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Oxford (UK Parliament constituency)

Oxford was a parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom. It comprised the city of Oxford in the county of Oxfordshire, and elected two members of parliament from its creation in 1295 until 1885 when its representation was reduced to one member by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.

Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
CountyOxfordshire
Major settlementsOxford
1295–1983
Number of members1295–1885: Two
1885–1983: One
Replaced byOxford East and Oxford West and Abingdon[1]

During the 1960s and 1970s, Oxford was a marginal seat.

Contents

Boundaries and boundary changesEdit

1918-1950: The County Borough of Oxford.[2] The boundaries were expanded to coincide with the County Borough.

1950-1983: As above, with redrawn boundaries.[2] Areas which had been absorbed by the County Borough of Oxford, including Cowley and Headington, transferred from the Henley constituency.  Small area in the north also transferred from Banbury.

In the 1983 redistribution, this constituency was abolished and was split into two new, separate constituencies: Oxford East, and Oxford West and Abingdon. The City of Oxford local government district had replaced the County Borough of Oxford on 1 April 1974, under the terms of the Local Government Act 1972, and the redistribution reflected this. Despite Oxford West and Abingdon including Oxford city centre, Oxford East included the majority of the new district. The city centre has been in the redrawn Oxford East since 2010.

Members of ParliamentEdit

1295–1640Edit

Parliament First member Second member
1379 Edmund Kenyan[3] Thomas Somerset[4]
1380 (Nov) Edmund Kenyan[3]
1381 Edmund Kenyan[3]
1382 (May) Edmund Kenyan[3]
1385 Edmund Kenyan[3]
1386 Edmund Kenyan Thomas Houkyn[5]
1388 (Feb) John Hickes Thomas Somerset[5]
1388 (Sep) John Shawe Thomas Baret[5]
1390 (Jan) Richard Garston Alan Lekensfeld[5]
1390 (Nov) Edmund Kenyan Adam de la River[5]
1391 Edmund Kenyan John Ottworth[5]
1393 Richard Garston John Merston[5]
1394 Edmund Kenyan John Forster[5]
1395 John Ludlow Adam de la River[5]
1397 (Jan) Walter Benham Adam de la River[5]
1397 (Sep) John Ottworth Adam de la River[5]
1399 John Spicer John Burbridge[5]
1401 Thomas Forsthull Adam de la River[5]
1402 Walter Benham John Spicer[5]
1404 (Jan) Thomas Coventre John Spicer[5]
1404 (Oct) John Merston Michael Salisbury[5]
1406 John Ottworth Thomas Cowley[5]
1407 Thomas Coventre Hugh Benet[5]
1410 Thomas Coventre Hugh Benet[5]
1411
1413 (Feb)
1413 (May) Thomas Coventre Hugh Benet[5]
1414 (Apr) John Shawe II Walter Colet[5]
1414 (Nov) Thomas Coventre John Merston[5]
1415
1416 (Mar) Thomas Coventre William Brampton[5]
1416 (Oct)
1417 Thomas Coventre Hugh Benet[5]
1419 Thomas Coventre William Brampton[5]
1420 Thomas Coventre William Offord[5]
1421 (May) Thomas Coventre William Brampton[5]
1421 (Dec) John Quarane William Offord[5]
1491 Robert Caxton[6]
1510–1523 No names known[7]
1529 John Latton William Fleming[7]
1536 ?John Latton ?William Fleming[7]
1539 Thomas Denton Richard Gunter[7]
1542 ?
1545 ?
1547 Ralph Flaxney Edward Frere[7]
1553 (Mar) Christopher Edmonds Edward Glynton[7]
1553 (Oct) John Wayte Thomas Williams[7]
1554 (Apr) Thomas Mallinson Edward Glynton[7]
1554 (Nov) John Wayte William Tylcock[7]
1555 John Wayte William Pantre[7]
1558 John Barton Richard Williams[7]
1559 (Jan) Thomas Wood Roger Taylor[8]
1562 (Dec) William Page Thomas Wood[8]
1571 Edward Knollys William Frere[8]
1572 (Apr) Edward Knollys, died
and replaced 1576 by
Francis Knollys
William Owen, died
and replaced Jan 1581 by
Edward Norris[8]
1584 (Oct) Francis Knollys William Noble[8]
1586 (Sep) Francis Knollys George Calfield[8]
1588 (Oct) Francis Knollys George Calfield[8]
1593 Sir Edmund Carey George Calfield[8]
1597 (Aug) Anthony Bacon George Calfield[8]
1601 (Sep) Sir Francis Leigh George Calfield[8]
1604 Francis Leigh Thomas Wentworth
1614 Sir John Astley Thomas Wentworth
1621–1622 Sir John Brooke Thomas Wentworth
1624 John Whistler Thomas Wentworth
1625 John Whistler Thomas Wentworth
1626 John Whistler Thomas Wentworth
1628–1629 John Whistler Thomas Wentworth
1629–1640 No Parliaments convened

