Open main menu

Lancaster (UK Parliament constituency)

Lancaster was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1867, centred on the historic city of Lancaster in north-west England. It was represented by two Members of Parliament until the constituency was disenfranchised for corruption in 1867.

Lancaster
Former County constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Lancaster in Lancashire, showing boundaries used from 1974-1983
CountyLancashire
18851997
Number of membersOne
Replaced byLancaster and Wyre, Morecambe and Lunesdale, Fylde
Created fromNorth Lancashire
1523–1867
Number of membersTwo
Type of constituencyBorough constituency
Replaced byNorth Lancashire
Created fromLancashire
1295–1376
Type of constituencyBorough constituency

Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, Lancaster was re-established for the 1885 general election as a county constituency. It then returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, with elections held under the first-past-the-post system. This constituency in turn was abolished when it was largely replaced by the new Lancaster and Wyre constituency for the 1997 general election.

Contents

HistoryEdit

Lancaster returned Members to Parliament between 1295 and 1331 but is not known to have done so again, on the grounds of the poverty of the town's burgesses, until the election of William Banester in 1523.

Representation was reduced during the protectorate: Lancaster was not represented in the Barebones Parliament and sent only one Member to the first and second Protectorate Parliaments.

The two Member constituency was disenfranchised in 1867 for corruption and representation not restored until 1885 as a one Member constituency. The constituency was finally abolished in 1997 and replaced by the constituency of Lancaster and Wyre.

BoundariesEdit

1885-1918: The Borough of Lancaster, the Sessional Divisions of Garstang and Hornby, and part of the Sessional Division of South Lonsdale.

1918-1950: The Boroughs of Lancaster and Morecambe, the Urban Districts of Heysham and Preesall, the Rural District of Garstang, and part of the Rural District of Lancaster.

1950-1983: The Borough of Lancaster, the Urban District of Carnforth, the Rural District of Lunesdale, and in the Rural District of Lancaster the parishes of Ashton with Stodday, Cockerham, Elllel, Heaton with Oxcliffe, Middleton, Overton, Over Wyresdale, Scotforth, and Thurnham.

1983-1997: The City of Lancaster wards of Bulk, Castle, Caton, Ellel, Hornby, John O'Gaunt, Scotforth East, Scotforth West, Skerton Central, Skerton East, and Skerton West, and the Borough of Wyre wards of Brock, Calder, Catterall, Duchy, Garstang, Great Eccleston, Pilling, and Wyresdale.

Members of ParliamentEdit

Lancaster boroughEdit

1295-1640Edit

Parliament First member Second member
1523 William Banester ?Lawrence Starkey [1]
1529 Lawrence Starkey Richard Southworth [1]
1536 ?
1539 ?
1542 ?
1545 Sir John Baker Sir Nicholas Hare [1]
1547 Sir Thomas Chaloner Stephen Vaughan died
and repl. by Jan 1552 by
William Ward [1]
1553 (Mar) John Caryll Thomas Carus [1]
1553 (Oct) Sir Thomas Tresham Thomas Carus [1]
1554 (Apr) John Heywood George Felton [1]
1554 (Nov) Richard Baker Richard Weston [1]
1555 Thomas Carus Thomas Hungate [1]
1558 Sir Clement Heigham William Rice [1]
1559 (Jan) Sir Thomas Benger William Fleetwood[2]
1562/1563 John Hales William Fleetwood [2]
1571 Henry Sadler Miles Sandys [2]
1572 Thomas Sadler Henry Sadler [2]
1584 (Nov) Henry Sadler Thomas Gerard [2]
1586 Thomas Gerard Henry Sadler [2]
1588 Roger Dalton John Atherton [2]
1593 John Preston John Awdeley [2][3]
1597 (Oct) Sir Thomas Hesketh Edward Hubberd [2]
1601 (Oct) Sir Jerome Bowes Sir Carew Reynell [2]
1604 Sir Thomas Hesketh, died
and repl. 1605 by
Sir Thomas Howard
Thomas Fanshawe
1614 Thomas Fanshawe William Fanshawe
1621 Sir Humphrey May Thomas Fanshawe
1624 Sir Humphrey May, sat for Leicester
and repl. by
John Selden
Thomas Fanshawe
1625 Sir Humphrey May Sir Thomas Fanshawe
1626 Sir Thomas Fanshawe Thomas Jermyn
1628 Sir Thomas Fanshawe Francis Bindlosse
1629-1640 No Parliaments summoned

