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This is a list of megaprojects. "Megaprojects are temporary endeavours (i.e. projects) characterized by: large investment commitment, vast complexity (especially in organizational terms), and long-lasting impact on the economy, the environment, and society".[1] The number of such projects is so large that the list may never be fully completed.

Contents

DefinitionsEdit

Megaprojects may be defined as:

  • Projects that cost more than US$1 billion and attract a lot of public attention because of substantial impacts on communities, environment, and budgets
  • Projects can also be "initiatives that are physical, very expensive, and public".[2]

Megaprojects require care in the project development process to reduce any possible optimism bias and strategic misrepresentation. Examples of megaprojects include bridges, tunnels, highways, railways, airports, seaports, power plants, dams, wastewater projects, Special Economic Zones (SEZ), oil and natural gas extraction projects, public buildings, information technology systems, aerospace projects, and weapons systems.

This list identifies a wide variety of examples of major historic and contemporary projects that meet one or both megaproject criteria identified above.

Aerospace projectsEdit

Disaster cleanupEdit

 
Construction of the new confinement structure for the nuclear reactor that melted down at Chernobyl in Ukraine.
 
Bags of oily waste are piled up during the cleanup of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989.

While most megaprojects are planned and undertaken with careful forethought, some are undertaken out of necessity after a natural disaster occurs. There have also been a few man-made disasters.

Energy projectsEdit

 
EDF has said its third-generation EPR Flamanville 3 project (seen here in 2010) will be delayed until 2018, due to "both structural and economic reasons," and the project's total cost has climbed to EUR 11 billion in 2012.[11] Similarly, the cost of the EPR being built at Olkiluoto, Finland has escalated dramatically, and the project is well behind schedule. The initial low cost forecasts for these megaprojects exhibited "optimism bias".[12]
World's largest photovoltaic power stations as of 2017
Name Capacity
(MW)
Location Year Completed
Info
Longyangxia Dam Solar Park 850 Qinghai, China 2015[16]
Kamuthi Solar Power Project 648 Kamuthi, India 2016[17]
Solar Star I and II 579 USA 2015[18]
Topaz Solar Farm 550 California, USA 2014
Desert Sunlight Solar Farm 550 California, USA 2015
California Valley Solar Ranch 292 California, USA 2013
Agua Caliente Solar Project 290 Arizona, USA 2014
Largest operational solar thermal power stations
Name Capacity
(MW)
Location Notes
Ivanpah Solar Power Facility 392 Mojave Desert, California, USA Operational since February 2014. Located southwest of Las Vegas.
Solar Energy Generating Systems 354 Mojave Desert, California, USA Commissioned between 1984 and 1991. Collection of 9 units.
Mojave Solar Project 280 Barstow, California, USA Completed December 2014
Solana Generating Station 280 Gila Bend, Arizona, USA Completed October 2013
Includes a 6h thermal energy storage
Genesis Solar Energy Project 250 Blythe, California, USA Completed April 2014

Science projectsEdit

 
CMS detector for LHC

Spaceflight projectsEdit

 
Apollo Program Saturn V awaiting launch

Sports and culture projectsEdit

Transport infrastructureEdit

Ground transportation systems like roads, tunnels, bridges, terminals, railways, and mass transit systems are often megaprojects. Numerous large airports and terminals used for airborne passenger and cargo transportation are built as megaprojects.

