1848 and 1849 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 31st Congress were held at various dates in different states from August 1848 to November 1849.

1848 and 1849 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1846 & 1847 August 7, 1848 – November 6, 1849[a] 1850 & 1851 →

All 233[b] seats in the United States House of Representatives
117 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party
  Howell Cobb-crop.jpg Robert Charles Winthrop.jpg
Leader Howell Cobb Robert C. Winthrop
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Georgia 6th Massachusetts 1st
Last election 110 seats 116 seats
Seats won 113[b] 106
Seat change Increase 3 Decrease 10
Popular vote 1,212,632 1,231,320
Percentage 44.16% 44.84%
Swing Decrease 4.27% Increase 0.32%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Free Soil Know Nothing
Last election New Party 1 seats
Seats won 9 1
Seat change Increase 9 Steady
Popular vote 237,714 10,539
Percentage 8.66% 0.38%
Swing Increase 5.57%[c] Decrease 0.83%

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Last election 3 seats[d]
Seats won 3[e]
Seat change Steady
Popular vote 48,223
Percentage 1.76%
Swing Decrease 0.98%

Speaker before election

Robert C. Winthrop
Whig

Elected Speaker

Howell Cobb
Democratic

These elections spanned the presidential election of 1848 and took place amid the U.S. victory over Mexico in the (1846–48) Mexican–American War. The Whigs lost their House majority as Democrats, whose support had driven the war, gained a House plurality. Among minor parties, the Free Soil Party won nine Northern seats, while the American or "Know Nothing" Party retained one.

Following the discovery of gold in January 1848, California boomed, creating immediate pressure for statehood. The Compromise of 1850, though largely crafted in the Senate, was also passed by the House, brokering its admission to the Union. Anticipating statehood, California elected two members at-large on November 11, 1849, to be seated September 11, 1850.

As neither major party held a majority when Congress convened on December 3, 1849 - the Democrats finished three seats short, while the Whigs had lost 12 seats and the majority - the election of a Speaker proved contentious.

The Whigs were sectionally split, with Northern Whigs nominating incumbent speaker Robert C. Winthrop of Massachusetts and Southern Whigs supporting Meredith P. Gentry of Tennessee. Democrats primarily supported Howell Cobb of Georgia; 13 other Democratic hopefuls also garnered support. The small Free Soil Party, opposing expansion of slavery into the Western territories, supported David Wilmot of Pennsylvania, author of the Wilmot Proviso, calling attention to slave power's hold over both major parties.

After nearly three weeks of heated debate, the House suspended its majority rule for the Speaker election: Cobb was elected on the 63rd ballot by plurality.[1]

Election summariesEdit

Wisconsin was apportioned an additional seat in 1848,[2] and two more seats were added for the new state of California.[3]

113 11 108
Democratic [f] Whig
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic Free Soil Whig Other
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Arkansas At-large August 7, 1848 1 1   0   0   0  
Illinois District August 7, 1848 7 6   0   1   0  
Iowa District August 7, 1848 2 2   0   0   0  
Missouri District August 7, 1848 5 5   0   0   0  
Vermont District September 5, 1848 4 1   0   3   0  
Maine District September 11, 1848 7 5  1 0   2  1 0  
Florida At-large October 2, 1848 1 0   0   1   0  
Georgia District October 2, 1848 8 4   0   4   0  
South Carolina District October 9–10, 1848 7 7   0   0   0  
Ohio District October 10, 1848 21 11  1 2  2 8  3 0  
Pennsylvania District October 10, 1848 24 9  2 1  1 13  3 1[g]  
Delaware At-large November 6, 1848 1 0   0   1   0  
Michigan District November 7, 1848
(Election Day)[h]
3 2  1 0   1  1 0  
New Jersey District 5 1   0   4   0  
New York District 34 1  10 1  1 32  9 0  
Wisconsin District 3[i] 1  1 1  1 1  1 0  
Massachusetts District November 13, 1848 10[j] 0   1  1 8  2 0  
Late elections, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term
New Hampshire District March 13, 1849 4 2   1  1 1   0  1[k]
Connecticut District April 2, 1849 4 2  2 1  1 1  3 0  
Rhode Island District April 4, 1849 2 0  1 0   2  1 0  
Virginia District April 26, 1849 15 13  4 0   2  4 0  
Tennessee District August 2, 1849 11 7  1 0   4  1 0  
Alabama District August 6, 1849 7 5   0   2   0  
Indiana District August 6, 1849 10 8  2 1  1 1  3 0  
Kentucky District August 6, 1849 10 4   0   6   0  
Texas District August 6, 1849 2 2   0   0   0  
North Carolina District August 7, 1849 9 3   0   6   0  
Maryland District October 3, 1849 6 3  1 0   3  1 0  
Louisiana District November 5, 1849 4 3   0   1   0  
Mississippi District November 5–6, 1849 4 4  1 0   0  1 0  
California At-large November 11, 1849[l] 2 1  1 0   0   1[m]  1
Total[b] 233 113
48.7%
 1 9
3.9%
 9 108
46.6%
 8 2
0.9%
 