1640–1867Edit

Year First member[4] First party Second member[4] Second party
April 1640 Roger Kirkby John Harrison
November 1640 Thomas Fanshawe Royalist John Harrison Royalist
September 1642 Fanshawe disabled from sitting - seat vacant
September 1643 Harrison disabled from sitting - seat vacant
1645 Thomas Fell Sir Robert Bindlosse
December 1648 Bindlosse excluded in Pride's Purge - seat vacant
1653 Lancaster was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 Major Henry Porter Lancaster had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1656
January 1659 Henry Porter, junior Colonel William West
May 1659 Thomas Fell One seat vacant
April 1660 Sir Gilbert Gerard William West
1661 Richard Kirkby Sir John Harrison
1669 Richard Harrison
1679 William Spencer
1685 Roger Kirkby Henry Crispe
January 1689 Curwen Rawlinson Thomas Preston
November 1689 Roger Kirkby
1697 Fitton Gerard
1698 Robert Heysham
1702 Sir William Lowther
1705 William Heysham
1715 Dodding Bradyll
1716 William Heysham, junior
1722 Sir Thomas Lowther
1727 Christopher Tower
1734 Robert Fenwick
1745 Francis Reynolds
1747 Edward Marton
1758 (Sir) George Warren [5]
1773 Lord Richard Cavendish
1780 Wilson Braddyll Abraham Rawlinson
1784 Captain Francis Reynolds
1786 Sir George Warren
1790 John Dent
1796 Richard Penn
1802 Alexander Hamilton, 10th Duke of Hamilton Whig
1806 John Fenton-Cawthorne Tory[6]
1807 Peter Patten
1812 John Fenton-Cawthorne Tory[6] Gabriel Doveton Whig[6]
1818 John Gladstone Tory[6]
1820 John Fenton-Cawthorne Tory[6]
1824 Thomas Greene Tory[6]
1831 Patrick Maxwell Stewart Whig[6]
1834 Conservative[6]
1837 George Marton Conservative[6]
1847 Samuel Gregson [7] Whig[8][9] Peelite[10][11][8][12][13]
1848 Robert Baynes Armstrong [14] Radical[15][16][17][18]
1852 Samuel Gregson Whig[8][9]
1853 Thomas Greene Peelite[10][11][8][12][13]
1857 William Garnett Conservative
1859 Liberal
1864 Edward Matthew Fenwick Liberal
1865 Henry Schneider Liberal
1867 Constituency disfranchised for corruption [19]

Lancaster county constituencyEdit

1885-1997Edit

Election Member[4] Party
1885 Constituency re-created
1885 George Marton Conservative
1886 James Williamson Liberal
1895 William Foster Conservative
1900 Norval Helme Liberal
1918 Archibald Hunter Coalition Conservative
1922 John Singleton Conservative
1923 John O'Neill Liberal
1924 Gerald Strickland Conservative
1928 by-election Robert Tomlinson Liberal
1929 Herwald Ramsbotham Conservative
1941 by-election Fitzroy Maclean Conservative
1959 Humphry Berkeley Conservative
1966 Stan Henig Labour
1970 Dame Elaine Kellett-Bowman Conservative
1997 constituency abolished: see Lancaster and Wyre

ElectionsEdit

Elections in the 1840sEdit

General election 1841: Lancaster[20][6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Thomas Greene 699 37.5
Conservative George Marton 594 31.8
Whig John Armstrong[21] 572 30.7
Majority 22 1.2
Turnout 933 (est) 72.0 (est)
Registered electors 1,296
Conservative hold Swing
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1847: Lancaster[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Samuel Gregson 724 35.0 +4.3
Peelite Thomas Greene 721 34.9 −2.6
Conservative Edward Dodson Salisbury[22] 621 30.1 −1.7
Turnout 1,033 (est) 75.0 (est) +3.0
Registered electors 1,377
Majority 3 0.1 N/A
Whig gain from Conservative Swing +2.6
Majority 100 4.8 +3.6
Peelite hold Swing −0.9

Gregson's election was declared void on petition due to bribery, causing a by-election.[23]

