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United Kingdom general election, 1923

The United Kingdom general election of 1923 was held on Thursday 6 December 1923. The Conservatives, led by Stanley Baldwin, won the most seats, but Labour, led by Ramsay MacDonald, and H. H. Asquith's reunited Liberal Party gained enough to produce a hung parliament. It was the last UK general election in which a third party (the Liberals) won more than 100 seats, or received more than 26% of the vote.

United Kingdom general election, 1923
United Kingdom
← 1922 6 December 1923 1924 →

All 615 seats Constituency results
308 seats needed for a majority
Turnout 71.1% (Decrease1.9%)
  First party Second party Third party
  Stanley Baldwin ggbain.35233.jpg Ramsay MacDonald ggbain 35734.jpg Herbert Henry Asquith.jpg
Leader Stanley Baldwin Ramsay MacDonald H. H. Asquith
Party Conservative Labour Liberal
Leader since 23 May 1923 21 November 1922 30 April 1908
Leader's seat Bewdley Aberavon Paisley
Last election 344 seats, 38.5% 142 seats, 29.7% 115 seats, 28.8%[n 1]
Seats won 258 191 158
Seat change Decrease 86 Increase 49 Increase 43
Popular vote 5,286,159 4,267,831 4,129,922
Percentage 38.0% 30.7% 29.7%
Swing Decrease 0.5% Increase 1.0% Increase 0.9%

1923 election wiki.png
Colours denote the winning party, as shown in the main table of results

Prime Minister before election

Stanley Baldwin
Conservative

Elected Prime Minister

Ramsay MacDonald
Labour

As the election had been fought on the Conservative proposals for tariff reform, it was inevitable that they could not retain office. As a result, MacDonald formed the first ever Labour government with tacit support from the Liberals. Asquith's motivation for permitting Labour to enter power, rather than trying to bring the Liberals back into government, was that he hoped they would prove to be incompetent and quickly lose support. Being a minority, MacDonald's government only lasted 10 months and another general election was held in October 1924.

Contents

OverviewEdit

In May 1923 Prime Minister Bonar Law fell ill and resigned on 22 May,[1] after just 209 days in office. He was replaced by Baldwin.

Having won an election just the year before, Baldwin's Conservative party had a comfortable majority in the Commons and could have waited another four years, but the government was concerned. Baldwin felt the need to receive a mandate from the people, which, if successful, would strengthen his grip on the Conservative party leadership. Oxford historian (and Conservative MP) J.A.R. Marriott depicts the gloomy national mood:

The times were still out of joint. Mr. Baldwin had indeed succeeded in negotiating (January 1923) a settlement of the British debt to the United States, but on terms which involved an annual payment of £34 million, at the existing rate of exchange. The French remained in the Ruhr. Peace had not yet been made with Turkey; unemployment was a standing menace to national recovery; there was continued unrest among the wage-earners, and a significant strike among farm labourers in Norfolk. Confronted by these difficulties, convinced that economic conditions in England called for a drastic change in fiscal policy, and urged thereto by the Imperial Conference of 1923, Mr. Baldwin decided to ask the country for a mandate for Preference and Protection.[2][3]

The result however backfired on Baldwin, who lost a host of seats to Labour and the Liberals. For the first time in history, Labour formed a government.

ResultsEdit

258 191 158 8
Conservative Labour Liberal O
UK General Election 1923
Candidates Votes
Party Leader Standing Elected Gained Unseated Net  % of total  % No. Net %
  Conservative Stanley Baldwin 536 258 − 86 41.95 38.0 5,286,159 −0.5
  Labour Ramsay MacDonald 427 191 + 49 31.06 30.7 4,267,831 +1.0
  Liberal H. H. Asquith 457 158 + 43 25.69 29.7 4,129,922 +0.9
  Nationalist Joseph Devlin 4 3 0 0 0 0.487 0.4 54,157 N/A
  Independent N/A 6 2 0 1 − 1 0.325 0.3 36,802 −0.5
  Communist Albert Inkpin 4 0 0 1 − 1 0.2 34,258 0.0
  Belfast Labour David Robb Campbell 1 0 0 0 0 0.2 22,255 N/A
  Independent Labour N/A 4 0 0 1 − 1 0.2 17,331 0.0
  Independent Liberal N/A 3 1 1 1 0 0.1 16,184 0.0
  Constitutionalist N/A 1 0 0 1 − 1 0.1 15,500 0.0
  Independent Conservative N/A 1 0 0 3 − 3 0.1 15,171 −0.8
  Scottish Prohibition Edwin Scrymgeour 1 1 0 0 0 0.1 12,877 0.0
  Christian Pacifist N/A 1 1 0 0 0 0.0 570 N/A

Total number of votes cast: 13,909,017. Turnout 71.1%[4] All parties shown. Conservatives include Ulster Unionists. Liberal total is compared to joint total of Liberals and National Liberals in 1922.