AfricaEdit

West AfricaEdit

 
The Third Mainland Bridge is currently the longest of three bridges connecting the island of island of Lagos to the mainland.
NigeriaEdit
Project City/State Status Cost Special Notes
Abuja Light Rail Abuja, FCT Under Construction $2,650,000,000 The Abuja Light Rail project is a light rail transport system that is underway in Abuja in Federal Capital Territory. The first phase of the project will connect the city centre to Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport, stopping at the Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway station in Idu. The project is 84% complete as of January 2017,[36] and is expected to open in December 2017.[37] The first phase of the project cost $824 million,[36] while the second phase will be costing $1.79 billion.[38]
Badagry Deep Sea Port Badagry, Lagos State Under Construction $2,300,000,000 Construction started in January 2016, and the project is expected to have a "soft Launch" in 2018.[39][40]
Fourth Mainland Bridge Ikorodu to Lekki, Lagos State Under Development $4,200,000,000 The fourth mainland bridge will join three other bridges connecting the Island of Lagos to the mainland. The 38 km bridge and expressway will become the longest bridge and expressway in the world when completed.[41]
Lagos–Calabar Railway From Lagos, Lagos to Calabar, Cross River Under Development $11,920,000,000 The Lagos–Calabar Railway is a planned standard gauge railway that will run from Lagos through to Calabar. The first phase of the project (Calabar-Port Harcourt) is expected to be completed by 2018. The total length of the rail will be 1,402 kilometres.[42]
Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway From Lagos, Lagos to Kano, Kano State Under Construction $8,300,000,000 The Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway is a standard gauge railway across Nigeria, from the port of Lagos to Kano, near the Niger border. The railway will run parallel to the British-built Cape gauge line, which has a lower design capacity and is in a deteriorated condition. The Abuja-Kaduna route is completed and operational, whilst the Lagos-Ibadan route is underconstruction, and several other routes are underdevelopment. The total length of the rail will be 2,733 kilometres.[43]
Lagos Rail Mass Transit Lagos, Lagos Under Construction $3,600,000,000 The Lagos Rail Mass Transit is an urban rail system being developed and under construction in Lagos. The system is envisioned to consist eventually of seven lines.[44] The railway equipment including electric power, signalling, rolling stock, and fare collection equipment will be provided by the private sector under a Concession Contract, while LAMATA is responsible for policy direction, regulation, and infrastructure for the network. The first section of the network, Phase I of the Blue Line, was originally planned to be completed in 2011. After many delays caused by funding shortfalls, the opening date was revised to 2017.[45][46]
Lekki Port Lekki, Lagos State Under Construction $1,650,000,000 The Port at Lekki is a new seaport in Lekki, and construction commenced in 2015. The port is planned to be developed in phases to meet the growing demand; phase one is expected to be operational by 2018.[47] The port is financed by private investors and a consortium of banks who have funded the project with $1.65 billion so far.[48]
Third Mainland Bridge Lagos, Lagos State Completed The Third Mainland Bridge is currently the longest of three bridges connecting the island of Lagos to the mainland. It was completed in 1990 and became the longest bridge in Africa. The bridge was built by Julius Berger Nigeria PLC and it measures about 11.8 km in length.

AsiaEdit

East AsiaEdit

ChinaEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) Area from Kashgar, China to South coast of Pakistan Under Development $46,000,000,000 The project aims to connect Gwadar Port in southwestern Pakistan (Central Asia/South Asia) to China’s northwestern (East Asia) autonomous region of Xinjiang, via a network of highways, railways and pipelines to transport oil and gas.[49] The economic corridor is considered central to China–Pakistan relations and will run about 3,000 km from Gwadar to Kashgar. Other than transport infrastructure, the economic corridor will provide Pakistan with telecommunications and energy infrastructure. The project also aims to improve intelligence sharing between the countries.
Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HKZMB) Pearl River Delta, China Under Construction $10,600,000,000 Due to Open in late 2017.
JapanEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Japan's Maglev High-Speed Rail (Chūō Shinkansen) Tokyo-Nagoya-Kyoto, Japan Under Construction $85,000,000,000 JR Central aims to begin commercial service between Tokyo and Nagoya in 2027, with the Nagoya-Osaka section to be completed by 2045.

South AsiaEdit

IndiaEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Hyderabad Metro Rail Hyderabad, Telangana Under Construction $2,500,000,000 To respond to the rising public transport need and mitigate escalating vehicular traffic and is set to be Completed/Operational by November 2018.
Navi Mumbai International Airport Navi Mumbai, Mumbai, Maharashtra Under Construction $2,500,000,000 The airport project, aimed at easing air traffic congestion at CSIA is expected to be completed by 2019.
PakistanEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Ravi Riverfront Development Project Lahore Under Development $7,000,000,000 Sprawling over an area of 70,000 acres, the RRDZ project entails high-quality residential, commercial, institutional, cultural and recreational zones along both sides of the river at a stretch of 33 km.[50] The riverfront will be dotted with highrise condominiums, modern piers, boardwalks and 70 per cent area dedicated to trees to make it environment friendly.[51] Around 25,000 acres of riverfront would be sold to investors for business, cultural and lifestyle activities.[52]

Southeast AsiaEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Klang Valley Mass Rapid Transit Project Malaysia Under Development $50,000,000,000 A part of another mega project to transform Malaysia and Kuala Lumpur into one big Megapolis called as Greater Kuala Lumpur.

