loyalists) raided the town several times during the American Revolution, at one point taking 26 men in the parish prisoner for five months, including the Reverend Moses Mather, pastor of the parish. The Loyalist-Patriot conflict in Darien is the setting for the novel Tory Hole, the first book by children's author Louise Hall Tharp.

 
Contentment Island, about 1914

According to the Darien Historical Society,[8] the name Darien was decided upon when the residents of the town could not agree on a name to replace Middlesex Parish, many families wanting it to be named after themselves. A sailor who had traveled to Isthmus of Darien,[9] then part of the Spanish Empire, suggested the name Darien, which was eventually adopted by the people of the town.

The town name is pronounced /dɛəriˈæn/ (like "Dairy-Ann"), with stress on the last syllable, and has been referred to as such at least as far back as 1913.[10] Residents say this is still the proper pronunciation. "You can always tell when someone is not from here, because they do pronounce it the way it's spelled," Louise Berry, director of the town library, said in a 2006 interview.[11]

Until the advent of the railroad in 1848, Darien remained a small, rural community of about 1,000. After the Civil War, the town became one of the many resorts where New Yorkers built grand, luxurious summer homes.

Darien has a well-established reputation as a former sundown town,[12] having effectively kept out African American and Jewish families for decades.[13]

GeographyEdit

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 14.8 square miles (38 km2), of which 12.9 square miles (33 km2) is land and 2.0 square miles (5.2 km2), or 13.41%, is water. The town has four exits on the northbound-traffic side of Interstate 95 (Exits 10–13) and three on the southbound-traffic side (where there is no Exit 12). Its northern border is just south of the historic Merritt Parkway, where Exits 36 and 37 are closest to the town. It also has two Metro-North railroad stations for commuter trains into New York City, with a 38 to 39 miles (61 to 63 km) commute of 46–50 minutes from Noroton Heights and 49–53 minutes from Darien. In addition, the Glenbrook railroad station and the Talmadge Hill railroad station, both on the New Canaan Branch, are within walking distance of homes near the Holmes elementary school and at the far northwestern corner of town. The Rowayton railroad station on the New Haven Line is also within walking distance of homes near Raymond Street in the southeastern part of town. Most trains run non-stop after Stamford into New York City's 125th Street, then Grand Central Terminal. Along with the New Haven Line of Metro-North Railroad and Interstate 95, US Route 1, known locally as the Boston Post Road, or, more commonly, the Post Road, runs east-west through the southern side of town. Except for the Noroton Heights business district, commercial zoning is extremely limited outside of the town-wide strip along the Post Road.

Darien is bordered on the west by Stamford, on the north by New Canaan, and on the east by Norwalk. On the south it faces Long Island Sound and the North Shore of Long Island. It is part of the "panhandle" of Connecticut jutting into New York state. The town has 16.5 miles (26.6 km) of coastline and five harbors.

Sections of the townEdit

In addition to some small neighborhoods, the larger divisions of the town are Downtown Darien (area surrounding Boston Post Road from I-95 to Brookside Road), Noroton (roughly in the southwest corner of town on Boston Post Road), Ox Ridge (northern end of Mansfield Avenue), (Noroton Heights) (roughly north of Interstate 95 to Middlesex Middle School with an eastern boundary of Noroton Avenue), Noroton Bay (southern end of Noroton Neck), Long Neck Point (southernmost part of town up to historic Ring's End Landing), Delafield Island (waterfront community in between Long Neck and Tokeneke) and Tokeneke (mostly private community in the southeastern end of town).

 
Church in Darien.

The name Noroton originates from the Native American "Norporiton" assigned to the river along Darien's border with Stamford. This section of Darien is defined by two peninsulas that claw their way into Long Island Sound, their curved appendages protecting enough coves and inlets to make the area a haven for beachgoers and sailors. The shorter of the peninsulas, Noroton Neck, is divided into shore communities like Noroton Bay and Pratt Island.[14] Long Neck, which extends farther into Long Island Sound includes Long Neck Point which provides westerly views of Manhattan. Though the general geographic reference to this land feature is Long Neck Point, therein are two different neighborhoods, each with their own main road and distinct features.

Connecticut's Gold Coast, Long Neck Point is consistently ranked one of the best places to live in America. Historically, it has also been called Collender's Point and "La Belle" Point. In 1902, Anson Phelps Stokes of the Stokes family built a Gilded Age brick Georgian manor on the end, dubbed "Brick House" which was later occupied by Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie's manor was later run as the Convent of the Sacred Heart before it was split in half and sold as two private residences. The property on the tip was divided in two and neither home can rise above 20 feet.

On its east side, Long Neck Point Road stretches south beginning near the Ring's End Landing bridge and terminating at the southerly most tip of land. This area is somewhat inland and away from the eastern shoreline and at a relatively high elevation above the water. The west coast of Long Neck runs along Goodwives River and includes Pear Tree Point. A public beach, Pear Tree Point Park and a private boat club, the Darien Boat Club are on Pear Tree Point in Noroton Harbor. Pear Tree Point Road, begins at the Ring's End Landing bridge, runs south along the western side of the Point adjacent to "The Gut" and to outer Noroton Harbor. This charming route hugs the shoreline at an elevation close enough to the tides such that storm conditions can bring the water level over the road. Approximately half-way south along the peninsula, Pear Tree Point Road turns abruptly to the east, ninety degrees, heading uphill and connecting to Long Neck Point Road, distinguishing Long Neck from Long Neck Point.

Ring's End Landing, the original settlement and shipping point for early residents includes a historic stone bridge providing easier access to Long Neck, essential after the creation of the New Haven Railroad. The bridge crosses a dam dividing Gorhams Pond from the Gut. The center of town faced Gorham's Pond. The first mill, called Scofield's, was built in 1708. Another mill was built for the Clock family and eventually taken over by Gorham's in 1740. During the American Revolution the Tories of the area left quickly for Long Island. They returned by sloop one night and for vengeance they captured forty-eight men during the local town meeting. The captives were taken down to New York and imprisoned for five months. The railroad came through Darien in 1848, and gradually the center of the town moved away from the water and closer to the main highway, Route One, and the local railroad station. But trading by water continued until World War 1. The mill remained on Gorham's Pond for many years after it ceased to grind flour. In 1921, the town decided to test its new fire engine, which the manufacturer claimed was guaranteed to extinguish any blaze if reached quickly. The townsmen set the mill afire, confident that the damage would be minor with their new, powerful fire engine standing by. Something went wrong, because the landmark of Darien burned to the ground. That was the end of the Ring's End Landing that had been a small, but vital hub for over two hundred years.[15] Long Neck became a summer destination for the wealthy when rail travel made it accessible during the mid-19th century.[14]

The large island to the east is the remaining estate of the late William Ziegler. The Ziegler Estate is the most expensive waterfront plot on the eastern seaboard. With an assessed property value of over $22,000,000 and thousands of feet of direct undeveloped waterfront, it boasts the fourth largest property tax in town. For the first time in over a century, the 63-acre portion of the estate known as Great Island was listed for sale and is expected to set a national record at $175,000,000.[16]

Darien's eastern coastline is almost entirely Tokeneke, a private community with a beach, club, and police patrol. Tokeneke is a private neighborhood and tax district established in January 1957. All homeowners within the district pay a separate tax to maintain the roads and police constables in the neighborhood. Coveted Contentment Island sits in the southeastern most part of town, encompassed by Tokeneke.