Votes summaryEdit

Popular vote
Conservative
38.01%
Labour
30.68%
Liberal
29.69%
Nationalist
0.39%
Independent
0.61%
Others
0.60%

Seats summaryEdit

Parliamentary seats
Conservative
41.95%
Labour
31.06%
Liberal
25.69%
Nationalist
0.5%
Independent
0.49%
Others
0.31%

Constituency resultsEdit

For a full list of the results by constituency, see Constituency election results in the United Kingdom general election, 1923.

Transfers of seatsEdit

  • All comparisons are with the 1922 election.
  • In some cases the change is due to the MP defecting to the gaining party. Such circumstances are marked with a *.
  • In other circumstances the change is due to the seat having been won by the gaining party in a by-election in the intervening years, and then retained in 1923. Such circumstances are marked with a †.
From To No. Seats
Communist Liberal 1 Battersea North
Conservative 1 Motherwell
Labour Labour (HOLD) 124 Aberdeen North, Ayrshire South, Bishop Auckland, Chester-le-Street, Derby (one of two), Dundee (one of two), Edinburgh Central, Fife West, Govan, Hamilton, Houghton-le-Spring, Workington, Plaistow, Forest of Dean, Burnley, Nelson and Colne, Preston (one of two), Ince, Platting, Westhoughton, Wigan, Salford North, Newton, St Helens, Holland with Boston, Deptford, Woolwich East, Morpeth, Broxtowe, Nottingham West, Kingswinford, Leek, Smethwick, Wednesbury, West Bromwich, Hemsworth, Leeds South East, Normanton, Rother Valley, Rothwell, Wentworth, Abertillery, Bedwellty, Ebbw Vale, Pontypool, Caerphilly, Gower, Ogmore, Rhondda East, Rhondda West, Glasgow Gorbals, Manchester Gorton, Cannock, East Ham South, Walthamstow West, Leicester West, Wallsend, Hanley, Bradford East, Don Valley, Aberdare, Silvertown, Midlothian South & Peebles, Derbyshire North East, Spennymoor, Seaham, Consett, Leigh, Whitechapel and St Georges, Wansbeck, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Dunfermline Burghs, Renfrewshire East, Renfrewshire West, Rutherglen, Dumbarton Burghs, Glasgow Bridgeton, Crewe, Clay Cross, Ilkeston, Blaydon, Jarrow, Poplar South, Stepney Limehouse, Pontefract, Sheffield Hillsborough, Sheffield Attercliffe, Sheffield Brightside, Leeds South, Doncaster, Barnsley, Batley and Morley, Colne Valley, Wrexham, Llanelli, Aberavon, Merthyr, Neath, Swansea East, Norfolk North, Clackmannan and Eastern Stirlingshire, Stirlingshire West, Lanarkshire North, Glasgow Maryhill, Glasgow Camlachie, Bothwell†, Coatbridge, Glasgow Springburn, Glasgow Tradeston, Glasgow St. Rollox, Glasgow Shettleston, Linlithgow, Durham, Stratford, Eccles, Farnworth, Manchester Ardwick, Oldham (one of two), Bow and Bromley, Camberwell North, Edmonton, Tottenham North, Newcastle upon Tyne Central, Bradford Central
Liberal 12 Accrington, Bermondsey West, Burslem, Carnarvonshire, Dewsbury, Elland, Gateshead, Keighley, Newcastle upon Tyne East, Newcastle upon Tyne West, Rochdale, Stirling and Falkirk
Conservative 2 Cathcart, Sedgefield
Ind Labour X Liberal 1 Anglesey
Scot Prohib Scot Prohib 1 Dundee (one of two)
Irish Nat Irish Nat 3 Fermanagh and Tyrone (both seats), Liverpool Scotland
Liberal Labour 5 Bethnal Green North-East, Derby (one of two), Huddersfield, Leeds West, Mansfield
Liberal (HOLD) 45 Greenock, Paisley, Leith, Edinburgh East, Chesterfield, Hull South West, Lambeth North, Wolverhampton East, Middlesbrough West, Penistone, Merionethshire, Montgomeryshire, Orkney and Shetland, East Aberdeenshire & Kincardineshire, Galloway, South Molton, South Shields, Spen Valley, Combined Scottish Universities (one of three), Aberdeen and Kincardine Central†, Forfarshire, Fife East, Edinburgh West, Dumfriesshire, Bedfordshire Mid, Birkenhead East, Tavistock, Dorset North, The Hartlepools, Harwich, Isle of Wight, Hull Central, Preston (one of two), Bootle, Horncastle, Bethnal Green South-West, Great Yarmouth, Nottingham Central, Oxford, Taunton, Chippenham, Westbury, Bradford South, Louth, Walsall