Southwest Asia (a.k.a. the Middle East)Edit

Saudi ArabiaEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Riyadh Metro Riyadh Under Construction $23,500,000,000 Its 109 miles of railway will revolutionize how residents of Riyadh get around. It's set to begin operation by 2019.
United Arab EmiratesEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Al Maktoum International Airport Dubai Under Construction $80,000,000,000 Upon completion it will be the fourth largest airport in the world.[53]

EuropeEdit

European UnionEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
TEN-T Core Network Europe Under Construction $550,000,000,000 The purpose of the project is connect nine European Corridors, east-west and north-south. The nine corridors are the Baltic-Adriatic Corridor, the North Sea-Baltic Corridor, the Mediterranean Corridor, the Orient/East-Med Corridor, the Scandinavian-Mediterranean Corridor,[54] the Rhine-Alpine Corridor, the Atlantic Corridor, the North Sea-Mediterranean Corridor, and the Rhine-Danube Corridor.[55]
Blanka tunnel complex Prague, Czech Republic Completed $1,970,000,000 The longest city tunnel in Europe at 5.5km. The three continuous tunnels improve traffic in the northern part of Prague as well as reducing the load on the main transit route through the city center.
Gotthard Base Tunnel Switzerland Completed CHF 9.560 billion At 57 km, the World's longest and deepest rail tunnel.

NorwayEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Coastal Highway E39 Trondheim to Kristiansand Proposed $25,000,000,000 The purpose of the project is replace all the ferry links along the route with fixed connections in order to reduce travel time from 21 hours to 11 hours.

United KingdomEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
High Speed 2 England Under Construction $71,830,000,000 Completion planned for 2026 (phase 1), 2033 (phase 2)
London Crossrail Project London, England Under Construction $23,000,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2020.

North AmericaEdit

 
The new Port Mann Bridge with the old bridge fully demolished.

CanadaEdit

Project City/Province Status Cost Special Notes
Southwest Calgary Ring Road Calgary, Alberta Under Construction $5,000,000,000+ "...extend from Lott Creek Boulevard on Glenmore Trail/Highway 8 south to Macleod Trail (Highway 2A) and is approximately 21 kilometres long."[56] Set for Completion in Fall 2022.
New Champlain Bridge Corridor Project Montréal to Brossard, Québec Under Construction $4,239,000,000 Set for Completion in 2019.[56]
Réseau électrique métropolitain Montréal, Québec Under Construction $5,900,000,000 Set for Completion in 2020.[56]
Eglinton Crosstown LRT Toronto, Ontario Under Construction $9,100,000,000 Set for Completion in 2021.[56]
Port Mann Bridge Vancouver, British Columbia Completed $1,930,000,000 The widest bridge in the world (until the Bay Bridge's east span recently opened), the bridge east of Vancouver, B.C., which opened in 2012, remains the second-longest bridge in North America. The cable-stay bridge uses an impressive 288 cables to reach a total bridge length of 6,866 feet.
Confederation Bridge Prince Edward Island Completed $1,300,000,000 The 12.9 km bridge is the longest bridge in the world crossing ice-covered water.
 
Boston's highway system before and after the Central Artery/Tunnel Project
 
The completed replacement and the old bridge (2013)
 