1640–1885Edit

Year First member First party Second member Second party
April 1640 Viscount Andover[9] Royalist John Whistler Royalist
1640 (Nov) John Smith Royalist
1644 Smith and Whistler disabled from sitting – both seats vacant
1645 John Nixon John Doyley
December 1648 Nixon and Doyley excluded in Pride's Purge – both seats vacant
1653 Oxford was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 Bulstrode Whitelocke[10] Oxford had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1654 Richard Croke
1656 Richard Croke
January 1659 Major Unton Croke Parliamentarian
May 1659 Not represented in the restored Rump
April 1660 The Viscount Falkland James Huxley
1661 Richard Croke Brome Whorwood
1679 William Wright
1685 Hon. Henry Bertie Sir George Pudsey
1689 Sir Edward Norreys
1695 Thomas Rowney
1701 Francis Norreys
1706 Sir John Walter Tory
March 1722 Thomas Rowney, junior Tory
October 1722 Francis Knollys Tory
1734 Matthew Skinner
1739 James Herbert
1740 Philip Herbert
1749 Philip Wenman
1754 Hon. Robert Lee
1759 Sir Thomas Stapleton
1768 George Nares Lieutenant-Colonel the Hon. William Harcourt
1771 Lord Robert Spencer
1774 Captain the Hon. Peregrine Bertie
June 1790 Francis Burton
December 1790 Arthur Annesley
1796 Henry Peters
1802 John Atkyns-Wright
1807 John Ingram Lockhart
1812 John Atkyns-Wright
1818 Frederick St John
1820 Charles Wetherell Tory[11] John Ingram Lockhart
1826 James Langston Whig[11][12][13][14]
1830 William Hughes Hughes Whig[11]
1832 Thomas Stonor[15] Whig[11]
1833 William Hughes Hughes Whig[11]
1835 Donald Maclean Conservative[11] Conservative[11]
1837 William Erle Whig[11][16][17]
1841 James Langston Whig[11][12][13][14]
1847 (Sir) William Wood Radical[18][19][20]
1853 Edward Cardwell Peelite[21][22][23][24][25]
March 1857 Charles Neate[26][27] Whig[28]
July 1857 Edward Cardwell Peelite[21][22][23][24][25]
1859 Liberal Liberal
1863 Charles Neate Liberal
1868 (Sir) William Vernon Harcourt Liberal
1874 Alexander William Hall Conservative
April 1880 Joseph William Chitty Liberal
May 1880 Alexander William Hall[29] Conservative
1881 Writ suspended – seat vacant
September 1881 Writ suspended – seat vacant[30]
1885 Representation reduced to one member

1885–1983Edit

Election Member Party
1885 Alexander William Hall Conservative
1892 Sir George Tomkyns Chesney Conservative
1895 Arthur Annesley Conservative
1917 by-election John Marriott Coalition Conservative
1922 Frank Gray Liberal
1924 by-election Robert Bourne Unionist
1938 by-election Quintin Hogg Conservative
1950 by-election Lawrence Turner Conservative
1959 Montague Woodhouse Conservative
1966 Evan Luard Labour
1970 Montague Woodhouse Conservative
Oct 1974 Evan Luard Labour
1979 John Patten Conservative
1983 constituency abolished: see Oxford East & Oxford West and Abingdon

