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Gravesend (UK Parliament constituency)

Gravesend was a county constituency centred on the town of Gravesend, Kent which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1868 until it was abolished for the 1983 general election. It is most notable for being a bellwether, with the winner of Gravesend (and its successor Gravesham) winning every election from 1918 through to the present day except for 1929, 1951, and 2005.

Gravesend
Former County constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Gravesend in Kent, showing boundaries used from 1974-1983
18681983
Number of membersone
Replaced byGravesham and Medway[1]
Created fromWest Kent

Contents

BoundariesEdit

1918-1950: The Borough of Gravesend, the Urban District of Northfleet, and the Rural Districts of Hoo and Strood.

1950-1955: The Borough of Gravesend, the Urban Districts of Northfleet and Swanscombe,[2] and the Rural District of Strood.

1955-1983: The Borough of Gravesend, the Urban District of Northfleet, and the Rural District of Strood.

Members of ParliamentEdit

Election resultsEdit

Elections in the 1860sEdit

General Election 1868: Gravesend [3]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Charles John Wingfield 1,237 53.6 N/A
Conservative Bedford Pim 1,069 46.4 N/A
Majority 168 7.3 N/A
Turnout 2,306 84.7 N/A
Registered electors 2,722
Liberal win (new seat)

Elections in the 1870sEdit

General Election 1874: Gravesend [3]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Bedford Pim 1,355 54.3 +7.9
Liberal Charles John Wingfield 1,142 45.7 −7.9
Majority 214 8.6 N/A
Turnout 2,497 87.4 +2.7
Registered electors 2,856
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +7.9

Elections in the 1880sEdit

General Election 1880: Gravesend [3]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Bevan 1,544 52.1 +6.4
Conservative Francis Wyatt Truscott 1,422 47.9 −6.4
Majority 122 4.1 N/A
Turnout 2,966 90.3 +2.9
Registered electors 3,286
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +6.4

The 1880 election was declared void on account of bribery, whereby Bevan had "given his men a holiday and paid them their wages".[4]

Gravesend by-election, 1880: Gravesend [3]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Sydney Waterlow 1,504 53.9 +1.8
Conservative Robert Peel 1,284 46.1 −1.8
Majority 220 7.9 +3.8
Turnout 2,788 84.8 −5.5
Registered electors 3,286
Liberal hold Swing +1.8
General Election 1885: Gravesend [5][6][7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Bazley White 1,916 50.9 +3.0
Liberal Thomas Bevan 1,850 49.1 −3.0
Majority 66 1.8 N/A
Turnout 3,766 89.7 −0.6
Registered electors 4,200
Conservative hold Swing +3.0
General Election 1886: Gravesend [5][6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Bazley White 1,938 57.5 +6.6
Liberal Edward Smyth Pryce 1,430 42.5 -6.6
Majority 508 15.0 +13.2
Turnout 3,368 80.2 -9.5
Registered electors 4,200
Conservative hold Swing +6.6

Elections in the 1890sEdit

 
Shipman
General Election 1892: Gravesend [5][6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative James Dampier Palmer 2,370 59.4 +1.9
Liberal John Greenwood Shipman 1,619 40.6 -1.9
Majority 751 18.8 +3.8
Turnout 3,989 82.7 +2.5
Registered electors 4,821
Conservative hold Swing +1.9
 
Palmer
General Election 1895: Gravesend [5][6][8]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative James Dampier Palmer 2,405 66.4 +7.0
Lib-Lab Leslie Morton Johnson 1,218 33.6 -7.0
Majority 1,187 32.8 +14.0
Turnout 3,623 72.4 -10.3
Registered electors 5,001
Conservative hold Swing +7.0

Palmer resigned, causing a by-election.