Viewed from the east end in Medina shortly after opening in April 2016

United StatesEdit

Project City/State Status Cost Special Notes
Big Dig Boston, Massachusetts Completed $14,600,000,000 Estimated to cost $22 billion after interest.
Crescent Corridor Expansion Eastern Coast States-East South Central States-Gulf Coast States Under Construction $2,500,000,000 Freight rail company Norfolk Southern will utilize special intermodal trains on its freight rail network running from New York to Louisiana. This project covers 2,500 miles & and 13 States, which "is expected to be fully developed by 2020."[57]
Ohio River Bridges Project Louisville, Kentucky Completed $2,300,000,000[58] A Louisville metropolitan area transportation project involving the reconstruction of the Kennedy Interchange (locally known as "Spaghetti Junction"), the completion of two new Ohio River bridges and the reconstruction of ramps on Interstate 65 between Muhammad Ali Boulevard and downtown.
Second Avenue Subway Project Manhattan, New York City, New York Under Construction $17,000,000,000 The Proposed full line would be 8.5 miles (13.7 km) long with 16 stations and a projected ridership of 560,000 people. Phase 1 of the project, which runs from 125th Street to 57th Street and 7th Avenue, opened 1 January 2017. Other Phases of the project are either under development or are under construction.
LaGuardia Airport Project Queens, New York City, New York Under Construction $4,000,000,000 A Complete retrofit of the entire Airport slated to be Completed by 2022.
San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Eastern Span San Francisco-Oakland, California Completed $6,400,000,000 The Eastern span replacement of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge began in 2002 and was Completed in 2013. Currently the Old East Span is being deconstructed and removed for recycling while the foundations are being demolished with explosives or converted for other uses.
California High-Speed Rail San Francisco-Los Angeles, California Under Construction $70,000,000,000 An 808 mile high-speed rail system is expected to be Completed in phases up to 2030. Currently some of the funding is being held up in Congress by lack of agreement between Democrats and Republicans.
Alaskan Way Viaduct Seattle, Washington Under Construction $3,100,000,000 South-End Viaduct Replacement Started 2008 and Completed 2014. SR 99 Tunnel started 2011 set for Completion in 2021. Mitigation Projects started 2008 set for Completion in 2019. Other Miscellaneous Projects started 2007 and set for Completion in 2023.
Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (2016) Seattle, Washington Completed $2,000,000,000 Concrete floats quite nicely in Seattle, where engineers have devised a 7,710-foot-long floating bridge, the longest in the world. The new State Route 520 bridge replaced the previous world's longest Evergreen Point Floating Bridge across Lake Washington, connecting Seattle to points east. The new structure, rising 20 feet above the water, opened to traffic in spring 2016.
Sound Transit 3 Seattle, Washington Under Construction $50,000,000,000 This project is to expand the current Light Rail and Bus system currently in use in Seattle, which is to be Completed in Stages from 2020 till ?.
Silver Line (Washington Metro) Washington, D.C. Under Construction $6,800,000,000 Phase 1 on the project is to link the Capital to Dulles International Airport and to four edge cities Tysons Corner, Reston, Herndon, and Ashburn, which opened 26 July 2014. Phase 2 is to help with urban development of Tysons Corner and reduce overall reliance on highway traffic in the business district, Virginia's largest and 12th-largest in the country, which is to be Completed by 2020.

OceaniaEdit

AustraliaEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Central Station to Eveleigh Redevelopment Sydney, New South Wales Proposed $10,000,000,000 Extension of Sydney's CBD. The renewal corridor approximately 3 km in length.[59]
Cross River Rail Brisbane, Queensland Under Construction $5,400,000,000 To be completed in 2024. The crossing will be a tunnel under the river, and the first rail-only Brisbane River crossing since the completion of the Merivale Bridge in 1978.[60]

Planned cities and urban renewal projectsEdit

Infrastructure systems that include electricity, sewer, telecommunications, and transportation. Building cities that include Skyscrapers, housing, etc. requires concrete, steel, glass, and most especially that workers in all the trades to undertaker the massive scale of these megaprojects.

AfricaEdit

North AfricaEdit

EgyptEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Madinaty Egypt Under Development $10,000,000,000 Expected to open by 2014, "houses 600,000 population."[61]
Proposed new capital of Egypt Egypt Under Construction $45,000,000,000 Construction began in 2015 and is Expected to open by 2022, houses 250,000 population

Southern AfricaEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
ModderfonteinNew Gauteng City South Africa Under Development $7,800,000,000 Modderfontein infrastructure development of residential, industrial and commercial space by Chinese developer Shanghai Zendai. Start dated 2015 completion dated 15 to 20 years later.[62][63]