Noroton Heights "blew up around the Noroton Heights train station and housed the European immigrants who serviced the old estates," according to an article about the community in The New York Times. The densely populated streets of this part of town are full of "modest Capes and colonials" along with other house styles.[14]

ClimateEdit

Darien has a humid continental climate, similar to that of New York City, with mild to warm humid summers and cold to very cold winters. The highest recorded temperature was 103 °F (39 °C) in July 1966, while the lowest recorded temperature was -15 °F (-26 °C) in 1968.[17] Snowfall is generally frequent in winter while average precipitation is most common in September.

Demographics and safetyEdit

Census Pop.
18201,126
18501,454
18601,70517.3%
18701,8086.0%
18801,9497.8%
18902,27616.8%
19003,11636.9%
19103,94626.6%
19204,1846.0%
19306,95166.1%
19409,22232.7%
195011,76727.6%
196018,43756.7%
197020,33610.3%
198018,892−7.1%
199018,196−3.7%
200019,6077.8%
201020,7325.7%
Est. 201421,689[18]4.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[19]

As of the census of 2000, there were 19,607 people, 6,592 households, and 5,385 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,525.2 people per square mile (588.7/km²). There were 6,792 housing units at an average density of 203.9 persons/km² (528.3 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the town was 95.97% White, 0.45% African American, 0.04% Native American, 2.42% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, and 0.80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.19% of the population.

There were 6,592 households out of which 46.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 74.5% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a woman whose husband did not live with her, and 18.3% were non-families. 15.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.95 and the average family size was 3.31.

In the town, the population was spread out with 32.5% under the age of 18, 3.0% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.7 males.

According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the town was $160,274, and the median income for a family was $195,905.[20] As of the 2000 Census, males had a median income of $100,000 versus $59,313 for females. The per capita income for the town was $77,519. 2.0% of the population and 0.6% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 1.6% are under the age of 18 and 2.6% are 65 or older.

Darien has been ranked the #1 safest "city" in Connecticut for 2018 by Safewise,[21] and the 54th safest city in the United States.[22]

Government and politicsEdit

Elected bodies in the town government are a five-member Board of Selectmen, a nine-member Board of Education, a seven-member Board of Finance, a six-member Planning and Zoning Commission, three-member Board of Assessment Appeals, and a 100-member, nonpartisan Representative Town Meeting. The town has several elective offices as well: the town clerk, probate judge, registrar of voters, tax collector and treasurer.[23]

The Board of Finance approves financial measures, including the town budget; the Board of Education controls the town's public schools; the Representative Town Meeting is the main legislative body of the town.

As of December 1, 2005, the town had 12,099 registered voters, with 6,445 Republicans (53.1 percent), 1,940 Democrats (16 percent) and 3,703 unaffiliated voters (30.6 percent).[24] In 2003, Evonne Klein replaced Robert Harrel as First Selectman, becoming the first Democrat to win the post in 14 years. Klein was re-elected in 2005 and again in 2007, but did not run in the November 3, 2009 election, which was won by Republican David Campbell.[25] Jayme Stevenson, Darien's incumbent Republican First Selectman, won a fourth two-year term in November 2017, beating her Democratic contender with 72% of the vote.[26]

TaxesEdit

Darien has the lowest property taxes of the Fairfield County suburbs of its size, with a mill rate of 15.35 being consistently lower than New Canaan at 15.985 and Westport at 18.09 (rates as of 2016).[27][28]

Environmental SustainabilityEdit

The town of Darien is part of "Sustainable Fairfield County"- a cooperative organization made up of ten Fairfield County communities that have joined forces to help advance environmental sustainability and responsibility county-wide. The other municipalities include Easton, Fairfield, Greenwich, New Canaan, Norwalk, Trumbull, Weston, Westport and Wilton.[29]

EconomyEdit

JetBlue Airways has finance and scheduling operations at 19 Old Kings Highway South in Darien.[30] In mid-2012 JetBlue combined the Darien and Forest Hills, Queens, New York City headquarters into its headquarters in Long Island City, Queens.[31]

EducationEdit

Darien is served by Darien Public Schools, and Darien High School was ranked No. 1 in the "U.S. News Best High Schools in Connecticut" in 2013.[32] Darien has five elementary schools: Hindley School, Holmes School, Ox Ridge School, Royle School, and Tokeneke School. A $27 million addition was completed in 2000 to the town's middle school, Middlesex Middle School, and a new $73 million campus for Darien High School was completed in the fall of 2005.[14] Darien sports teams go by the name of the "Blue Wave".

The Connecticut State Department of Education has ranked the Darien Public Schools district in its highest-rated District Reference Group, A (formerly the Educational Reference Group A), which consists of the nine most affluent and low-need-for-extra-assistance districts among the 162 school districts in Connecticut. Also included are the elite New Canaan, Westport, Wilton, Weston, Easton, Redding, and Ridgefield school districts.[33]

In June 2012, 24/7 Wall St. ranked Darien as the 10th wealthiest school district in the United States.[34]

Pear Tree Point School, originally named Plumfield School, is a private school on Long Neck, educating students in pre-kindergarten through Grade 5. The school was closed in summer 2018.[35][36]

The public library in Darien, the Darien Library, has consistently ranked in the top ten of its category in the HAPLR (Hennen's American Public Library Ratings) Index of libraries. In 2012, it was named a Five Star library by Library Journal, which used four objective measures: visits, circulation, program attendance and internet computer use per capita to compare the level of services libraries provide to their communities.[37] The current building was funded over a three-year capital campaign, with town residents backing the initiative. 1,800 families privately contributed to the capital campaign. The Library was designed by architect Peter Gisolfi of Peter Gisolfi Associates from Hastings-on-Hudson, NY. His design resulted in a 54,000 square foot building that was cited by Library Journal as one of five need-to-see new library buildings. The building is designed in classic New England style, projecting a sense of solidity and timelessness externally while many windows add light and transparency to the structure internally. An achievement of Gisolfi's work is that the Library is LEED Gold certified for environmental sustainability; it was the first library in New England to meet this standard. Some library features include a large auditorium, working fireplaces (used in the winter months), a cafe, automatic book sorters, a digital media lab and 3D printer, a vegetable garden, a water fountain, and self-checkout kiosks.[38] The library has existed in Darien as an institution since 1894, primarily in locations on the Post Rd (4 sites and the current site), as well as a location just off the Post Road, on Leroy Avenue (which currently houses the Darien Board of Education). Andrew Carnegie offered funds to create a Carnegie Library in the early 1800s, but he was turned down by the town.[38]

Emergency ServicesEdit

Post 53Edit

 
Post 53 headquarters

An ambulance service, known as "Darien EMS – Post 53" is the only ambulance service in the nation staffed and run entirely by high school student volunteers, covers one of the deadliest stretches of Interstate-95, and responds to over 1,500 emergency calls annually.[39] The Explorer post is chartered under the Connecticut Yankee Council, and is considered a scouting unit. The service provides emergency care at no cost to the patient, funded entirely by private donations from town residents. Teenagers are allowed to perform patient care due to the fact that Connecticut is one of the few states in the nation which allows Emergency medical technicians to be certified at age 16.[40]

Students will start training while they are in their freshman year of high school. They are elected by current members of Post and then they continue their training supervised by trained adults, Post 53 lets in 20 teenagers a year to join the crew. "Each student receives at least 150 hours of training for basic certification as emergency medical technicians; by their senior year, some even qualify to drive the ambulance."[14]

Fire DepartmentEdit

The town of Darien is protected by three independent all-volunteer fire departments in three fire districts. The Darien Fire Department is located at 848 Post Rd.(Rte. 1) in Downtown Darien. The Noroton Fire Department is located at 1873 Post Rd. in the Noroton section of town. The Noroton Heights Fire Department is located at 209 Noroton Ave. in the Noroton Heights section of town. Each fire department responds in conjunction with the other two on most calls during weekdays and more independently during the weekend. The three fire departments average a total of approximately 1,000 emergency calls for service annually. The three fire departments operate a combined fire apparatus fleet of 6 Engines, 3 Trucks(including 1 Quint), 3 Rescues, 2 Tankers, 1 Fireboat, 3 Utility Units, and 3 Command Units. Regarding ambulance service, see "Post 53" section above.