ElectionsEdit

Elections in the 1840sEdit

General election 1841: Oxford (2 seats)[31][11]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig James Langston 1,349 37.2
Conservative Donald Maclean 1,238 34.1
Conservative Neil Malcolm 1,041 28.7
Turnout 2,374 85.2
Registered electors 2,786
Majority 111 3.1
Whig hold Swing
Majority 197 5.4
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1847: Oxford (2 seats)[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig James Langston Unopposed
Radical William Wood Unopposed
Registered electors 2,819
Whig hold
Radical gain from Conservative

Elections in the 1850sEdit

Wood was appointed Solicitor General for England and Wales, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 3 April 1851: Oxford[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical William Wood Unopposed
Radical hold
General election 1852: Oxford (2 seats)[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical William Wood Unopposed
Whig James Langston Unopposed
Registered electors 2,818
Radical hold
Whig hold

Wood resigned after being appointed Vice-Chancellor, causing a by-election.

By-election, 4 January 1853: Oxford[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Peelite Edward Cardwell Unopposed
Peelite gain from Radical
General election 1857: Oxford (2 seats)[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig James Langston 1,671 41.9 N/A
Whig Charles Neate 1,057 26.5 N/A
Peelite Edward Cardwell 1,016 25.5 N/A
Radical Stephen Gaselee[32][33] 245 6.1 N/A
Majority 41 1.0 N/A
Turnout 1,995 (est) 75.1 (est) N/A
Registered electors 2,656
Whig hold Swing N/A
Whig gain from Radical Swing N/A

Neate's election was declared void on petition due to bribery, causing a by-election.[34]

By-election, 21 July 1857: Oxford[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Peelite Edward Cardwell 1,085 51.6 +26.1
Independent Liberal William Makepeace Thackeray[35][36][37] 1,108 52.7 N/A
Majority 67 3.2 N/A
Turnout 2,103 79.2 +4.1
Registered electors 2,656
Peelite gain from Whig Swing N/A
General election 1859: Oxford (2 seats)[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal James Langston Unopposed
Liberal Edward Cardwell Unopposed
Registered electors 2,731
Liberal hold
Liberal hold

Cardwell was appointed Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 27 June 1859: Oxford[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Edward Cardwell Unopposed
Liberal hold

Elections in the 1860sEdit

Cardwell was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 30 July 1861: Oxford[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Edward Cardwell Unopposed
Liberal hold

Langston's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 7 November 1863: Oxford[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Charles Neate Unopposed
Liberal hold

Cardwell was appointed Secretary of State for the Colonies, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 9 April 1864: Oxford[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Edward Cardwell Unopposed
Liberal hold
General election 1865: Oxford (2 seats)[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Edward Cardwell Unopposed
Liberal Charles Neate Unopposed
Registered electors 2,594
Liberal hold
Liberal hold
General election 1868: Oxford (2 seats)[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Edward Cardwell 2,765 41.7 N/A
Liberal William Vernon Harcourt 2,636 39.8 N/A
Conservative James Parker Deane 1,225 18.5 N/A
Majority 1,411 21.3 N/A
Turnout 3,926 (est) 73.7 (est) N/A
Registered electors 5,328
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A

Cardwell was appointed Secretary of State for War, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 22 December 1868: Oxford[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Edward Cardwell Unopposed
Liberal hold

Elections in the 1870sEdit

Harcourt was appointed Solicitor General for England and Wales, causing a by-election.

1873 Oxford by-election (1 seat)[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Vernon Harcourt Unopposed
Liberal hold
General election 1874: Oxford (2 seats)[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Vernon Harcourt 2,332 34.2 −5.6
Liberal Edward Cardwell 2,281 33.5 −8.2
Conservative Alexander William Hall 2,198 32.3 +13.8
Majority 83 1.2 −20.1
Turnout 4,505 (est) 79.3 (est) +5.6
Registered electors 5,680
Liberal hold Swing −6.3
Liberal hold Swing −7.6

Cardwell succeeded to the peerage, becoming Viscount Cardwell and causing a by-election.