Conservative 8 Aberdeenshire West and Kincardine, Penrith and Cockermouth, Belper, Derbyshire West, Worcester, Holderness, Grantham, Norfolk South West
National Liberal Labour 20 Kirkcaldy Burghs, Glasgow Partick, Kilmarnock, Berwick & Haddington, Bristol East, Bristol North, Dartford, Bolton (one of two), Leicester East, Shoreditch, Southwark North, Southwark South East, Norwich (both seats), Northampton, Wellingborough, Lichfield, Shipley, Pontypridd†, Swansea West
Liberal 26 Caithness and Sutherland*, Inverness*, Ross and Cromarty*, Western Isles, Banff*, Montrose Burghs*, Argyll*, Stockport (one of two), Cornwall North*, Stockton-on-Tees, Bristol South*, Blackburn (one of two), Heywood and Radcliffe*, Oldham (one of two)*, Stretford, Camberwell North-West*, Hackney Central, Southwark Central*, Stoke*, Denbigh, Flintshire*, Carmarthen, Pembrokeshire*, Carnarvon*, Brecon and Radnor*, Combined English Universities (one of two)*
Ind Liberal 2 Camborne, Cardiganshire
Christian Pacifist 1 University of Wales
Conservative 5 Moray and Nairn, Kinross and West Perthshire, Romford, Middleton & Prestwich, Sheffield Park
Ind Liberal Conservative 2 Eye, Cambridge University (one of two)
Independent X Independent 2 Mossley, Harrow
Speaker X Speaker 1 Halifax
Conservative Labour 40 Dunbartonshire, Lanark, Midlothian & Peebles North, Reading, Birkenhead West, Barnard Castle, Leyton East, East Ham North, Essex SE, Maldon, Upton, Gravesend, Manchester Clayton, Salford South, Salford West, Warrington, Liverpool Edge Hill†, Greenwich, Kennington, Hammersmith North, Finsbury, Hackney South, Islington South, Islington West, Stepney Mile End, Rotherhithe, St Pancras North, St Pancras South East, Norfolk South, Kettering, The Wrekin, Frome, Ipswich, Coventry, Enfield, Tottenham South, Willesden West, Wakefield, Rotherham, Cardiff South
Liberal 69 Perth, Edinburgh North, Luton, Abingdon, Newbury, Aylesbury, Wycombe, Huntingdonshire, Isle of Ely, Altrincham, Stalybridge and Hyde, Wirral, Penryn and Falmouth, St Ives, Barnstaple, Plymouth Devonport, Tiverton, Torquay, Totnes, Chelmsford, Stroud, Thornbury, Basingstoke, Portsmouth Central, Hemel Hempstead, Sevenoaks, Blackpool, Darwen, Lancaster, Lonsdale, Manchester Blackley, Manchester Exchange, Manchester Moss Side, Manchester Rusholme, Manchester Withington, Royton, Liverpool Wavertree, Liverpool West Derby, Southport, Bosworth, Harborough, Leicester South, Gainsborough, Hackney North, Brixton, Islington East, Stoke Newington, King's Lynn, Norfolk East, Hexham, Nottingham East, Shrewsbury, Bath, Bridgwater, Wells, Weston-super-Mare, Sudbury, Chichester, Nuneaton, Rugby, Finchley, Willesden East†, Devizes, Salisbury, Cleveland, Middlesbrough East, Bradford North, Sowerby, Cardiff East
Conservative (HOLD) 226 Cambridge University (one of two), Combined English Universities (one of two), Oxford University (both seats), London University, Combined Scottish Universities (two of three), Aberdeen South, Ayr Burghs, Ayrshire N & Bute, Glasgow Central, Hillhead, Pollok, Kelvingrove, Edinburgh South, Windsor, Buckingham, Cambridge, Chester, Eddisbury, Knutsford, Macclesfield, Northwich, Wallasey, Cumberland North, Westmorland, High Peak, Exeter, Honiton, Plymouth Drake, Plymouth Sutton, Dorset South, Dorset West, Darlington, Sunderland (both seats), Colchester, Epping, Ilford, Leyton West, Southend, Walthamstow E, Bristol Central, Bristol West, Cheltenham, Cirencester and Tewkesbury, Gloucester, Aldershot, Fareham, New Forest & Christchurch, Petersfield, Portsmouth North, Portsmouth