Fire station locations and apparatusEdit

Department Engine Ladder Rescue Special unit Utility unit Command unit Address Neighborhood
Darien FD Engine 41, Engine 42 Tower Ladder 43 Rescue 44 Tanker 45 Utility 46 Car 400 848 Post Rd. Downtown
Noroton FD Engine 31, Engine 32 Ladder 30 Rescue 33 Marine 34(Fireboat), Sealegs (Amphibious boat) Utility 35, Utility 36 Car 300 1873 Post Rd. Noroton
Noroton Heights FD Engine 21, Engine 23 Truck 20(Quint) Rescue 25 Tanker 22 Utility 24 Car 200 209 Noroton Ave. Noroton Heights

TransportationEdit

The town is served by two train stations, one in Noroton Heights and the other in downtown Darien. The Connecticut Turnpike (Interstate 95) runs through town, as does the Post Road, U.S. Route 1. Just to the north of town, the Merritt Parkway (Route 15) runs roughly parallel to the northern border between Darien and New Canaan. The Talmadge Hill railroad station is just north of the border as well. Along with the Post Road, major east-west thoroughfares in town are West Avenue and Middlesex Road. Major north-south roads are Hoyt Street, Hollow Tree Ridge Road, Nearwater Lane, Noroton Avenue, Middlesex Road, Mansfield Avenue and Brookside Road.

Interstate 95 has rest stops in Darien both for the southbound and northbound lanes. The state Department of Transportation has added "speed change" lanes between entrances and exits up to Exit 10 (and points westward). The phase of the highway widening from Exit 9 to Exit 10, at a cost of $7.5 million, was expected to be complete by October 2007, state Transportation officials said in August of that year. The state is in the process of planning more such lanes through the rest of the highway in town in a project expected to cost $24.5 million. About 150,000 vehicles pass Exit 12 each day, according to the state Department of Transportation. The state was considering closing the southbound entrance for Exit 12 in 2008 during work on the project.[41]

Chapter 14 of English author Nigel Williams' 1994 travelogue From Wimbledon to Waco tells of his difficulties in reaching Darien from Interstate 95.

In December 2007 a 15-month, $5.5 million project was completed to add fourth (or "operational") lanes in each direction between the entrances and exits at Exits 10 and 11 in Darien. An earlier project added a fourth lane on the southbound side from the entrance at Exit 10 to Exit 8. After that lane was added, a state Department of Transportation study concluded that accidents were down on that stretch of the highway by 20 percent, amounting to about 160 fewer accidents per year. Construction of operational lanes at exits 11, 12, and 13 was expected to begin in the late spring of 2008.[42]

Westchester County Airport is the closest commercial airport to Darien, with direct service to Chicago, Charlotte, Atlanta, West Palm Beach, Fort Myers, Orlando, Fort Lauderdale, Tampa, Pittsburgh, Detroit, and Washington DC. Seasonal service also exists to Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, Hyannis, Vero Beach and Provincetown. It takes approximately 25 minutes to drive to from the town's center. This is followed by LaGuardia Airport in Queens, New York, a 45-minute drive from Darien. John F. Kennedy International Airport in Queens, New York, is the closest major international airport, a one-hour+ drive. Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey is also easily accessible from Darien, approximately one hour and 10 min away.

LandmarksEdit

 
Autumn in Stony Brook Park, Ledge Road
  • The Convent of St. Birgitta, which houses a Swedish order of nuns, has a large waterfront plot with a panoramic view of Scott's Cove. The convent offers room and board to guests or small groups looking for a spiritual retreat.[43]
  • A notable work of modern architecture in town is the Frederick J. Smith House, designed by architect Richard Meier. The house was planned starting in 1965 and completed in 1967. The home has been featured in numerous books.[44] "There is a formal layering, giving a sense of progression, as one moves across the site from the entrance road down to the shore, and the 'line of progression' determines the major site axis," Meier has written. "Perpendicular to this axis, the intersecting planes in the house respond to the rhythms of the slope, trees, rock outcroppings, and the shoreline."[45]
  • The Mather Homestead, a National Historic Landmark and on the National Register of Historic Places. The home was built during the Revolutionary War, and is considered one of the finest examples of 18th century architecture, with a wood frame structure and two stories plus a basement and attic. Stephen Mather owned the home, the founder and first Director of the National Park Service.[46]
  • The Darien Historical Society, housed in the eighteenth century Bates-Scofield House, which includes a museum, the 1827 Scofield Barn Exhibit Hall, and the Darien Historical Archives and Resource Library.[47]

Redevelopment ProjectsEdit

Downtown Darien RedevelopmentEdit

Baywater Properties (run by Darien resident, David Genovese, the developer responsible for a slew of high-end additions in downtown Darien), has proposed a new significant redevelopment of Downtown Darien in the area bounded by Post Road, Corbin Dr, I-95 and Old Kings Highway. The project will significantly enhance the pedestrian experience of downtown Darien, where the proposed public open spaces and Town Green will create an automobile-free zone. The proposed public spaces and Town Green will be designed to accommodate the Darien Farmer's Market, concert series like the Darien Summer Nights series, theatrical productions, and even an ice rink. It will include upscale residences targeted to empty-nesters, and locally owned retailers. The retail spaces will embrace the new streets which we will create around the project, and many of the stores will open onto the proposed Town Green.[48][49] As of September 2016, it appeared that the P&Z commission would reject the proposed building heights despite overwhelming public support. Baywater Properties revised their proposal and the P&Z commission approved the revision. In December 2017, Baywater has chosen to redesign the project with smaller buildings and a less aggressive parking and traffic design.[50] The developer is in talks with L.L.Bean as an anchor store.[51] In November 2018, the project received unanimous approval from The Planning and Zoning Commission. This will increase office space downtown from 45,961 to 81,200 square feet and retail space from 52,279 to 81,730 square feet. The project is to begin in Spring 2019.[52]

Noroton Heights RedevelopmentEdit

The town's Planning & Zoning Commission approved two redevelopment project in the Noroton Heights district, one for a new Noroton Shopping Center proposed by the owners of Palmer's Market, and the other for a new development called The Commons, proposed by Federal Reality. Both projects will incorporate mixed-use development, bringing new apartments to the neighborhood while expanding the existing retail and restaurant space in the area. Noroton Heights has long been a target for redevelopment, with town officials identifying the neighborhood as a focus in the 2016 update of the Town Plan of Conservation and Development. One of the project's goals is to give the Noroton Heights area a new sense of place by redeveloping the area in the style of a village. This includes new public plaza spaces and a complete restructuring of the shopping center's traffic flow. Representatives for the shopping center have said the new village would have a pedestrian focus and seeks to capitalize on the proximity of the Noroton Heights train station. The area remains a priority for the town's infrastructure improvements with an ongoing access study being conducted by a consultant and the active replacement of the Noroton Heights train station platform. Department of Public Works Director Ed Gentile has said the town is still reviewing options to install a culvert and improve drainage in the area as well.[53]

CommunityEdit

RecreationEdit

 
Hanging floral decorations adorn the main street of Darien
  • Darien Y – the local YMCA, offers more than 300 programs, also houses the Holly Pond School.[54]
  • YWCA of Darien-Norwalk is located in Darien.[55]
  • The Depot – an adult-supervised youth center for town teenagers in the former Noroton Heights Railroad Station building since the organization's founding in 1989. A student board runs the day-to-day programming; an adult board focuses on fundraising, operations management and capital building projects.[56]
  • Darien Playhouse – Darien's sole commercial cinema

Parks and BeachesEdit

  • Weed Beach – 22.12 acres (89,500 m2) at 155 Nearwater Lane, Noroton. The park includes a bathing area, picnic areas, 6 tennis courts, 5 paddle tennis courts, children's play areas, a bathhouse, a fit trail with equipment, a fully operational concession stand, the Paddle Tennis warming hut, and is home to Darien Junior Sailing Team. The public beach is restricted to Darien residents only in the summer months, with visitor passes available for a fee.[57]
 
Tilly Pond Park gazebo on a very green pond
  • Pear Tree Point Beach – 7.95 acres (32,200 m2) at 127 Pear Tree Point Road. Pear Tree Point Beach is arguably one of the most beautiful beaches in Fairfield County. Pear Tree Point Beach encompasses approximately 8 acres off Pear Tree Point Road at the mouth of the Goodwives River. The beach offers a bathing area, handicap accessible picnic area with picnic tables and grills, a beautiful gazebo overlooking the sound, a bathhouse, fully operational concession stand, a boat launch ramp, and two beautiful beaches. In addition, the Darien Boat Club is located at this beach. The public beach is restricted to Darien residents only in the summer months, with visitor passes available for a fee.[58]
  • Cherry Lawn Park – 27.5 acres (111,000 m2), 120 Brookside Road. The Darien Nature Center is located in the heart of Darien's Cherry Lawn Park. The Nature Center boasts a state-of-the-art building designed to foster an interest in and respect for the natural world. The facility is home to a variety of animals, a grand exhibit gallery, a small theater, a library and several classrooms for nursery school programs. Fields, ponds, and trails surround the property.[59] The Darien Land Trust's 3 acre Cherry Lawn property is adjacent, located behind the nature center.
  • Woodland Park Nature Preserve – 64.717 acres (261,900 m2) on Middlesex Road
  • Baker Park – 11.72 acres (47,400 m2) at 75 Noroton Ave. (site of the former Baker School)
  • Frate Park – 0.83 acres (3,400 m2) at the corner of Middlesex Road and Leroy Avenue
  • McGuane Park – 7.5 acres (30,000 m2), 221 Noroton Ave.
  • Selleck's Woods Nature Preserve – 28.093 acres (113,690 m2) on Little Brook Road. Selleck's Woods has densely wooded areas, two ponds, marshes, swamps, streams, and several prairie pockets throughout the park. The Darien Land Trust's 22-acre Dunlap Woods is adjacent to Selleck's Woods.
  • Stony Brook Park – 11.3 acres (46,000 m2) on Ledge Road
  • Town Hall and Holahan Fields – 10 acres (40,000 m2) at 2 Renshaw Road
  • Tilley Pond Park – 8.651 acres (35,010 m2) on Lakeside Avenue
  • Gorham Pond - a watershed very popular with Darien residents in the winter months for open-air ice skating and hockey, creating a bucolic Currier & Ives scene.[60]
  • Darien Community Association bird sanctuary- nearly four acres of woodland, open to the public behind the historic Meadowlands manor at 274 Middlesex Road.[61]

Private Membership ClubsEdit

  • Country Club of Darien – The club has the second-largest estimated property value of any entity in town, with $23.2 million in assessed value (equal to 70 percent of estimated actual value) behind only the Wee Burn Country Club.[62]
  • Darien Boat Club – founded in the late 1940s, the club's membership has grown from a few charter members to more than 850, as well as their families.
  • Noroton Yacht Club – Former members of "the world-renowned" club "have included two America's Cup skippers." As of 2015, current members include Bruce Kirby, designer of the Laser dinghy. The club runs the largest junior sailing program in the county.[14] The club was founded in 1928 and built its first clubhouse the following year. It was replaced in 2017.
  • Ox Ridge Hunt Club – On 37 acres (150,000 m2), the club hosts a popular annual horse show held since 1926. The club was founded in 1911.[63] In 2017, the town of Darien purchased the Ox Ridge Field (16.25 acres) from the Hunt Club for $6.25 million. The club is using the sale to help fund a revitalization process that includes a new name, the Ox Ridge Riding & Racquet Club. With a legacy of more than 100-years the property has a historic significance in town and will soon become a public resource. The Ox Ridge Riding & Racquet Club will be adding several new facilities to their remaining property, including a new clubhouse with eight squash courts, a fitness center, locker rooms and a member pub. The club will also add four lighted courts for paddle tennis, and two new rings for horseback riding ring. In addition to the new facilities, the club plans to approve as many as 250 new members who will have access to the full range of the club's offerings, from horseback riding and racquet sports to special events on the club's lawn.[64] The town is currently debating the best future use of the newly town-owned property.[65]
  • Piedmont Club – Not a country club, the "Società Umberto Principe di Piemonte, Inc." was organized July 15, 1916 and "a well-appointed and commodious clubhouse" just off Noroton Avenue was erected in 1923, according to a town history published in 1935.[66]
  • Tokeneke Club – When developers of Tokeneke were trying to sell real estate there, they found that ensuring access to a beach removed some hesitation on the part of prospective buyers, so they founded the Tokeneke Beach Club in 1907, acquiring "a small stretch of shore on which stood a dilapidated double-decker bathhouse and a broken pier," soon replaced.[67] The club's original wooden buildings caught fire at a Saturday night party in 1932 and burned to the ground; replacement buildings were later battered by hurricanes.[43][68]
  • Wee Burn Country Club – formed in 1895, it is the first organized golf club in the state and "either the second or third in the United States." The name of the club was taken from a small stream, Stony Brook, which ran through the old grounds. Originally a small house on the Post Road in Noroton (across the street from St. Luke's Episcopal Church[69]) was rented for a clubhouse and nearby land for a seven-hole course was rented. The lease stipulated that the links couldn't prevent the landlord from continuing to use the fields as pasture for his cows. Eventually more land was bought on Hollow Tree Ridge Road[70] and the course was enlarged to nine holes and then 18 by (at the latest) the 1930s.[71] The club is the largest taxpayer in Darien, with an assessed property value (equal to 70 percent of estimated value) of $29.8 million.[62] As recently as 1999, the club did not allow women as full members – they were subject to restricted tee times and barred from the clubhouse.[72] The club also maintains a shore club in neighboring Rowayton, on the grounds of the former Roton Point Amusement Park.
  • Woodway Country Club – founded in 1916 when some members of the Wee Burn Country Club decided the small Wee Burn links, then near the Post Road in Noroton, were getting too crowded. The club bought 150 acres (0.61 km2) of land in Darien and another 45 in Stamford, and an 18-hole course was opened July 1, 1918.[73] The club was the sixth largest taxpayer, according to the October 1, 2004 town Grand List. The assessed value of the property (equal to 70 percent of actual estimated value) was $19.9 million.[62] Woodway's beach club is located in the Shippan area of Stamford.
  • Middlesex Club –The Middlesex Club, founded in 1963, is a private swimming, tennis and social club located in Darien Connecticut. This club is owned by the families who are also members. There are approximately 250 bond holding member families