1874 Oxford by-election (1 seat)[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Alexander William Hall 2,554 55.0 +22.7
Liberal John Delaware Lewis[38] 2,092 45.0 -22.7
Majority 462 9.9 N/A
Turnout 4,646 81.8 +2.5
Registered electors 5,680
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +22.7

Elections in the 1880sEdit

General election 1880: Oxford (2 seats)[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Vernon Harcourt 2,771 34.2 +0.0
Liberal Joseph William Chitty 2,669 33.0 −0.5
Conservative Alexander William Hall 2,659 32.8 +0.5
Majority 10 0.1 −1.1
Turnout 5,430 (est) 88.1 (est) +8.8
Registered electors 6,163
Liberal hold Swing −0.3
Liberal hold Swing −0.4

Harcourt was appointed Home Secretary, requiring a by-election.

1880 Oxford by-election (2 seats)[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Alexander William Hall 2,735 50.5 +17.7
Liberal William Vernon Harcourt 2,681 49.5 −17.7
Majority 54 1.0 N/A
Turnout 5,416 87.9 −0.2 (est)
Registered electors 6,163
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +17.7

Hall's election was declared void, on account of bribery, and the writ was suspended.[39]

In 1881, Chitty was appointed a judge and resigned the seat. However, as the writ was suspended, no by-election was held and the seat was left without an MP until 1885, when representation was also reduced to one member.

General election 1885: Oxford (1 seat)[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Alexander William Hall 3,212 52.6 +19.8
Liberal Charles Alan Fyffe[41] 2,894 47.4 −19.8
Majority 318 5.2 N/A
Turnout 6,106 90.3 +2.2 (est)
Registered electors 6,764
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +19.8
General election 1886: Oxford[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Alexander William Hall Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1890sEdit

General election 1892: Oxford[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative George Tomkyns Chesney 3,276 50.9 N/A
Liberal Robinson Souttar 3,156 49.1 N/A
Majority 120 1.8 N/A
Turnout 6,432 86.0 N/A
Registered electors 7,476
Conservative hold Swing N/A

Chesney's death caused a by-election.

 
John Fletcher Little
1895 Oxford by-election[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Arthur Annesley 3,745 54.4 +3.5
Liberal John Fletcher Little[42] 3,143 45.6 −3.5
Majority 602 8.8 N/A
Turnout 6,888 90.2 +4.2
Registered electors 7,637
Conservative hold Swing +3.5
General election 1895: Oxford[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Arthur Annesley 3,623 54.9 +4.0
Liberal Thomas Henry Kingerlee[43] 2,975 45.1 −4.0
Majority 648 9.8 +8.0
Turnout 6,598 86.4 +0.4
Registered electors 7,637
Conservative hold Swing +4.0

Annesley's appointment as Comptroller of the Household, requiring a by-election.

1898 Oxford by-election[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Arthur Annesley Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1900sEdit

General election 1900: Oxford[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Arthur Annesley Unopposed
Conservative hold
General election 1906: Oxford[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Arthur Annesley 3,910 50.6 N/A
Liberal G. Whale 3,810 49.4 N/A
Majority 100 1.2 N/A
Turnout 7,720 89.6 N/A
Registered electors 8,615
Conservative hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1910sEdit

General election January 1910: Oxford[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Arthur Annesley 4,918 57.0 +6.4
Liberal G. Whale 3,707 43.0 −6.4
Majority 1,211 14.0 +12.8
Turnout 8,625 93.5 +3.9
Registered electors 9,227
Conservative hold Swing +6.4
General election December 1910: Oxford[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Arthur Annesley 4,664 58.4 +1.4
Liberal J.F. Williams 3,318 41.6 −1.4
Majority 1,346 16.8 +2.8
Turnout 7,982 86.5 −7.0
Registered electors 9,227
Conservative hold Swing +1.4
1917 Oxford by-election[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist John Marriott Unopposed
Unionist hold
General election 1918: Oxford[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
C Unionist John Marriott 9,805 70.7 +12.3
Liberal George Herbert Higgins[45] 4,057 29.3 −12.3
Majority 5,748 41.4 +24.6
Turnout 13,862 55.2 −31.3
Unionist hold Swing +12.3
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Elections in the 1920sEdit

 
Gray
General election 1922: Oxford[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Frank Gray 12,489 59.0 +2.97
Unionist John Marriott 8,683 41.0 -29.7
Majority 3,806 18.0 59.4
Turnout 83.8
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing +29.7
General election 1923: Oxford[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Frank Gray 12,311 56.1 -2.9
Unionist Robert Bourne 9,618 43.9 +2.9
Majority 2,693 12.2 -5.8
Turnout 21,929 83.5 -0.3
Liberal hold Swing -2.9
 