By-election, 9 March 1848: Lancaster[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical Robert Baynes Armstrong 636 50.6 +15.6
Conservative Edward Stanley[24] 620 49.4 −15.6
Majority 16 1.3 +1.2
Turnout 1,256 91.2 +16.2
Registered electors 1,377
Radical gain from Whig Swing +15.6

Elections in the 1850sEdit

General election 1852: Lancaster[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Samuel Gregson 699 30.0 −5.0
Radical Robert Baynes Armstrong 690 29.6 N/A
Peelite Thomas Greene 509 21.8 −13.1
Conservative John Ellis[25] 432 18.5 −11.6
Turnout 1,165 (est) 83.6 (est) +8.6
Registered electors 1,393
Majority 9 0.4 +0.3
Whig hold Swing +0.4
Majority 181 7.8 N/A
Radical gain from Peelite Swing N/A

Armstrong's election was declared void due to corruption and bribery, causing a by-election.[26]

By-election, 12 April 1853: Lancaster[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Peelite Thomas Greene 686 55.3 +33.5
Radical John Armstrong[27] 554 44.7 +15.1
Majority 132 10.6 N/A
Turnout 1,240 87.3 (est) +3.7
Registered electors 1,420
Peelite gain from Radical Swing +9.2
General election 1857: Lancaster[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Samuel Gregson 827 38.7 +8.7
Conservative William Garnett 773 36.2 +26.9
Conservative Robert Gladstone[28] 537 25.1 +15.8
Majority 54 2.5 +2.1
Turnout 1,069 (est) 80.5 (est) −3.1
Registered electors 1,328
Whig hold Swing −25.7
Conservative gain from Radical Swing +15.6
General election 1859: Lancaster[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Garnett 660 29.1 −7.1
Liberal Samuel Gregson 641 28.3 +8.9
Conservative William Allen Francis Saunders[29] 509 22.4 −2.7
Liberal Edward Matthew Fenwick 459 20.2 +0.8
Turnout 1,135 (est) 88.1 (est) +7.6
Registered electors 1,288
Majority 19 0.8 N/A
Conservative hold Swing −6.0
Majority 132 5.8 +3.3
Liberal hold Swing +6.9

Elections in the 1860sEdit

Garnett resigned, causing a by-election.

By-election, 13 April 1864: Lancaster[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Edward Matthew Fenwick 682 56.5 +8.0
Conservative William Allen Francis Saunders[30] 525 43.5 −8.0
Majority 157 13.0 +7.2
Turnout 1,207 86.6 −1.5
Registered electors 1,394
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +8.0

Gregson's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 20 February 1865: Lancaster[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Henry Schneider Unopposed
Liberal hold
General election 1865: Lancaster[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Edward Matthew Fenwick 713 34.5 +14.3
Liberal Henry Schneider 687 33.3 +5.0
Conservative Edward Lawrence[31] 665 32.2 −19.3
Majority 22 1.1 −4.7
Turnout 1,365 (est) 93.2 (est) +5.1
Registered electors 1,465
Liberal hold Swing +12.0
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +7.3

Extensive bribery caused both members to be unseated on 23 April 1866, and the seat to lose its right to return a member of Parliament under the Reform Act 1867. It was incorporated into North Lancashire.[32]

Elections in the 1880sEdit

General election 1885: Lancaster [33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative George Marton 4,387 55.4 N/A
Liberal James Carlile McCoan[34] 3,530 44.6 N/A
Majority 857 10.8 N/A
Turnout 7,917 88.3 N/A
Registered electors 8,961
Conservative win (new seat)
General election 1886: Lancaster [33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal James Williamson 3,886 51.3 +6.7
Conservative George Marton 3,691 48.7 −6.7
Majority 195 2.6 N/A
Turnout 7,577 84.6 −3.7
Registered electors 8,961
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +6.7

Elections in the 1890sEdit

General election 1892: Lancaster [33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal James Williamson 4,755 53.9 +2.6
Liberal Unionist Thomas Storey 4,075 46.1 −2.6
Majority 680 7.8 +5.2
Turnout 8,830 88.3 +3.7
Registered electors 9,995
Liberal hold Swing +2.6
 