Popular vote
Democratic
44.16%
Free Soil
8.66%
Independent
1.76%
Know Nothing
0.38%
Others
0.20%
Whig
44.84%
House seats
Democratic
49.78%
Free Soil
3.46%
Independent
1.30%
Know Nothing
0.43%
Whig
45.02%

Special electionsEdit

30th CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member / Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Pennsylvania 6 John W. Hornbeck Whig 1846 Incumbent died January 16, 1848.
New member elected March 6, 1848.
Democratic gain.
Successor was not a candidate for the next term, see below.
Massachusetts 8 John Quincy Adams Whig 1830 Incumbent died February 23, 1848.
New member elected April 3, 1848.
Whig hold.
Successor later re-elected for the next term, see below.
South Carolina 1 James A. Black Democratic 1843 Incumbent died April 3, 1848.
New member elected October 10, 1848.
Democratic hold.
Successor later re-elected for the next term, see below.
  •  Y Daniel Wallace (Democratic) 39.59%
  • H. F. Thompson (Unknown) 35.77%
  • W. F. Davie (Unknown) 24.64%[5]
New York 27 John M. Holley Whig 1846 Incumbent died March 8, 1848.
New member elected November 7, 1848.
Whig hold.
Successor later re-elected for the next term, see below.
South Carolina 4 Alexander D. Sims Democratic 1844 Incumbent died November 22, 1848.
New member elected January 9, 1849.
Democratic hold.
Successor later elected for the next term, see below.
Wisconsin Territory at-large New delegate elected October 30, 1848.

31st CongressEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 4 Alexander D. Sims Democratic 1844 Incumbent had been re-elected, see below, but died November 22, 1848.
New member elected January 16, 1849.
Democratic.
Successor having already been elected to finish the current term, see above.
Ohio 6 Rodolphus Dickinson Democratic Incumbent died March 20, 1849.
New member elected in 1849.
Vermont 3
Virginia 15

AlabamaEdit

Elections were held August 6, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1
Alabama 2
Alabama 3
Alabama 4
Alabama 5
Alabama 6
Alabama 7

ArkansasEdit

The election was held August 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Arkansas at-large

CaliforniaEdit

California two at-large members were elected November 11, 1849 in anticipation of statehood and seated September 11, 1850.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California at-large
2 seats
None New seat.
New member elected.
Independent gain.
(Elected on a general ticket)
None New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

ConnecticutEdit

Elections were held April 2, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut 1
Connecticut 2
Connecticut 3
Connecticut 4

DelawareEdit

The election was held November 6, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large

FloridaEdit

Florida's single at-large member was elected October 2, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida at-large Edward C. Cabell Whig 1846 Incumbent re-elected.

GeorgiaEdit

Elections were held October 2, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia 1
Georgia 2
Georgia 3
Georgia 4
Georgia 5
Georgia 6
Georgia 7
Georgia 8

IllinoisEdit

Elections were held August 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Illinois 1
Illinois 2
Illinois 3
Illinois 4
Illinois 5
Illinois 6
Illinois 7

IndianaEdit

Elections were held August 10, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Indiana 1
Indiana 2
Indiana 3
Indiana 4
Indiana 5
Indiana 6
Indiana 7
Indiana 8
Indiana 9
Indiana 10

IowaEdit

Elections were held August 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Iowa 1
Iowa 2

KentuckyEdit

Elections were held August 6, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1
Kentucky 2
Kentucky 3
Kentucky 4
Kentucky 5
Kentucky 6
Kentucky 7
Kentucky 8
Kentucky 9
Kentucky 10

LouisianaEdit

Elections were held November 5, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana 1
Louisiana 2
Louisiana 3
Louisiana 4