 
Runciman
Gravesend by-election, 1898 [5][6][9]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Ryder 2,372 54.8 -11.6
Liberal Walter Runciman 1,955 45.2 +11.6
Majority 417 9.6 -23.2
Turnout 4,327 82.0 +9.6
Registered electors 5,276
Conservative hold Swing -11.6

Elections in the 1900sEdit

 
Harmsworth
General Election 1900: Gravesend [5][6][10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Gilbert Parker 2,542 58.5 −7.9
Liberal Hildebrand Harmsworth 1,804 41.5 +7.9
Majority 738 17.0 −15.8
Turnout 4,346 77.6 +5.2
Registered electors 5,600
Conservative hold Swing −7.9
 
Parker
General Election 1906: Gravesend [5][6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Gilbert Parker 3,102 57.6 −0.9
Liberal William Geary 1,413 26.2 −15.3
Labour Repr. Cmte. James Macpherson 873 16.2 N/A
Majority 1,689 31.4 +14.4
Turnout 5,388 82.0 +4.4
Registered electors 6,568
Conservative hold Swing +7.2

Elections in the 1910sEdit

General Election January 1910: Gravesend [5][11]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Gilbert Parker 3,286 55.7 -1.9
Liberal Samuel Roberts Jenkins 2,612 44.3 +18.1
Majority 674 11.4 -20.0
Turnout 87.6 +5.6
Conservative hold Swing -10.0
General Election December 1910: Gravesend [5][12]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Gilbert Parker 3,108 55.4 -0.3
Liberal Samuel Roberts Jenkins 2,506 44.6 +0.3
Majority 602 10.8 -0.6
Turnout 83.4 -4.2
Conservative hold Swing -0.3

General Election 1914/15:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

Gravesend by-election, 1918[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Alexander Richardson 1,312 44.0 -11.4
Independent Unionist Henry Edward Davis 1,106 37.1 n/a
Independent Labour Harry Hinkley 562 18.9 n/a
Majority 206 6.9 -3.9
Turnout 36.6 -46.8
Unionist hold Swing
General Election 1918: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
C Unionist Alexander Richardson 7,841 51.6 −3.8
Labour James Butts 3,254 21.5 N/A
Independent Unionist Henry Edward Davis 1,817 12.0 N/A
Liberal Charles Edward Best 1,271 8.4 −47.0
National Harry Hinkley 985 6.5 N/A
Majority 4,587 30.1 +19.3
Turnout 15,168 48.8 −34.6
Registered electors 31,070
Unionist hold Swing +21.6
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Elections in the 1920sEdit

General Election 1922: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Alexander Richardson 8,166 40.6 −11.0
Labour George Isaacs 7,180 35.6 +14.1
Independent Unionist *Henry Edward Davies 4,796 23.8 +11.8
Majority 986 5.0 −25.1
Turnout 20,142 63.0 +14.2
Registered electors 31,972
Unionist hold Swing −12.6

* Davies stood for election as an 'Anti-Waste' candidate, but was not officially supported by the Anti-Waste League

General Election 1923: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour George Isaacs 9,776 43.4 +7.8
Unionist Alexander Richardson 9,657 42.8 +2.2
Liberal Laurence Harry Duniam Jones 3,123 13.8 N/A
Majority 119 0.6 N/A
Turnout 22,556 68.8 +5.8
Registered electors 32,781
Labour gain from Unionist Swing +2.9
General Election 1924: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Irving Albery 15,410 58.4 +15.6
Labour George Isaacs 10,969 41.6 −1.8
Majority 4,441 16.8 N/A
Turnout 26,379 78.0 +9.2
Registered electors 33,840
Unionist gain from Labour Swing +8.7
General Election 1929: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Irving Albery 14,644 46.1 −12.3
Labour William James Humphreys 12,871 40.6 −1.0
Liberal Frederick William Kershaw 4,220 13.3 N/A
Majority 1,773 5.5 −13.3
Turnout 31,735 71.8 −6.2
Registered electors 44,226
Unionist hold Swing −5.7