Foster
General election 1895: Lancaster [33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Henry Foster 5,028 53.4 +7.3
Liberal Isaac Saunders Leadam 4,394 46.6 −7.3
Majority 634 6.8 N/A
Turnout 9,422 87.4 −0.9
Registered electors 10,778
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +7.3

Elections in the 1900sEdit

 
Norval Helme
General election 1900: Lancaster [35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Norval Helme 5,113 50.2 +3.6
Conservative William Henry Foster 5,069 49.8 −3.6
Majority 44 0.4 N/A
Turnout 10,182 82.6 −4.8
Registered electors 12,334
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +3.6
General election 1906: Lancaster [35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Norval Helme 6,524 53.6 +3.4
Conservative William Henry Foster 5,640 46.4 −3.4
Majority 884 7.2 +6.8
Turnout 12,164 86.4 +3.8
Registered electors 14,085
Liberal hold Swing +3.4

Elections in the 1910sEdit

General election January 1910: Lancaster [33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Norval Helme 7,132 54.1
Conservative Edward Russell-Taylor 6,048 45.9
Majority 1,084 8.2
Turnout 89.1
Liberal hold Swing
General election December 1910: Lancaster [33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Norval Helme 6,168 50.5
Conservative Herwald Ramsbotham 6,052 49.5
Majority 116 1.0
Turnout 82.6
Liberal hold Swing

General Election 1914/15:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

 
Hunter
General election 1918: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
C Unionist Archibald Hunter 14,403 59.6 +10.1
Liberal Norval Helme 9,778 40.4 −10.1
Majority 4,625 19.2 N/A
Turnout 24,181 65.4 −17.2
Registered electors 36,960
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing +10.1
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Elections in the 1920sEdit

 
Fenner Brockway
General election 1922: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist John Singleton 19,571 68.4 +8.8
Labour Fenner Brockway 9,043 31.6 N/A
Majority 10,528 36.8 +17.6
Turnout 28,614 79.2 +13.8
Registered electors 36,121
Unionist hold Swing +8.8
General election 1923: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John O'Neill 17,763 59.2 N/A
Unionist John Singleton 12,263 40.8 −27.6
Majority 5,500 18.4 N/A
Turnout 30,026 80.0 +0.8
Registered electors 37,522
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing N/A
 
Strickland
General election 1924: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Gerald Strickland 15,243 47.8 +7.0
Liberal John O'Neill 11,085 34.7 −24.5
Labour Harold Mostyn Watkins 5,572 17.5 N/A
Majority 4,158 13.1 N/A
Turnout 31,900 82.9 +2.9
Registered electors 38,466
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing +15.8
1928 Lancaster by-election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Robert Tomlinson 14,689 43.7 +9.0
Unionist Herwald Ramsbotham 12,860 38.2 −9.6
Labour David R Davies 6,101 18.1 +0.6
Majority 1,829 5.5 N/A
Turnout 33,650 82.7 −0.2
Registered electors 40,705
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing +9.3
General election 1929: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Herwald Ramsbotham 17,414 39.3 −8.5
Liberal Robert Tomlinson 16,977 38.3 +3.6
Labour Reginald Penrith Burnett 9,903 22.4 +4.9
Majority 437 1.0 −12.1
Turnout 44,294 83.9 +1.0
Registered electors 52,774
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing −6.1

Elections in the 1930sEdit

General election 1931: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Herwald Ramsbotham 32,185
Labour Robert Carrington-Willis 10,309
Majority 21,876
Turnout
Conservative hold Swing
  • George H Bryans was adopted as Liberal candidate but in October 1931 had a heart attack and withdrew.
 
Ramsbotham
1935 general election : Lancaster [36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Herwald Ramsbotham 26,632 53.7
Liberal Robert Tomlinson 13,054 26.3 n/a
Labour Charles Royle 9,938 20.0
Majority 13,578 27.4
Turnout 49,624 79.0
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1940sEdit

General Election 1939/40:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected;

1941 Lancaster by-election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Fitzroy MacLean 15,783 56.9
Independent Liberal William Ross 6,551 23.6
Ind. Labour Party Fenner Brockway 5,418 19.5
Majority 9,232 33.3
Turnout 27,752 41.9
Conservative hold Swing 1.5
General election 1945: Lancaster [36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Fitzroy Maclean 27,090 49.42
Labour Albert Edward Victor Ainsworth Farrer 19,367 35.33
Liberal Eric Johnson 8,357 15.25
Majority 7,723 14.09
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1950sEdit

General election 1950: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Fitzroy MacLean 18,437 48.27 −1.2
Labour Albert Edward Victor Ainsworth Farrer 15,341 40.17 +4.84
Liberal H Rogerson 4,416 11.56 -3.69
Majority 3,096 8.11 -5.98
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1951: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Fitzroy MacLean 20,555 53.18
Labour Dodo Lees 18,099 46.82
Majority 2,456 6.35
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1955: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Fitzroy MacLean 19,873 56.46 +8.19
Labour Christopher Sebastian Bravery Attlee 15,324 43.54 +3.37
Majority 4,549 12.92 +4.81
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1959: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Humphry Berkeley 20,783 56.67 +1.21
Labour Ernest Gardner 15,255 42.33 -1.21
Majority 5,528 15.34 +2.42
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1960sEdit

General election 1964: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Humphry Berkeley 18,811 53.5 -4.1
Labour Ernest Gardner 16,330 46.47 +4.1
Majority 2,481 7.06 -8.28
Turnout 79.74
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1966: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Stanley Henig 18,168 52.62 +6.15
Conservative Humphry Berkeley 16,357 47.38 -6.15
Majority 1,811 5.25
Turnout 79.17
Labour gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1970sEdit

General election 1970: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Elaine Kellett 18,584 49.1 +1.7
Labour Stanley Henig 16,843 44.5 −8.1
Liberal Andrew Paton 2,436 6.4 N/A
Majority 1,741 4.6
Turnout 79.5
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
General election February 1974: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Elaine Kellett-Bowman 17,666 43.47 −5.6
Labour David Owen 15,197 37.40 −7.1
Liberal Anthony Walstan Drury 6,898 17.0 +10.5
Independent Liberal Philip Edgar Wallace 631 1.6
Independent Geoffrey Darnton 245 0.6
Majority 2,493 6.1 +1.5
Turnout 40,637 82.45
Conservative hold Swing −5.6
General election October 1974: Lancaster
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Elaine Kellett-Bowman 16,540 42.61 -0.86
Labour D Owen 15,119 38.95 +1.15
Liberal Michael Mumford 7,161 18.45 +1.48
Majority 1,421 3.66 -2.42
Turnout 38,820 83.23
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1979: Lancaster[37][38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Elaine Kellett-Bowman 19,400 47.64 +5.03
Labour Ruth Henig 15,174 37.27 -1.68
Liberal Michael Mumford 5,949 14.61 -3.84
National Front David F. White 196 0.48
Majority 4,266 10.38 +6.72
Turnout 40,719 79.45 −0.3
Conservative hold Swing −5.6

Elections in the 1980sEdit

General election 1983: Lancaster[39]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Elaine Kellett-Bowman 21,050 50.3 +2.7
Labour Colin Harkins 10,414 24.9 −12.4
Liberal William Booth 10,214 24.4 +9.8
Independent Stuart R. Leach 179 0.4
Majority 10,636 25.4 +15.0
Turnout 74.69 −0.3
Conservative hold Swing +7.6
General election 1987: Lancaster[39]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Elaine Kellett-Bowman 21,142 46.7 −3.6
Labour Joseph Gallacher 14,689 32.4 +7.5
Liberal Claire Brooks 9,003 19.9 −4.5
Green Peter Jones 473 1.0 n/a
Majority 6,453 14.2 −11.2
Turnout 45,307 79.17 −0.3
Conservative hold Swing −5.6

Elections in the 1990sEdit

General election 1992: Lancaster[40][41]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Elaine Kellett-Bowman 21,084 45.6 −1.1
Labour Ruth Henig 18,131 39.2 +6.8
Liberal Democrat John C. Humberstone 6,524 14.1 −5.8
Green Gina Dowding 433 0.9 −0.1
Natural Law Robert Barcis 83 0.2 +0.2
Majority 2,953 6.4 −7.9
Turnout 46,255 78.9 −0.3
Conservative hold Swing −3.9