MaineEdit

Elections were held September 11, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maine 1
Maine 2
Maine 3
Maine 4
Maine 5
Maine 6
Maine 7

MarylandEdit

Elections were held October 3, 1849 elections were after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the new term, but still before the Congress convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 1
Maryland 2
Maryland 3
Maryland 4
Maryland 5
Maryland 6

MassachusettsEdit

Elections were held November 13, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1
Massachusetts 2
Massachusetts 3
Massachusetts 4 John G. Palfrey Whig 1846 Incumbent lost re-election as Free Soil candidate.
No member elected due to failure to achieve majority vote.
Whig loss.
Massachusetts 5
Massachusetts 6
Massachusetts 7 Julius Rockwell Whig 1844 (Late) Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 8
Massachusetts 9
Massachusetts 10

MichiganEdit

Elections were held November 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Michigan 1
Michigan 2
Michigan 3

Minnesota TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

MississippiEdit

Elections were held November 5–6, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi 1 Jacob Thompson Democratic 1839 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 2 Winfield S. Featherston Democratic 1847 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 3 Patrick W. Tompkins Whig 1847 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Mississippi 4 Albert G. Brown Democratic 1847 Incumbent re-elected.

MissouriEdit

Elections were held August 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri 1
Missouri 2
Missouri 3
Missouri 4
Missouri 5

New HampshireEdit

Elections were held March 13, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire 1
New Hampshire 2
New Hampshire 3
New Hampshire 4

New JerseyEdit

Elections were held November 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Jersey 1
New Jersey 2
New Jersey 3
New Jersey 4
New Jersey 5

New YorkEdit

Elections were held November 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1
New York 2
New York 3
New York 4
New York 5
New York 6
New York 7
New York 8
New York 9
New York 10
New York 11
New York 12
New York 13
New York 14
New York 15
New York 16
New York 17
New York 18
New York 19
New York 20
New York 21
New York 22
New York 23
New York 24
New York 25
New York 26
New York 27
New York 28
New York 29
New York 30
New York 31
New York 32
New York 33
New York 34

North CarolinaEdit

Elections were held August 7, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1
North Carolina 2
North Carolina 3
North Carolina 4
North Carolina 5
North Carolina 6
North Carolina 7
North Carolina 8
North Carolina 9

OhioEdit

Elections were held October 10, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Ohio 1
Ohio 2
Ohio 3
Ohio 4
Ohio 5
Ohio 6
Ohio 7
Ohio 8
Ohio 9
Ohio 10
Ohio 11
Ohio 12
Ohio 13
Ohio 14
Ohio 15
Ohio 16
Ohio 17
Ohio 18
Ohio 19
Ohio 20
Ohio 21

Oregon TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

PennsylvaniaEdit

Elections were held October 10, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Pennsylvania 1
Pennsylvania 2
Pennsylvania 3
Pennsylvania 4
Pennsylvania 5
Pennsylvania 6
Pennsylvania 7
Pennsylvania 8
Pennsylvania 9
Pennsylvania 10
Pennsylvania 11
Pennsylvania 12
Pennsylvania 13
Pennsylvania 14
Pennsylvania 15
Pennsylvania 16
Pennsylvania 17
Pennsylvania 18
Pennsylvania 19
Pennsylvania 20
Pennsylvania 21
Pennsylvania 22
Pennsylvania 23
Pennsylvania 24

Rhode IslandEdit

Elections were held April 4, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island 1
Rhode Island 2

South CarolinaEdit

Elections were held October 9–10, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1
South Carolina 2
South Carolina 3
South Carolina 4 Alexander D. Sims Democratic 1844 Incumbent re-elected.
Incumbent then died November 22, 1848, leading to two special elections.
South Carolina 5
South Carolina 6
South Carolina 7

TennesseeEdit

Elections were held August 2, 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 Andrew Johnson Democratic 1842 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 2 William M. Cocke Whig 1845 Incumbent lost re-election as a Democrat.
New member elected.
Whig hold.
Tennessee 3 John H. Crozier Whig 1845 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig hold.
Tennessee 4 Hugh L.W. Hill Democratic 1847 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  •  Y John H. Savage (Democratic) 48.44%
  • Samuel Turney (Unknown) 38.82%
  • John B. Rogers (Whig) 12.74%[19]
Tennessee 5 George W. Jones Democratic 1842 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 6 James H. Thomas Democratic 1847 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 7 Meredith P. Gentry Whig 1845 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 8 Washington Barrow Whig 1847 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee 9 Lucien B. Chase Democratic 1845 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Tennessee 10 Frederick P. Stanton Democratic 1845 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 11 William T. Haskell Whig 1847 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig hold.