Fry
1924 Oxford by-election[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Robert Bourne 10,079 47.8 +3.9
Liberal C.B. Fry 8,237 39.1 -17.0
Labour Kenneth Lindsay 2,769 13.1 N/A
Majority 1,842 8.7% N/A
Turnout 21,085 80.3
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing +10.5
General election 1924: Oxford[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Robert Bourne 12,196 57.3
Liberal Robert Moon 6,836 32.1
Labour Frederic Ludlow 2,260 10.6
Majority 5,360 25.2
Turnout 78.5
Unionist hold Swing
General election 1929: Oxford[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Robert Bourne 14,638 52.5 -4.8
Liberal Robert Moon 8,581 30.7 -1.4
Labour John Lyttelton Etty 4,694 16.8 +6.2
Majority 6,057 21.8 -3.4
Turnout 72.2 -6.3
Unionist hold Swing -1.7

Elections in the 1930sEdit

General election 1931: Oxford[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Robert Bourne unopposed n/a n/a
Conservative hold Swing n/a
General election 1935: Oxford[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Robert Bourne 16,306 62.8 N/A
Labour Patrick Gordon-Walker 9,661 37.2 N/A
Majority 6,645 25.6 N/A
Turnout 25,967 67.3 N/A
Conservative hold Swing
1938 Oxford by-election[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Quintin Hogg 15,797 56.1 -6.7
Independent Progressive Sandie Lindsay 12,363 43.9 N/A
Majority 3,434 12.2 -13.4
Turnout 28,160 76.3 +9.0
Conservative hold Swing -6.7

Elections in the 1940sEdit

General Election 1939/40:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by Autumn 1939, the following candidates had been selected;

General election 1945: Oxford[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Quintin Hogg 14,314 45.3
Labour Frank Pakenham 11,451 36.2
Liberal Anthony Norman 5,860 18.5
Majority 2,863 9.1
Turnout 66.3
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1950sEdit

General election 1950: Oxford
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Quintin Hogg 27,508 46.85
Labour Elizabeth Pakenham 23,902 40.71
Liberal Donald William Tweddle 6,807 11.59
Communist Ernest Keeling 494 0.84
Majority 3,606 6.14
Turnout 84.89
Conservative hold Swing
1950 Oxford by-election[46]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Lawrence Turner 27,583 57.50 +10.65
Labour Sydney Kersland Lewis 20,385 42.50 +1.79
Majority 7,198 15.00 +8.86
Turnout 47,968
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1951: Oxford
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Lawrence Turner 32,367 56.00
Labour George Elvin 25,427 44.00
Majority 6,940 12.01
Turnout 81.98
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1955: Oxford
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Lawrence Turner 27,708 52.30
Labour George Elvin 19,930 37.62
Liberal Ivor Davies 5,336 10.07
Majority 7,778 14.68
Turnout 78.22
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1959: Oxford
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Montague Woodhouse 26,798 50.95
Labour Leslie N Anderton 18,310 34.81
Liberal Ivor Davies 7,491 14.24
Majority 8,488 16.14
Turnout 78.91
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1960sEdit

General election 1964: Oxford
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Montague Woodhouse 22,212 42.89
Labour Evan Luard 20,783 40.13
Liberal Ivor Davies 8,797 16.99
Majority 1,429 2.76
Turnout 77.29
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1966: Oxford
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Evan Luard 24,412 46.45
Conservative Montague Woodhouse 21,987 41.84
Liberal Alexander Duncan Campbell Peterson 6,152 11.71
Majority 2,425 4.61
Turnout 79.26
Labour gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1970sEdit