Elections in the 1930sEdit

General Election 1931: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Irving Albery 22,410 64.2 +18.1
Labour Ben Greene 12,488 35.8 −4.8
Majority 9,922 28.4 +22.9
Turnout 34,898 75.7 +3.9
Conservative hold Swing +11.5
General Election 1935: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Irving Albery 20,438 56.1 −8.1
Labour Ben Greene 15,994 43.9 +8.1
Majority 4,444 12.2 −16.2
Turnout 36,432 72.4 −3.3
Conservative hold Swing −8.1

Elections in the 1940sEdit

General Election 1945: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Garry Allighan 21,609 52.5 +8.6
Conservative Irving Albery 14,553 35.3 −20.8
Liberal Reginald Edwin Goodfellow 5,033 12.2 N/A
Majority 4,444 12.2 N/A
Turnout 41,195 74.5 +2.1
Labour gain from Conservative Swing 14.7
Gravesend by-election, 1947
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Richard Acland 24,692 51.8 −0.7
Conservative Frank K. Taylor 23,017 48.2 +12.9
Majority 1,675 3.6 −13.6
Turnout 47,709
Labour hold Swing −6.1

Elections in the 1950sEdit

General Election 1950: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Richard Acland 28,297 53.07
Conservative John Gerrard Lowe 22,726 42.62
Liberal Mavis Doreen Ayliffe 2,298 4.31
Majority 5,571 10.45
Turnout 86.29
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1951: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Richard Acland 30,055 55.29
Conservative Charles P T Burke 24,300 44.71
Majority 5,755 10.59
Turnout 85.74
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1955: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Peter Kirk 22,058 46.22
Labour Victor Mishcon 19,149 40.13
Independent Richard Acland 6,514 13.65
Majority 2,909 6.10
Turnout 47,721 80.75
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
General Election 1959: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Peter Kirk 27,124 52.08
Labour Victor Mishcon 24,962 47.92
Majority 2,162 4.15
Turnout 52,086 82.29
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1960sEdit

General Election 1964: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Albert Murray 26,074 45.41
Conservative Peter Kirk 25,326 44.11
Liberal Jack Harris Barnett 6,015 10.48
Majority 748 1.30
Turnout 57,415 80.40
Labour gain from Conservative Swing
General Election 1966: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Albert Murray 30,276 49.75
Conservative Roger White 25,484 41.88
Liberal Jack Harris Barnett 5,092 8.37
Majority 4,792 7.87
Turnout 60,852 82.04
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1970sEdit

General Election 1970: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Roger White 29,924 46.85
Labour Albert Murray 28,711 44.95
Liberal Michael J Dunn 5,234 8.19
Majority 1,213 1.90
Turnout 63,869 75.93
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
General Election February 1974: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour John Ovenden 29,571 40.83
Conservative Roger White 27,989 38.65
Liberal DC Mumford 13,136 18.14
National Front JD Turner 1,726 2.38
Majority 1,582 2.18
Turnout 83.73
Labour gain from Conservative Swing
General Election October 1974: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour John Ovenden 29,569 43.09
Conservative Richard Needham 27,264 39.73
Liberal L Cartier 10,244 14.93
National Front JD Turner 1,304 1.90
More Prosperous Britain Tom Keen 239 0.35
Majority 2,305 3.36
Turnout 78.63
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1979: Gravesend
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Tim Brinton 37,592 51.95
Labour John Ovenden 28,246 39.04
Liberal Ian Goodwin 5,917 8.18
National Front George Willden 603 0.83
Majority 9,346 12.92
Turnout 81.40
Conservative gain from Labour Swing

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "'Gravesend', Feb 1974 - May 1983". ElectionWeb Project. Cognitive Computing Limited. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  2. ^ In 1955 Swanscombe was returned to the westerly Dartford seat where it was temporarily removed from and where it remains.
  3. ^ a b c d Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  4. ^ "The Week". Eddowes's Journal, and General Advertiser for Shropshire, and the Principality of Wales. 16 Jun 1880. p. 8. Retrieved 27 November 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  6. ^ a b c d e f g The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  7. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1886
  8. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  9. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  10. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  11. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  12. ^ Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916