TexasEdit

Elections were held August 6, 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Texas 1
Texas 2

VermontEdit

Elections were held September 5, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 1
Vermont 2
Vermont 3
Vermont 4

VirginiaEdit

Elections were held April 26, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1
Virginia 2
Virginia 3
Virginia 4
Virginia 5
Virginia 6
Virginia 7
Virginia 8
Virginia 9
Virginia 10
Virginia 11
Virginia 12
Virginia 13
Virginia 14
Virginia 15


WisconsinEdit

Wisconsin members were first elected in advance of its June 1848 statehood. It elected two members to finish the current term in the 30th Congress, and then it gained an elected an additional member for elections to the 31st Congress.

30th CongressEdit

Wisconsin's two members were elected May 8, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wisconsin 1 New seat New seat.
New member elected May 8, 1848.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 2 New seat New seat.
New member elected May 8, 1848.
Democratic gain.

31st CongressEdit

Wisconsin's three members were elected November 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[29]
Wisconsin 1 William Pitt Lynde Democratic 1848 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Free Soil gain.
Wisconsin 2 Mason C. Darling Democratic 1848 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Wisconsin 3 New seat New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Non-voting delegatesEdit

Going into these elections, there were no incumbent delegates, because the only territory — Wisconsin Territorybecame a state in 1848. Two new territories — Minnesota Territory and Oregon Territory — were granted delegates in 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Minnesota Territory New district New seat.
New delegate elected July 7, 1849.
Democratic gain.
Oregon Territory New district New seat.
New delegate elected in 1849.
Democratic gain.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted during the 31st Congress
  2. ^ a b c Includes late elections
  3. ^ In comparison to its precursor, the Liberty Party, in the last election cycle.
  4. ^ Includes two Independent Democrats.
  5. ^ Includes one Independent, one Independent Whig, and one Anti-Rent Whig.
  6. ^ There were 9 Free Soilers, 1 Know Nothing, and 1 Independent.
  7. ^ 1 Know Nothing
  8. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (see: Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721). Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for congressional elections as well.
  9. ^ Increase of 1 seat.
  10. ^ One vacancy, in Massachusetts's 4th district, for the duration of the 31st Congress (as no candidate received a majority of the vote after multiple elections).
  11. ^ Previous election had 1 Independent.
  12. ^ Seated September 11, 1850 after admission to the Union.
  13. ^ 1 Independent elected.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Brooks, Corey M. (2016). Liberty Power: Antislavery Third Parties and the Transformation of American Politics. University of Chicago Press. pp. 155–160. ISBN 978-0-226-30728-2. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  2. ^ Stat. 235
  3. ^ Stat. 452
  4. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 8 - Special Election Race - Apr 03, 1848". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - SC - District 01 Race - Oct 09, 1848". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  6. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY District 27 - Special Election Race - Nov 07, 1848". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  7. ^ "Our Campaigns - SC - District 04 Special Election Race - Jan 08, 1849". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - SC - District 04 Special Election Race - Jan 15, 1849". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 4 - 4th Trial Race - May 26, 1851". OurCampaigns.com.
  10. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 7 Race - Nov 13, 1848". OurCampaigns.com.
  11. ^ "MS - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  12. ^ "MS - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  13. ^ "MS - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  14. ^ "MS - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  15. ^ "Our Campaigns - SC - District 04 Race - Oct 09, 1848". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  16. ^ "TN - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  17. ^ "TN - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  18. ^ "TN - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  19. ^ "TN - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  20. ^ "TN - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  21. ^ "TN - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  22. ^ "TN - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  23. ^ "TN - District 08". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  24. ^ "TN - District 09". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  25. ^ "TN - District 10". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  26. ^ "TN - District 11". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  27. ^ "Our Campaigns - WI District 01 Race - Mar 13, 1848". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  28. ^ "Our Campaigns - WI District 2 Race - Mar 13, 1848". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  29. ^ "Election 1848". Potosi Republican. December 7, 1848. p. 2. Retrieved May 23, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  30. ^ "Our Campaigns - WI District 2 Race - Nov 07, 1848". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  31. ^ "Our Campaigns - WI District 3 Race - Nov 07, 1848". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved May 23, 2020.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit