Epping (UK Parliament constituency)
Epping was a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament from 1885 to 1974. It elected one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election.
|Former County constituency|
for the House of Commons
|Number of members||One|
|Replaced by||Chingford, Epping Forest and Harlow|
|Created from||West Essex|
|During its existence contributed to new seat(s) of:||Woodford and Chigwell|
Epping was one of eight single-member divisions of Essex (later classified as county constituencies) created by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, replacing the three two member divisions of East, South and West Essex.
The seat underwent a significant loss of territory at the 1945 boundary review, with the majority of the electorate forming the new constituency of Woodford. It was abolished for the February 1974 general election when it was divided between the new seats of Chingford, Epping Forest and Harlow.
Its most prominent MP was Winston Churchill, who served as Prime Minister twice, the local MP for twenty-one years from 1924 to 1945, spanning the middle part of his long service as an MP. From 1945, he was the MP for Woodford.
Boundaries and boundary changesEdit
1885–1918: The Sessional Divisions of Epping, Harlow, and Ongar, and part of the Sessional Division of Dunmow.
Formed from part of the abolished West Division. See below for areas covered.
Gained Woodford from the abolished Walthamstow Division of Essex and Wanstead from the Romford Division. Lost eastern part of Division, including Chipping Ongar, to Chelmsford, and northern part of Division, including Great Dunmow and Hatfield Broad Oak, to Saffron Walden.
1945–1974: The Borough of Chingford, the Urban Districts of Epping and Waltham Holy Cross, and the Rural District of Epping.
The House of Commons (Redistribution of Seats) Act 1944 set up Boundaries Commissions to carry out periodic reviews of the distribution of parliamentary constituencies. It also authorised an initial review to subdivide abnormally large constituencies in time for the 1945 election. This was implemented by the Redistribution of Seats Order 1945 under which Epping was divided into two constituencies. As a consequence, the Municipal Borough of Wanstead and Woodford (created from amalgamating the two separate Urban Districts) and the Urban District of Chigwell (previously a parish in the Rural District of Epping which had also absorbed the former Urban Districts of Buckhurst Hill and Loughton), formed as the new Parliamentary Borough of Woodford.
The seat was abolished in 1974 following the Second Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies. The Urban District of Chingford had been absorbed into the London Borough of Waltham Forest on its creation within Greater London and now formed the basis for the new Borough Constituency of Chingford within that Borough. The Urban District of Harlow, which had been created from the Rural District of Epping, together with neighbouring parishes (now part of the merged Rural District of Epping and Ongar), formed the new County Constituency of Harlow. Remaining parts included in the new County Constituency of Epping Forest.
|Great Dunmow, Hatfield Broad Oak||Epping||Saffron Walden (part)|
|Chipping Ongar||Chelmsford (part)||Chigwell||Brentwood and Ongar (part)|
|Waltham Abbey, Theydon Bois, Epping||Epping Forest|
|Loughton, Buckhurst Hill, Chigwell||Woodford||Chigwell|
|Woodford||Walthamstow (part)||Woodford1||Wanstead and Woodford|
Members of ParliamentEdit
|1924||Rt Hon Winston Churchill||Constitutionalist|
|1924||Conservative||Prime Minister 1940-1945|
Elections in the 1880sEdit
|Conservative win (new seat)|
Elections in the 1890sEdit
|Liberal||Spencer Barclay Heward||2,738||37.6||New|
Elections in the 1900sEdit
|Liberal||Spencer Barclay Howard||4,030||43.6||New|
Elections in the 1910sEdit
|Liberal||Israel Alexander Symmons||3,845||36.9||−6.7|
|Liberal||Israel Alexander Symmons||3,361||35.9||−1.0|
General Election 1914/15:
Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;
- Unionist: Amelius Lockwood
|Liberal||Arthur Leonard Horner||4,164||20.6||−15.3|
|People's Progressive Coalition||J. Conoley||1,367||6.8||New|
|C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.|
Elections in the 1920sEdit
|Liberal||Gilbert Granville Sharp||10,228||40.1||+19.5|
|Liberal||Gilbert Granville Sharp||12,954||47.1||+7.0|
|Liberal||Gilbert Granville Sharp||10,080||29.9||−17.2|
|Labour||J R McPhie||3,768||11.2||New|
|Constitutionalist gain from Unionist||Swing||N/A|
|Liberal||Gilbert Granville Sharp||19,005||38.4||+8.5|
|Unionist gain from Constitutionalist||Swing||−9.5|
Elections in the 1930sEdit
|Liberal||Arthur Comyns Carr||15,670||27.8||-10.6|
|Liberal||Gilbert Granville Sharp||14,430||24.4||-3.4|
Elections in the 1940sEdit
General Election 1939/40:
Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected;
|Labour gain from Conservative||Swing||+18.6|
Elections in the 1950sEdit
|Liberal||Peter Edwin Lewis||4,755||9.6||-5.0|
|Conservative gain from Labour||Swing|
|Labour Co-op||Donald F W Ford||27,114||38.4||−1.8|
Elections in the 1960sEdit
|Labour gain from Conservative||Swing||+5.2|
|Conservative||E Michael Ogden||31,406||39.0||−1.3|
|Liberal||Derek A McKie||10,162||12.6||−2.7|
Elections in the 1970sEdit
|Conservative gain from Labour||Swing||+6.2|
- Great Britain, Incorporated Council of Law Reporting for England and Wales. The public general acts. unknown library. Proprietors of the Law Journal Reports, 1884.
- Craig, Fred W. S. (1972). Boundaries of parliamentary constituencies 1885-1972;. Chichester: Political Reference Publications. ISBN 0900178094. OCLC 539011.
- Gay, Oonagh (2010-07-28). "The Rules for the Redistribution of Seats- history and reform". Cite journal requires
- British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
- The Liberal Year Book, 1907
- Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
- Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
- Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
- Report of the Annual Conference of the Labour Party, 1939