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Parliament". Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Parliament". Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  3. ^ Awdeley was also elected for Stockbridge
  4. ^ a b c Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "L" (part 1)
  5. ^ Knighted (KB), 1761
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844-1850]. Craig, F. W. S. (ed.). The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0-900178-13-2.
  7. ^ On petition, Gregson's election was declared void and a by-election was held
  8. ^ a b c d "The General Election". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 31 July 1847. pp. 2–3, 6–7. Retrieved 15 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  9. ^ a b "Domestic Intelligence". Fife Herald. 27 July 1837. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 15 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  10. ^ a b "The Elections". Preston Chronicle. 7 August 1847. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 15 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  11. ^ a b "Bell's New Weekly Messenger". 18 July 1847. p. 5. Retrieved 15 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  12. ^ a b Dod, Charles Roger; Dod, Robert Phipps (1847). Dod's Parliamentary Companion, Volume 15. Dod's Parliamentary Companion. p. 175. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  13. ^ a b "Montrose, Arbroath and Brechin review; and Forfar and Kincardineshire advertiser". 15 April 1853. p. 2. Retrieved 15 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  14. ^ On petition, Armstrong's re-election in 1852 was declared void and a by-election was held
  15. ^ "The Elections". Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 10 July 1852. p. 5. Retrieved 15 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  16. ^ "Lancaster Gazette". 4 March 1848. p. 3. Retrieved 15 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  17. ^ "Lancaster Election". Morning Post. 10 March 1848. p. 3. Retrieved 15 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  18. ^ Hawkins, Angus (2007). "Conservative Schism: 1846–1848". The Forgotten Prime Minister: The 14th Earl of Derby — Volume I: Ascent, 1799–1851. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 333. ISBN 978-0-19-920440-3. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  19. ^ Fenwick and Schneider were re-elected at the general election of 1865, but on petition their election was declared void. The constituency's writ was suspended, and a Royal Commission appointed to investigate. Following the Commission's report that it had found evidence of extensive bribery, the constituency was abolished and incorporated into the Northern Lancashire county division from the start of the next Parliament.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  21. ^ "Lancaster Gazette". 19 June 1841. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 15 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  22. ^ "English Cities and Boroughs". Globe. 20 August 1847. p. 1. Retrieved 15 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  23. ^ "Wednesday's and Thursday's Posts". Salisbury and Winchester Journal. 4 March 1848. p. 2. Retrieved 15 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  24. ^ "Lancasster Election". Morning Post. 10 March 1848. p. 3. Retrieved 15 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  25. ^ "Lancaster". Bolton Chronicle. 10 July 1852. p. 5. Retrieved 15 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  26. ^ "The Lancaster Election". The Scotsman. 16 April 1853. p. 4. Retrieved 15 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  27. ^ Cite error: The named reference montrose1853 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  28. ^ "Lancaster". Westmorland Gazette. 4 April 1857. p. 2. Retrieved 15 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  29. ^ "Lancaster". Bolton Chronicle. 30 April 1859. p. 8. Retrieved 15 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  30. ^ "The Lancaster Election. Nomination of Candidates". Preston Herald. 16 April 1864. p. 11. Retrieved 25 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  31. ^ "General Election". Manchester Times. 15 July 1865. pp. 2–6. Retrieved 25 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  32. ^ Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "L" (part 1)
  33. ^ a b c d e f British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  34. ^ "McCoan, James Carlile" . Dictionary of National Biography (2nd supplement). London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1912.
  35. ^ a b Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 9781349022984.
  36. ^ a b F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949; Political Reference Publications, Glasgow 1949
  37. ^ "'Lancaster', Feb 1974 - May 1983". ElectionWeb Project. Cognitive Computing Limited. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  38. ^ Kimber, Richard. "UK General Election results May 1979". Political Science Resources. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  39. ^ a b "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  40. ^ "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  41. ^ "Politics Resources". Election 1992. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 6 December 2010.

Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.

SourcesEdit

  • Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament (London: Longman, Hurst, Res & Orme, 1807) [1]
  • D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
  • Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) [2]
  • The Constitutional Year Book for 1913 (London: National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations, 1913)
  • F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
  • Maija Jansson (ed.), Proceedings in Parliament, 1614 (House of Commons) (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1988) [3]
  • J E Neale, The Elizabethan House of Commons (London: Jonathan Cape, 1949)
  • J Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
  • Henry Stooks Smith, The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847 (2nd edition, edited by FWS Craig - Chichester: Parliamentary Reference Publications, 1973)