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28th United States Congress

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The Twenty-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1843, to March 4, 1845, during the third and fourth years of John Tyler's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Sixth Census of the United States in 1840. The Senate had a Whig majority, and the House had a Democratic majority.

28th United States Congress
27th ←
→ 29th
Capitol1846.jpg
March 4, 1843 – March 4, 1845
Senate PresidentVacant
Senate President pro temWillie P. Mangum (W)
House SpeakerJohn W. Jones (D)
Members54 senators
223 members of the House
3 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityWhig
House MajorityDemocratic
Sessions
1st: December 4, 1843 – June 17, 1844
2nd: December 2, 1844 – March 3, 1845

Contents

Major eventsEdit

Major legislationEdit

TreatiesEdit

States admittedEdit

  • March 1, 1845: Resolution for the Annexation of Texas, 5 Stat. 797 (Admitted in the next Congress, December 29, 1845.)
  • March 3, 1845: Florida admitted, 5 Stat. 742. The statute also allowed for the provisional admission of Iowa, pending a referendum in that state. (Admitted in the next Congress, December 28, 1846.)

Party summaryEdit

SenateEdit

During this congress, two Senate seats were added for the new state of Florida.

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Law
and Order

(LO)
Whig
(W)
End of previous congress 20 0 29 49 3
Begin 22 0 27 49 3
End 23 1 51
Final voting share 45.1% 2.0% 52.9%
Beginning of next congress 26 0 24 50 4

House of RepresentativesEdit

Following the 1840 United States Census, Congress reapportioned the House to include 223 seats.[1] During this congress, one House seat was added for the new state of Florida.[2]

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Independent
Democratic

(ID)
Law
and Order

(LO)
Whig
(W)
Independent
Whig

(IW)
Other
End of previous congress 100 1 0 139 0 0 240 1
Begin 147 1 2 72 1 0 223 0
End 141 781
Final voting share 63.2% 0.4% 0.9% 35.0% 0.4% 0.0%
Beginning of next congress 138 0 0 78 0 6 222 2

LeadershipEdit

SenateEdit

House of RepresentativesEdit

MembersEdit

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Representatives are listed by district.

SenateEdit

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1844; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1846; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1848.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

House of RepresentativesEdit

Representatives are listed by their district numbers.

Changes in membershipEdit

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

SenateEdit

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
Tennessee
(1)
Vacant Senator Alfred O. P. Nicholson (D) resigned in 26th Congress.
Successor elected October 17, 1843.
Ephraim H. Foster (W) Elected October 17, 1843
Tennessee
(2)
Vacant Failure to elect.
Successor elected October 17, 1843.
Spencer Jarnagin (W) Elected October 17, 1843
Maine
(1)
Vacant Senator Reuel Williams (D) resigned in previous congress.
Successor elected December 4, 1843.
John Fairfield (D) Elected December 4, 1843
Louisiana
(3)
Alexander Porter (W) Elected but, due to ill health, never took his seat.
Incumbent died January 13, 1844.
Successor elected February 12, 1844.
Henry Johnson (W) Elected February 12, 1844
Illinois
(2)
Samuel McRoberts (D) Died March 27, 1843.
Successor appointed December 4, 1843, to continue the term until an election.
Appointee was later elected, on an unknown date.
James Semple (D) Seated December 4, 1843
Missouri
(3)
Lewis F. Linn (D) Died October 3, 1843.
Successor appointed October 14, 1843, to continue the term until an election.
Appointee was later elected, on an unknown date in 1843.
David R. Atchison (D) Seated October 14, 1843
Rhode Island
(1)
William Sprague (W) Resigned January 17, 1844.
Successor elected January 25, 1844.
John B. Francis (LO) Seated January 25, 1844
Alabama
(2)
William R. King (D) Resigned April 15, 1844, after being appointed U.S. Minister to France.
Successor appointed April 22, 1844, to finish the term.
Dixon H. Lewis (D) Seated April 22, 1844
New York
(1)
Nathaniel P. Tallmadge (W) Resigned June 17, 1844, after being appointed Governor of Wisconsin Territory.
Successor was appointed November 30, 1945.
Appointee was later elected January 18, 1845.
Daniel S. Dickinson (D) Seated December 9, 1844
Arkansas
(2)
William S. Fulton (D) Died August 15, 1844.
Successor elected November 8, 1844.
Chester Ashley (D) Seated November 8, 1844
New York
(3)
Silas Wright (D) Resigned November 26, 1844, after being elected Governor of New York.
Successor appointed November 30, 1945.
Henry A. Foster (D) Seated December 9, 1844
New York
(3)
Henry A. Foster (D) Appointee was not nominated for election.
Successor elected January 18, 1845.
John A. Dix (D) Seated January 27, 1845
South Carolina
(2)
Daniel E. Huger (D) Resigned March 3, 1845 Vacant Not filled this term
Florida
(1)
New state: Florida admitted to the Union March 3, 1845.
First Senator wasn't elected until the next Congress.
Vacant Not filled this term
Florida
(2)
New state: Florida admitted to the Union March 3, 1845.
First Senator wasn't elected until the next Congress.
Vacant Not filled this term

House of RepresentativesEdit

  • replacements: 14
  • deaths: 7
  • resignations: 7
  • contested election: 0
  • Total seats with changes: 16


District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
Massachusetts 10th Barker Burnell (W) Died June 15, 1843 Joseph Grinnell (W) Seated December 7, 1843
Georgia At-large Mark A. Cooper (D) Resigned June 26, 1843, to become candidate for Governor of Georgia Alexander H. Stephens (W) Seated October 2, 1843
Georgia At-large John B. Lamar (D) Resigned July 29, 1843 Absalom H. Chappell (W) Seated October 2, 1843
Georgia At-large John Millen (D) Died October 15, 1843 Duncan L. Clinch (W) Seated February 15, 1844
Virginia 7th Henry A. Wise (D) Resigned February 12, 1844, after being appointed Minister to Brazil Thomas H. Bayly (D) Seated May 6, 1844
Pennsylvania 21st William Wilkens (D) Resigned February 14, 1844, after being appointed United States Secretary of War Cornelius Darragh (W) Seated March 26, 1844
Virginia 5th Thomas W. Gilmer (D) Resigned February 16, 1844, after being appointed United States Secretary of the Navy William L. Goggin (W) Seated April 25, 1844
Pennsylvania 13th Henry Frick (W) Died March 1, 1844 James Pollock (W) Seated April 5, 1844
Ohio 10th Heman A. Moore (D) Died April 3, 1844 Alfred P. Stone (D) Seated October 8, 1844
Alabama 3rd Dixon H. Lewis (D) Resigned April 22, 1844, after being appointed US Senator William L. Yancey (D) Seated December 2, 1844
Louisiana 4th Pierre Bossier (D) Died April 24, 1844 Isaac E. Morse (D) Seated December 2, 1844
New York 20th Samuel Beardsley (D) Resigned February 29, 1844, after being appointed associate judge of New York Supreme Court Levi D. Carpenter (D) Seated November 5, 1844
Ohio 21st Henry R. Brinkerhoff (D) Died April 30, 1844 Edward S. Hamlin (W) Seated October 8, 1844
Pennsylvania 12th Almon H. Read (D) Died June 3, 1844 George Fuller (D) Seated December 2, 1844
Florida Territory At-large David L. Yulee (D) Seat was eliminated when Florida achieved statehood March 3, 1845
Florida
At-large
Florida was admitted to the Union on March 3, 1845 Vacant Not filled this term

CommitteesEdit

Lists of committees and their party leaders.

SenateEdit

Committee Chairman
Foreign Relations William S. Archer (W-VA)
Finance George Evans (W-ME)
Commerce Jabez W. Huntington (W-CT)
Manufactures James F. Simmons (W-RI)
Agriculture William Upham (W-VT)
Military Affairs John J. Crittenden (W-KY)
Militia Alexander Barrow (W-LA)
Naval Affairs Richard H. Bayard (W-DE)
Public Lands William Woodbridge (W-MI)
Private Land Claims John Henderson (W-MS)
Indian Affairs Albert S. White (W-IN)
Claims Ephraim H. Foster (W-TN)
Revolutionary Claims Spencer Jarnagin (W-TN)
Judiciary John M. Berrien (W-GA)
Post Office and Post Roads William D. Merrick (W-MD)
Roads and Canals Augustus S. Porter (W-MI)
Pensions Isaac C. Bates (W-MA)
District of Columbia Jacob W. Miller (W-NJ)
Patents and the Patent Office Samuel S. Phelps (W-VT)
Retrenchment James T. Morehead (W-KY)
Public Buildings William L. Dayton (W-NJ)
Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Benjamin Tappan (W-OH)
Printing James F. Simmons (W-RI)
Engrossed Bills Benjamin Tappan (W-OH)

House of RepresentativesEdit

Committee Chairman
Elections Lucius Elmer (D-NJ)
Ways and Means James I. McKay (D-NC)
Claims Joseph Vance (D-OH)
Commerce Isaac E. Holmes (D-SC)
Public Lands John W. Davis (D-IN)
Post Office and Post Roads George W. Hopkins (D-VA)
District of Columbia John Campbell (D-SC)
Judiciary William Wilkins (D-PA), until February 14, 1844
Romulus M. Saunders (D-NC), from February 14, 1844
Revolutionary Claims Richard D. Davis (D-NY)
Public Expenditures James G. Clinton (D-NY)
Private Land Claims Edward Cross (D-AR)
Manufacturers Jacob Collamer (W-VT)
Agriculture Edmund Deberry (D-NC)
Indian Affairs Cave Johnson (D-TN)
Military Affairs Hugh A. Haralson (D-GA)
Militia Ezra Dean (D-OH)
Naval Affairs Henry A. Wise (D-VA), until February 12, 1844
William Parmenter (D-MA), from February 12, 1844
Foreign Affairs Charles J. Ingersoll (D-PA)
Territories Aaron V. Brown (D-TN)
Revolutionary Pensions George O. Rathbun (D-NY)
Invalid Pensions Jacob Brinkerhoff (D-OH)
Roads and Canals Robert D. Owen (D-IN)
Patents Alexander Harper (D-OH)
Public Buildings and Grounds Zadock Pratt (D-NY)
Revisals and Unfinished Business Elisha R. Potter (LO-RI)
Expenditures in the Navy Department Amasa Dana (D-NY)
Expenditures in the Post Office Department Alexander Harper (W-OH)
Expenditures on the Public Buildings Daniel P. King (W-MA)
Rules (select) Henry A. Wise (D-VA) until February 12, 1844
John Quincy Adams (W-MA) from February 12, 1844

Joint committeesEdit

EmployeesEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Stat. 491
  2. ^ Stat. 743
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External linksEdit