South, Winchester, Hereford, Leominster, Bewdley, Dudley, Evesham, Kidderminster, Hitchin, St Albans, Watford, Ealing, Hornsey, Twickenham, Wood Green, Brentford and Chiswick, Hendon, Spelthorne, Uxbridge, Acton, Howdenshire, Hull East, Hull North West, Ashford, Bromley, Canterbury, Chatham, Chislehurst, Dover, Faversham, Gillingham, Hythe, Isle of Thanet, Maidstone, Tonbridge, Barrow-in-Furness, Blackburn (one of two), Chorley, Fylde, Rossendale, Ashton-under-Lyne, Bury, Hulme, E Toxteth, Everton, Liverpool Exchange, Fairfield, Kirkdale, Walton, West Toxteth, Waterloo, Widnes, Melton, Brigg, Grimsby, Lincoln, Rutland and Stamford, Balham and Tooting, Chelsea, Clapham, Dulwich, Fulham East, Hampstead, Holborn, Lewisham East, Lewisham West, Kensington South, Fulham West, Hammersmith South, Islington North, Kensington North, Battersea South, City of London (both seats), Norwood, Paddington North, Paddington South, Putney, St Marylebone, St Pancras South West, Streatham, Wandsworth Central, Westminster Abbey, Woolwich West, Daventry, Peterborough, Newcastle upon Tyne North, Tynemouth, Bassetlaw, Nottingham South, Rushcliffe, Newark, Henley, Ludlow, Oswestry, Yeovil, Burton, Stafford, Stone, Tamworth, Bilston, Wolverhampton West, Bury St Edmunds, Woodbridge, Chertsey, Croydon North, Croydon South, Epsom, Farnham, Guildford, Kingston upon Thames, Mitcham, Reigate, Surrey East, Wimbledon, Brighton (both seats), East Grinstead, Eastbourne, Hastings, Horsham and Worthing, Lewes, Rye, Aston, Deritend, Erdington, King's Norton, Ladywood, Yardley, Sparkbrook, Birmingham West, Edgbaston, Handsworth, Moseley, Warwick and Leamington, Swindon, York, Richmond (Yorks), Scarborough and Whitby, Thirsk and Malton, Barkston Ash, Ripon, Ecclesall, Hallam, Skipton, Leeds North East, Sheffield Central, Monmouth, Llandaff & Barry, Cardiff C, Bournemouth, Hertford, Bedford, Cambridgeshire, Derbyshire South, Southampton (both seats), Buckrose, Peckham, Banbury, Lowestoft, Pudsey and Otley, Leeds North, Leeds Central, Newport (Monmouthshire), Bodmin, Saffron Walden, Stourbridge, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Birmingham Duddeston, Stockport (one of two), Clitheroe, Ormskirk, Bolton (one of two)
Ind Conserv Conservative 2 Westminster St George's, Richmond (Surrey)*
Ind Conserv 1 Dorset East
Ulster Union Ulster Union 11 Antrim (both seats), Armagh, Belfast East, Belfast North, Belfast South, Belfast West, Down (both seats), Londonderry, Queen's University of Belfast

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 August 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2008. 
  2. ^ J. A. R. Marriott, Modern England: 1885-1945 (4th ed. 1948) p. 517
  3. ^ Paul W. Doerr, British foreign policy 1919-1939 p.75-76
  4. ^ http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons/lib/research/rp2008/rp08-012.pdf

Further readingEdit

  • Cook, Chris P. "Wales and the General Election of 1923." Welsh History Review 4.4 (1969): 393-4.
  • F. W. S. Craig, British Electoral Facts: 1832-1987 (1989)
  • Craig, F.W.S. ed. British General Election Manifestos, 1900-74 (1975).
  • Irwin, Douglas A. "Industry or Class Cleavages over Trade Policy? Evidence from the British General Election of 1923." (No. w5170. National bureau of economic research, 1995) online.
  • Self, Robert. "Conservative reunion and the general election of 1923: a reassessment." Twentieth Century British History 3.3 (1992): 249-273.
  • Smart, Nick. "Baldwin's Blunder? The General Election of 1923." Twentieth Century British History 7#1 (1996): 110-139.

External linksEdit

External linksEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ This represents the joint total of the Liberals and the National Liberals in the 1922 election. The two parties reunified for the 1923 election.