General election 1970: Oxford
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Montague Woodhouse 24,873 46.96
Labour Evan Luard 22,989 43.40
Liberal Peter H Reeves 5,103 9.63
Majority 1,884 3.56
Turnout 74.54
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
General election, February 1974: Oxford[47]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Montague Woodhouse 23,967 39.81
Labour Evan Luard 23,146 38.44
Liberal MS Butler 13,094 21.75
Majority 821 1.36
Turnout 60,204 78.55
Conservative hold Swing
General election, October 1974: Oxford[48]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Evan Luard 23,359 42.71
Conservative Montague Woodhouse 22,323 40.82
Liberal MS Butler 8,374 15.31
National Front Ian Anderson 572 1.05
Independent Bernice Olive Smith 64 0.12
Majority 1,036 1.89
Turnout 54,691 70.78
Labour gain from Conservative Swing
General election 1979: Oxford[49]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Patten 27,459 45.30 +4.48
Labour Evan Luard 25,962 42.83 +0.12
Liberal Dermot Roaf 6,234 10.28 -4.03
Oxford Ecological Movement Anthony Cheke 887 1.46 N/A
Independent Bernice Olive Smith 72 0.12 +0.00
Majority 1,497 2.47
Turnout 60,610 74.18
Conservative gain from Labour Swing +2.3

ReferencesEdit

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  9. ^ Andover was summoned to the Lords by writ of acceleration in his father's barony as Lord Howard of Charlton before the House of Commons had met
  10. ^ Whitelocke was returned for four different constituencies; he chose to sit for Buckinghamshire
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  15. ^ Stonor's election was declared void on petition and a by-election was held
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  22. ^ a b "Cardwell, Viscount (UK, 1874 - 1886)". Cracroft's Peerage. Heraldic Media Limited. 7 March 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  23. ^ a b Collins, Neil (2017). Politics and Elections in Nineteenth-Century Liverpool. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-85928-076-8. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  24. ^ a b Neal, Frank (1988). "Heightened Religious Tension". Sectarian Violence: The Liverpool Experience 1819-1914. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 154. ISBN 0-7190-1483-2. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  25. ^ a b "Edward Cardwell". Oxford Reference. Oxford University Press.
  26. ^ Neate's election was declared void on petition and a by-election was held
  27. ^ Neate was elected for Oxford in 1863 and sat until 1868: ODNB article by A. C. Howe, 'Neate, Charles (1806–1879)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 28 Dec 2009
  28. ^ Howe, A. C. (3 January 2008) [2004]. "Neate, Charles (1806–1879)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19835.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  29. ^ Hall's election was declared void, the writ was suspended and a Royal Commission appointed to investigate
  30. ^ Chitty's election in April 1880 had not been questioned, but when he was appointed a judge and therefore vacated his seat, no election was held to replace him
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  32. ^ "The Coming Elections". Oxford Journal. 14 March 1857. p. 5. Retrieved 15 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  33. ^ "Election Intelligence". Elgin Courier. 20 March 1857. p. 2. Retrieved 15 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  34. ^ Morfill, William Richard (1894). "Neate, Charles (1806-1879)" . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 40. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  35. ^ "Oxford Election". Cheltenham Chronicle. 28 July 1857. p. 6. Retrieved 15 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  36. ^ Lyndon, Barry (1984). W. M. Thackeray. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. xxix. ISBN 978-0-19-953746-4. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  37. ^ Lawrence, Jon (2009). Electing our Masters: The Hustings in British Politics from Hogarth to Blair. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-19-955012-8. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  38. ^ "Mr J. D. Lewis". North Devon Journal. 26 February 1874. p. 3. Retrieved 14 January 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  39. ^ "The hearing of the Oxford election petition". Sheffield Daily Telegraph. 3 August 1880. p. 3. Retrieved 6 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 9781349022984.
  41. ^ "Members of the New Parliament". Reading Mercury. 12 December 1885. p. 2. Retrieved 6 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  42. ^ "Oxford". Reading Mercury. 20 April 1895. p. 5. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  43. ^ Jenkins, Stephanie. "Thomas Henry Kingerlee (1843-1929)". Oxford History. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j British parliamentary election results 1918–1949, Craig
  45. ^ ‘HIGGINS, His Honour George Herbert’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014 ; online edn, April 2014 accessed 18 Sept 2017
  46. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20120325095636/http://www.by-elections.co.uk/50.html
  47. ^ http://www.politicsresources.net/area/uk/ge74a/i16.htm
  48. ^ http://www.politicsresources.net/area/uk/ge74b/i16.htm
  49. ^ http://www.politicsresources.net/area/uk/ge79/i16.htm

Coordinates: 51°45′N 1°16′W / 51.75°N 1.26°W / 51.75; -1.26