Boy ScoutsEdit

Darien has many active scout units, including two Boy Scout troops, a Boy Scout Ship, and Explorer Post 53 (see Post 53 section, above), as well as three Cub Scout packs. Both troops and the ship are funded by the Andrew Shaw Memorial Trust; other funding comes from the annual May tag sale at the Scout Cabin on West Avenue, which has raised more than $50,000 in some years. These Scout units are in town:

  • Packs 55, 56, and 161 – open to boys in 1st through 5th grades.
  • Troop 35 – founded in 2004 when the town's existing troop (Troop 53) got too big; open to boys ages 11–18.
  • Troop 53 – the town's original Boy Scout troop, founded in 1918; open to boys ages 11–18.
  • Ship 53 – founded in recent years to let kids continue their scouting experience on the water; open to boys and girls ages 14–21.
  • Post 53 – see above entry

Annual eventsEdit

  • March - Holly Pond School book fair at Darien YMCA[74]
  • March - Community Arts Festival at Town Hall [75]
  • March - Darien Dash (Darien Youth Commission) scavenger hunt [76]
  • March - Daddy Daughter Dance at Town Hall [77]
  • April - Darien Nature Center Earth Day Celebration [78]
  • May – Boy Scout Troop 35 and 53 Tag Sale
  • May – Hindley Happening Fair
  • May - Tilley Pond Model Boat Regatta [75]
  • May through November- Darien Farmer's Market outdoors at the Goodwives Shopping Center [79]
  • May – Post 53 Food Fair at Tilly Pond Park and Memorial Day Parade
  • June - Weed Beach Fest- a celebration that brings the community together for music, food and fun in the sun [80]
  • June - Weed Beach Family Concert Series [75]
  • June through September - Darien Summer Nights at Grove Street Plaza & Tilley Pond Park [81]
  • July – annual Sidewalk Sale (sponsored by the Darien Chamber of Commerce)
  • September - Artists at Grove Street Plaza Outdoor Arts Fair
  • October – Tokeneke Pumpkin Carnival
  • October - Halloween Window Painting downtown [75]
  • December - Holiday Scavenger Hunt [82]
  • December - Traditional town tree lighting ceremony hosted by the Darien Sport Shop [82]
  • December - An Old Fashioned Holiday festival at Tilley Pond Park [83]
  • December - Holiday Magic at Grove Street Plaza [84]
  • December - Candlelight Christmas caroling sing-along sponsored by The Friends of Gorham’s Pond; residents only [85]

Ox Ridge Hunt Club Charity Horse ShowEdit

The Ox Ridge Hunt Club sponsors this annual June event, which has attracted up to 16,000 spectators and 1,300 equestrians, some from as far away as California and Europe. The 2007 Grand Prix event offered a $25,000 prize. The three-day event is free to spectators.[86]

Philanthropic groupsEdit

  • A Better Chance – for information on the Darien chapter, see Darien High School
  • Center for Hope is an organization set up in the early 1980s to provide bereavement and critical illness support for adults and children living with an illness, grieving a loss or coping with a trauma. "All counseling, support and education services are facilitated by specially-trained professionals in an atmosphere of hope and renewal", according to the organization. Founded in the early 1980s, the Center For Hope merged with Family Centers Inc. in 2005.[87]
  • Children's Council of Darien is a group set up to provide information and advocacy for the town's children from birth through fifth grade. It describes itself as a nonpartisan group of "parents, educators, doctors and local agency members working together in a non-profit organization to better inform the community about children's needs."[88]
  • Darien Advocates for the Education of the Gifted
  • The Community Fund of Darien, formerly The Darien United Way and Community Council, traces its origins to 1924 and assumed its current name upon withdrawing from the national United Way system in 2006. The Community Fund is a 501(c)(3) Public Charity actively working to meet health and human service needs in the greater community – primarily in Darien, Norwalk and Stamford – through strategic and financial leadership.[89]
  • CTE is a nonprofit organization founded in 1967 with a mission of countering "the basic causes of poverty in the Greater Stamford Area", according to the group's Web site. The organization is the federal and state designated Community Action Agency for Stamford, Greenwich and Darien.[90]
  • Darien Book Aid Plan is a nonprofit, all-volunteer organization that distributes free books in response to specific requests from Peace Corps volunteers, libraries and schools worldwide. Books are also donated within the United States to libraries, prisons, and hospitals, along with Native American and Appalachian groups.[91]
  • Darien Community Association is a nonprofit group founded more than 83 years ago which provides educational, cultural, recreational and civic programs; raises funds for scholarships and other community philanthropic works (partly through its Darien Thrift Shop); and maintains the Meadowlands mansion as a community resource.[92]
  • Darien/Stamford Chapter of the American Red Cross was formed on January 1, 2007 by the merger of the Darien and Stamford chapters of the American Red Cross. The merger created an organization with an annual budget of about $850,000, a staff of six full-time employees and about 600 volunteers.[93]
  • Darien Technology & Community Foundation
  • Junior League of Stamford-Norwalk, founded in 1923, is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization of women committed to promoting voluntarism, developing the potential of women and improving the community through the effective action and leadership of trained volunteers. Its purpose is exclusively educational and charitable. The League focuses its financial and volunteer assets on the issues of positive youth development, child health and welfare and self-sufficiency for women.[94]
  • The Masonic Club of Darien, Inc., a 501(c)(4) organization founded by area Freemasons in the 1860s, supports local charities and funds scholarships for college bound high school seniors. In addition to donations the Masonic Club of Darien hosts many community events that range from blood drives to informational/educational lectures open to the public. The Club is composed of Master Masons from the masonic lodge in town, Ivanhoe Lodge No. 107, which was chartered by the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the State of Connecticut in the 1860s, upon recommendation from Union Lodge 5 of Stamford.[95]

Local mediaEdit

Darien is served by two local print/online weeklies, the Darien Times and the Darien News-Review, four exclusively online local news websites, Darienite, HamletHub Darien, the Darien Patch and The Daily Voice, Darien, and an online 'Insider Guide' called AllAboutDarien.com. A monthly magazine known as New Canaan and Darien Magazine is also published comprising Darien, New Canaan, and Rowayton (a section of the city of Norwalk).[96] Most public meetings are filmed and broadcast live, and recorded for later broadcast by Cablevision's Channel 79 Government Access.[97]

Ethnic and racial controversiesEdit

Darien gained a reputation for racism and anti-Semitism in the 20th century.[98] In 1931, a private developer of beachfront property had an easement for access to the beach that stated beach privileges were never to be extended to "any person or persons of the Hebrew race."[13] In 1947, Laura Hobson's novel Gentleman's Agreement made Darien briefly notable for "the town's practice of not letting Jews spend the night."[99]

More recently, the town has struggled with the issue of affordable housing. Darien is 95% white. While some affordable housing was built, the priority list was such that it effectively excluded minorities by giving excessive priority to current and former residents. In 2010, the U.S. Department of Justice opened an investigation into Darien for possible violations of the Fair Housing Act.[100] In 2012, they appeared satisfied and closed their investigation after the controversial legislation had been repealed. The town also adopted a policy of verifying incomes for people applying for affordable housing units and maintaining a waiting list.[13]

Darien is one of the few municipalities in Connecticut that comply with the State's mandate to report the racial and ethnic makeup of people stopped by the police. 82% of the people stopped are white, 12% are black, and 15% are Hispanic. This is a higher proportion of black people than live in the town, but consistent with the makeup of the population of the general area.[101] In July 2016, a black man accused the Darien Police of racial profiling when he was stopped on his way to work.[102] The man uploaded footage of the encounter online which soon reached over 50,000 views, followed by a Bridgeport man's online petition for an apology and racial sensitivity training for officers.[103][104] The Darien Police denied the allegation and no apology was issued.[105] The incident prompted U.S. Representative Jim Himes to host a panel discussion at the Darien Library on race relations and institutional racism in Darien and Connecticut.[106]

Notable peopleEdit

 
Long Neck Point from Contentment Island by John Frederick Kensett, collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, depicting the area where Andrew Carnegie spent some summers

Several people notable for their esteemed place in American history have called Darien home: Charles Lindbergh the late aviator, and his wife, author Anne Morrow Lindbergh lived at 21 Tokeneke Trail in a seaside cottage named Tellina. It is on this property where Charles Lindbergh docked his sea plane. The cottage was positioned on the legendary aviators' favorite spot, a place where they had kept a trailer that had been a gift from friend Henry Ford.[107] Steel magnate and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie vacationed for several summers at what became the Convent of the Sacred Heart (divided into many private estates in the 1970s) at Long Neck Point.[66] Soong Mei-ling, First Lady of the Republic of China, rented a beach house on Noroton Bay many summers in the late 1970s. Christopher Shays, the former Republican congressman representing Connecticut's Fourth District, was born in Darien (and now lives in Bridgeport). Jimmy Lee, former Vice Chairman of J.P. Morgan, lived in Darien until his unexpected death in 2015.[108]

Actors and actresses who have lived in town include former resident Christopher Plummer,[109] Kate Bosworth, Topher Grace, and Chloë Sevigny.[110][citation needed] Actress Carol Kane attended Cherry Lawn School in Darien until 1965. Film director Gus Van Sant also went to high school in Darien. Jazz saxophonist Gerry Mulligan lived in Darien in later life and died there in 1996. Guitarist Chris Risola grew up in Darien. Musician Moby lived in Darien during his adolescence. Rudolph Valentino was said to have had a Spanish-style home at the entrance of Salem Straits. Emmy-winning television producer and writer Tom Gammill also grew up in Darien. Christopher Plummer owned the Tudor manor on Long Neck's eastern shore.

People famous in other fields have also called Darien home: Leslie Groves, military head of the Manhattan Project, lived in town after the project ended. Paul Manship, sculptor of the Prometheus figure at Rockefeller Center, spent summers living on Leroy Avenue and working on his art in the early 1930s. Photojournalist Margaret Bourke-White lived in town first with author Erskine Caldwell, then in the same home after their divorce. Helen Frankenthaler, a major American Abstract Expressionist painter, lived in Darien in later life and maintained her primary studio there.[111] Novelist and playwright Richard Bissell lived in Darien from the early 1950s to the mid-1970s. Artist John Stobart lived on Crane Road for many years, and prints of his historical painting of Ring's End Landing were popular in the 1970s, after the town's 150th anniversary. Producer and NBC executive Grant Tinker reared his family there in the 1950s. Former Benton & Bowles advertising agency executive and noted big band radio broadcaster G. Emerson Cole lived in Darien for 35 years. Kiss drummer Peter Criss once owned a home in Darien. Art deco artist and illustrator Major Felten spent most of his life in Darien. Emily Barringer (1876–1961), the world's first female ambulance surgeon and the first woman to secure a surgical residency, resided in Darien (and New Canaan) until her death. Jacqueline Pace, a teenager in the French Resistance after the Nazi invasion of France who helped save the life of an American pilot (James MacGrew, who had been downed behind enemy lines), lived in Darien.[112]

Current notable residents include New York Yankees General Manager Brian Cashman; Steve Wilkos, host of The Steve Wilkos Show; and 60 Minutes correspondent and CBS Evening News anchor Scott Pelley. Local news anchor Rebecca Surran of News 12 Connecticut and CNN anchor Ashleigh Banfield are also residents of Darien. Billionaire Ole Andreas Halvorsen, the CEO and a co-founder of Viking Global Investors, also lives in Darien.

One infamous native of Darien is convicted rapist Alex Kelly, who fled the United States to escape prosecution. His story was dramatized in the television movie Crime in Connecticut: The Story of Alex Kelly.

In popular cultureEdit

FilmEdit

Films at least partially filmed in Darien with release date include:[113][unreliable source?]

  • Gypsy (2017)[114]
  • Hope Springs (2012)
  • Hello I Must Be Going (2012)[115]
  • My Soul to Take (2010) (aka "25/8")
  • The Best Laid Plans (2009)
  • Birds of America (2008) (aka "The Laws of Motion").
  • Revolutionary Road (2008) - This is the second on-screen collaboration among Leonardo DiCaprio, Kate Winslet, and Kathy Bates, who previously co-starred in Titanic. The real home used in Revolutionary Road was transformed inside and out to meet director Sam Mendes' vision of a typical 1950s home, which was the time period for the movie. The house at 15 Chasmars Pond Road in Darien is owned by Peter and Becky Siciliano, who got a knock on their door by a DreamWorks location scout in April 2007 with the request to use and redo their house, as necessary, in exchange for a "a pile of money and a beach house in Rowayton." They agreed and were displaced for five months while Hollywood took over. When shooting was finished and the home rebuilt, including switching the roof and some windows and reinstalling the kitchen, a crew moved the family back in exactly as they lived before, referring to photographs they had taken of each room, even the inside of the china cabinet.[116] A house on Raymond Street in Darien was also used in filming.
  • Buttercup (2007)
  • High School 911 (2016)
  • The Big Wedding (2013) - The film stars Darien native Topher Grace and New Canaan native Katherine Heigl, as well as Robert De Niro, Diane Keaton, Susan Sarandon, Robin Williams, Amanda Seyfried and Ben Barnes.
  • The Life Before Her Eyes (2007)
  • Ode to Fredo (2007)
  • Ready for Action[117]
  • The Stepford Wives (2004)
  • American Dream (2002)
  • Cannonball Run II (1984)
  • The Stepford Wives (1975)
  • Gentleman's Agreement (1947) An Academy Award-winning film by Elia Kazan and based on a book by Laura Hobson that portrayed Darien as a restricted community (i.e. excludes Jews).

LiteratureEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Darien News Election Results". Darien News.
  2. ^ "Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File (QT-PL), Darien town, Connecticut". U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder 2. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
  3. ^ "Top-earning towns". CNN. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013.
  4. ^ . Tribune Media [fox2now.com/2018/01/10/the-10-wealthiest-cities-in-the-united-states/ fox2now.com/2018/01/10/the-10-wealthiest-cities-in-the-united-states/] Check |url= value (help). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ . Bloomberg https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2018-hundred-richest-places/. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ "Welcome to the Town of Darien, Connecticut - Beach/Park Permits". www.darienct.gov.
  7. ^ Adapted from: Case, Henry Jay and Cooper, Simon W: Town of Darien. Darien, Connecticut: The Darien Community Association, 1935
  8. ^ Darien Historical Society Web site
  9. ^ The Connecticut Magazine: An Illustrated Monthly. Connecticut Magazine Company. 1903. p. 331.
  10. ^ Jenkins, Stephen, The Old Boston Post Road, (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1913), as quoted at a Web page titled "Darien: Stephen Jenkins' Darien, 1913" at the ""USGenWeb Project" Web site. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
    The village of Darien, Wisconsin shares this pronunciation;
  11. ^ "The town name that sounds like a milk maid", "Grapevine" column, The Fairfield County Business Journal, July 10, 2006
  12. ^ Loewen, James W. Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005. Print.
  13. ^ a b c "Snob zones: Fear, money and real estate - Salon.com". archive.org. 23 July 2013.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Prevost, Lisa, "A Haven for Both Sailors and Commuters", The New York Times, December 14, 2003, accessed online on April 10, 2008
  15. ^ https://www.scrimshawgallery.com/product/darien-rings-end-landing-in-1900/
  16. ^ Taylor, Candace (2016-09-15). "Connecticut's Great Island Seeks a Record $175 Million". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-10-16.
  17. ^ "Average weather for Darien, CT". weather.com. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
  18. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  19. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  20. ^ Darien town, Fairfield County, Connecticut – Fact Sheet – American FactFinder. Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved on 2010-12-21.
  21. ^ "Connecticut's 20 Safest Cities of 2018 - SafeWise". safewise.com. 21 May 2018.
  22. ^ "2018's 100 Safest Cities in America - SafeWise". www.safewise.com.
  23. ^ "Darien Government Guide: 2006", a brochure published by the League of Women Voters of Darien
  24. ^ Revitalization: Town of Darien Annual Report, 2004–2005, page24
  25. ^ Shultz, Susan. Klein’s era ends. Darien Times, November 6, 2009Accessed: 2009-11-12. (Archived by WebCite at [1])
  26. ^ "Darien '17 Election Results: Stevenson Racks Up Another Victory". patch.com. 2 November 2017.
  27. ^ Office, Enter your Company or Top-Level. "OPM: Mill Rates". www.ct.gov. Retrieved 2016-01-24.
  28. ^ "16 Lowest Mill Rates in Connecticut | Patch". Brookfield, CT Patch. Retrieved 2016-01-24.
  29. ^ "Area towns form 'Sustainable Fairfield County'". newcanaannewsonline.com.
  30. ^ "Jetblue 2002 Annual Report." JetBlue. Retrieved on January 29, 2009.
  31. ^ "JetBlue Plants Its Flag in New York City with New Headquarters Location Archived July 18, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.." JetBlue Airways. March 22, 2010. Retrieved on July 7, 2010.
  32. ^ "U.S. News ranks Darien High School No. 1 in state". darientimes.com. 23 April 2013.
  33. ^ http://www.csde.state.ct.us/public/csde/reports/ERGbyDistrict.asp
  34. ^ Liebeskind, Ken. "Weston Is Second Wealthiest U.S. School District". The Weston Daily Voice. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  35. ^ "UPDATED: Pear Tree Point School to Close at End of This Academic Year - DarieniteDarienite". darienite.com.
  36. ^ "Pear Tree Point School, Darien, CT - Home". www.ptpschool.org.
  37. ^ "LJ Index 2012: The Star Libraries". lj.libraryjournal.com.
  38. ^ a b "Darienlibrary.org: It's for you!". www.darienlibrary.org.
  39. ^ "Post 53". www.post53.org.
  40. ^ Connecticut Department of Health Emergency Medical Technician Application Form. Accessed online May 2, 2007
  41. ^ Ginocchio, Mark, "I-95 ramp in Darien may close for work", article in The Advocate of Stamford, Connecticut, pp 1, A4
  42. ^ Lucas, Jonathan, "I-95 lanes open in time for holidays: Project aims to ease congestion in Darien", article in The Advocate of Stamford, Connecticut, December 8, 2007, pp 1, A4, Norwalk edition
  43. ^ a b Prevost, Lisa, "Living In/Tokeneke, in Darien, Conn.; Like Stepping Into a (Very Expensive) Painting", article in The New York Times, May 15, 2005. Retrieved April 10, 2008.
  44. ^ including: *Roger H. Clark and Michael Pause, Precedents in Architecture, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985, ISBN 0-442-21668-8 (plan and section diagrams, p154); *Peter Gossel and Gabriele Leuthauser, Architecture in the Twentieth Century, Germany: Benedikt Taschen Verlag, 1991. ISBN 3-8228-0550-5 (large color exterior photo, p280); *Paul Heyer, American Architecture: Ideas and Ideologies in the Late Twentieth Century, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993 ISBN 0-442-01328-0 (exterior photo of transparent facade, p167); *William S. Saunders, Modern Architecture—Photographs by Ezra Stoller, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Publishers, 1990, ISBN 0-8109-3816-2 (exterior photo, p200, 202; interior, p201; many small photos, p212–213)
  45. ^ "Great Buildings" Web site, accessed July 19, 2006, quoting from Richard Meier. Richard Meier, Architect. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
  46. ^ "The Mather Homestead - Darien, CT - The Mather Homestead". The Mather Homestead - Darien, CT - The Mather Homestead.
  47. ^ "about - Darien Historical Society". www.darienhistorical.org.
  48. ^ "HomePage - Your Downtown Darien". Your Downtown Darien.
  49. ^ "About The Project". Your Downtown Darien. 2015-07-29. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
  50. ^ "Corbin Project reveals new design for downtown redevelopment - Darien Times". darientimes.com. 5 December 2017.
  51. ^ https://www.darientimes.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/31/2018/03/CorbinNew3-1024x716.png
  52. ^ https://www.dariennewsonline.com/news/article/Corbin-Project-receives-unanimous-approval-13429003.php
  53. ^ "Top 10 stories of 2017: Number 2— Redevelopment fever at Noroton Heights - Darien Times". darientimes.com. 8 January 2018.
  54. ^ Darien Community YMCA Web site. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  55. ^ "YWCA Darien-Norwalk". www.ywcadariennorwalk.org.
  56. ^ "History" page at The Depot Web site. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  57. ^ "Welcome to the Town of Darien, Connecticut - Weed Beach". www.darienct.gov.
  58. ^ "Welcome to the Town of Darien, Connecticut - Pear Tree Point Beach". www.darienct.gov.
  59. ^ "Darien Nature Center - Darien, Connecticut". dariennaturecenter.org.
  60. ^ "Frigid Temperatures Turn Gorham's Pond into Winter Wonderland - Friends of Gorham's Pond". friendsofgorhamspond.org.
  61. ^ "About the DCA - Darien Community Association". dariendca.org.
  62. ^ a b c Revitalization: Town of Darien Annual Report, 2004–2005, page 11
  63. ^ Ox Ridge Hunt Club Ox Ridge Hunt Club Web site
  64. ^ "Top 10 stories of 2017: Number 5 — The town's Ox Ridge Field purchase, use debate - Darien Times". darientimes.com. 5 January 2018.
  65. ^ "As P&Z Commissioners debate: Town's Ox Ridge field plans hit a snag - Darien Times". darientimes.com. 22 February 2018.
  66. ^ a b Case, Henry J. and Cooper, Simon W. Town of Darien: Founded 1641, Incorporated 1820, Darien Community Association, 1935, p. 86, HEREAFTER Case
  67. ^ Case, p. 20
  68. ^ See "The Tokeneke Club a family album 1907–1987," with information compiled by long-time Tokeneke (private roads) resident and Tokeneke Club member Kay Oresman.
  69. ^ "Darien: 1641–1820–1970: Historical Skteches," edited by Bertha Mather McPherson, published by the Darien Community Association, 1970; "A Brief History of Darien," by Louise H. McLean, p. 17, hereafter McLean
  70. ^ McLean, p. 17
  71. ^ Case, pp. 26–27
  72. ^ Chambers, Marcia (March 28, 1997). "Female Golfers Are Challenging Country Club Rules". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
  73. ^ Case, p. 28
  74. ^ "Holly Pond School Book Fair - DarieniteDarienite". darienite.com.
  75. ^ a b c d "Welcome to the Town of Darien, Connecticut - Darien Youth Commission". www.darienct.gov.
  76. ^ "Register Now for Darien Dash on March 10: Participation Limited - DarieniteDarienite". darienite.com.
  77. ^ "Register Soon for Darien Daddy Daughter Dance on March 23 - DarieniteDarienite". darienite.com.
  78. ^ "Earth Day Celebration! - Darien Nature Center". dariennaturecenter.org.
  79. ^ "Location & Contact Us". Darien Farmers' Market.
  80. ^ "Weed Beach festival is Saturday - Darien Times". darientimes.com. 17 June 2017.
  81. ^ "Home - Darien Summer Nights". Darien Summer Nights.
  82. ^ a b "~ Darien Holiday Happenings ~ - AllAboutDarien.com, The Insider Guide". allaboutdarien.com.
  83. ^ http://www.darienct.gov/filestorage/28025/28545/Old_Fashioned_Holiday.pdf
  84. ^ https://darienite.com/santa-comes-to-grove-street-plaza-at-holiday-magic-event-40119
  85. ^ https://www.darientimes.com/2018/12/10/friends-of-gorhams-pond-to-sponsor-second-town-wide-christmas-caroling-sunday/
  86. ^ Coburn, Michael, "1,300 equestrians compete at Ox Ridge this weekend", article in The Darien Times, June 14, 2007, page 8A
  87. ^ Web page for The Center for Hope. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
  88. ^ "Mission" Web page, Children's Council of Darien. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
  89. ^ "History" and "Financial Information" Web pages at the Community Fund of Darien Web site, accessed May 20, 2009
  90. ^ "About" Web page at the CTE Web site. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
  91. ^ Main Web page, Darien Book Aid Plan. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
  92. ^ Web site of the Darien Community Association, accessed April 12, 2007 Archived February 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  93. ^ News release titled "Darien and Stamford Red Cross Chapters to Merge", dated November 15, 2007; from main Web page of the "American Red Cross Darien/Stamford Chapter". Retrieved April 11, 2007.
  94. ^ "Mission" and "Overview" Web pages at the Junior League of Stamford-Norwalk Web site, accessed May 20, 2009 Archived May 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  95. ^ 107, Ivanhoe Lodge. "Masonic Lodge".
  96. ^ "New Canaan-Darien & Rowayton Magazine - New Canaan, Darien, Rowayton CT Luxury Lifestyle: Community, Real Estate & Travel - New Canaan-Darien Magazine". newcanaandarienmag.com.
  97. ^ "Welcome to the Town of Darien, Connecticut - Darien Government Access Television". www.darienct.gov.
  98. ^ Loewen, James W. (1999). Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong. The New Press. pp. 408–413. ISBN 1-56584-344-4.
  99. ^ Loewen, James W. (2005). Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism. New York: The New Press. p. 218. ISBN 156584887X.
  100. ^ Prevost, Lisa (2010-10-08). "A Fair-Housing Inquiry in Darien". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-01-10.
  101. ^ "Who Police Stop in Darien: By Race, Gender, Ethnicity | Patch". Darien, CT Patch. Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. Retrieved 2015-12-29.
  102. ^ "Man records encounter with Darien police, video goes viral". FOX 61. 2016-07-22. Retrieved 2016-08-12.
  103. ^ "Video: Online Petition Wants Darien Police Apology for Alleged Racial Profiling of Bridgeport Bike Rider". Retrieved 2016-08-12.
  104. ^ "UPDATE: More Details Emerge on Alleged Racial Profiling Stop of Black Man in Tokeneke". Retrieved 2016-08-12.
  105. ^ "Police chief responds to video, accusations of racial profiling | Darien Times". 2016-07-26. Retrieved 2016-08-12.
  106. ^ "Congressman Jim Himes hosts panel to discuss race relations in Darien | Darien Times". 2016-07-26. Retrieved 2016-08-26.
  107. ^ "On the Market / Charles Lindbergh's onetime Darien cottage sees price reduction". dariennewsonline.com.
  108. ^ Son, Hugh (June 17, 2015). "JPMorgan Vice Chairman Jimmy Lee Dies Unexpectedly at Age 62". Bloomberg.
  109. ^ Handout. "Connecticut Mansion Once Owned By Christopher Plummer Sold For $11.2M". courant.com.
  110. ^ Fortini, Amanda. "Going Home With Chloë Sevigny". nytimes.com.
  111. ^ "Helen Frankenthaler" Archived 2010-02-17 at the Wayback Machine. at the Connecticut Women's Hall of Fame. Retrieved January 30, 2010.
  112. ^ "Jacqueline Pace, 93, a Teenager in the French Resistance, Former Darien Resident - DarieniteDarienite". darienite.com.
  113. ^ Most Popular Titles With Location Matching "Darien, Connecticut, USA", IMDB.com
  114. ^ Getz, Dana. "Who's Diane Hart On 'Gypsy'? Jean's Alias Is An Unsolved Mystery". Bustle. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  115. ^ Barone, Meg. "Westport showcased in town native's film, 'Hello I Must Be Going'". Westport News. "One of the big houses used for filming was in Darien, 'a beautiful part of Darien on the water,' Koskoff said."
  116. ^ "Darien, CT Home Transformed for "Revolutionary Road" Movie". zillow.com. 20 April 2009.
  117. ^ caption for photographs by Paul Desmarais, staff photographer, The Advocate, of Stamford, Connecticut, June 20, 2007, page 1
  118. ^ "The Good Old Days in Darien -- An era of plenty for literary arts". dariennewsonline.com.

External linksEdit

 
Shore of Darien, Connecticut by John Kensett