West AfricaEdit

 
Abuja, FCT in Nigeria, which was built mainly in the 1980s, was the fastest growing city in the world between 2000 and 2010, with an increase of 139.7%, and still expanding rapidly.[64]
NigeriaEdit
Project City/State Status Cost Special Notes
Abuja FCT Completed The planned capital city of Nigeria, which was built mainly in the 1980s. It officially became Nigeria's capital on 12 December 1991, replacing Lagos, and has since witnessed a huge influx of people into the city. As at 2006, the city of Abuja had a population of 776,298, making it one of the ten most populous cities in Nigeria, with an estimated metropolitan population of well over three million. Abuja is currently amongst the four largest urban areas in Nigeria.[65]
Asokoro Island[66] Abuja, FCT Under Construction $1,000,000,000 A peninsula development located in Asokoro district, in Abuja. The mixed-use development is approximately 60 hectares of land, located at the shores of Pendam Lake. Its residential development ranges from apartment buildings to villas. They are majorly luxury properties with private balconies, mezzanines, floor-to-ceiling windows, swimming pool and sun terrace etc. The commercial and work section presents hotels, offices, shopping malls, business and primary schools.[67]
Centenary City Abuja, FCT Under Construction $18,000,000,000 Project by the Nigerian Government, Eagle Hills of Abu Dhabi and Julius Berger Nigeria PLC to build a smart city to mark the country's centennial anniversary. Project broke ground on June 19, 2014 and has an anticipated timeline of 10 to 15 years to completion. The city, which is located in the Federal Capital Territory, anticipates over 400,000 residents.[68]
Eko Atlantic Lagos State Under Construction $6,000,000,000 A planned city of Lagos State, Nigeria, being constructed on land reclaimed from the Atlantic Ocean. The project broke ground in 2007 and is being spearheaded by South Energyx Nigeria Ltd. Upon completion the project anticipates at least 250,000 residents and an additional daily flow of 150,000 commuters.[69]
FESTAC Phase 2 Lagos, Lagos State Under Development $2,400,000,000 In 2014, The Ministry of Housing and Urban Development signed deal with the New Festac Property Development Company, to develop the second phase of Festac Town. Since the award, the company has been carrying out extensive preliminary project development activities including surveys, field studies, site investigation, environmental impact assessment, and town planning for the project.[70]
Lekki Lagos State Under Construction A peninsula city which is 755 square kilometres. Lekki Phase 1 has been completed and it currently houses several Estates and gated residential developments; other phases of the project include, areas allocated for a Free Trade Zone, with an airport, and a sea port under construction. The proposed land use master plan for the Lekki envisages the Peninsula as a "Blue-Green Environment City", expected to accommodate well over 3.4 million residential population and an additional non-residential population of at least 1.9 million.[71]

AsiaEdit

East AsiaEdit

 
Image of the proposed sky mile tower
JapanEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Roppongi Hills Tokyo Completed $4,000,000,000 One of Japan's largest integrated property developments.
Sky Mile Tower Tokyo Proposed UNKNOWN If built, Completion would probably be in the year 2045 and stand at 1.7km in height with a population of around 55,000 people.
South KoreaEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Songdo International Business District Incheon Under Construction $40,000,000,000 To be the model of a lifestyle merged with wide area network and set for Completion in 2018.

South AsiaEdit

 
Navi Mumbai, the world's largest planned city.
IndiaEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Area from Delhi to Mumbai, India Under Development $90,000,000,000 Conceived as a global manufacturing and trading hub, the project is expected to double employment potential, triple industrial output and quadruple exports from the region in five years. The total employment to be generated from the project is 3 million, the bulk of which will be in the manufacturing/processing sectors. The project initially aims to create seven smart cities distributed along the backbone of the dedicated freight corridor between Delhi and Mumbai.
Navi Mumbai India Under Construction $13,346,000,000 World's largest planned city. Contains a population of 2.6 million.[72]
Gujarat International Finance Tec-City India Under Development $20,000,000,000 The smart city is being built as a global financial hub to provide world class infrastructure for the Indian financial industry to grow.[73] When completed, it will outclass France's La Défense, Tokyo's Shinjuku and London's London Docklands in every aspect.[74] It is expected to be finished by 2017–2018.
SmartCity, Kochi Kochi, India Under Development $1,000,000,000 (for the 1st phase) First phase of project to be completed by 2020.[75]
PakistanEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Islamabad Islamabad Completed The new capital city of Pakistan. A planned city located on north of Rawalpindi. The city has population of 2.2 million.[76]
Bahria Town Karachi Under Development $1,000,000,000 Bahria Town Karachi is a world-class master planned community near Pakistan largest port city Karachi This city is designed with a neighborhood concept to provide worldclass lifestyle facilities having Sports city, IT City, Entertainment Complex, Five Star Hotels and Residential Area.[77] The city is built on a 70560 acres piece of land located near Karachi.
DHA City, Karachi (DCK) Karachi Under Development The green and sustainable city is to be built on a 4,700 hectares piece of virgin land located several kilometres northeast of Karachi.[78] Upon completion, the new city which is still under development is anticipating at least 250,000 residents and a daily flow of 50,000 commuters.[79]
Ravi Riverfront Development Project Lahore Under Development $7,000,000,000 Sprawling over an area of 70,000 acres, the RRDZ project entails high-quality residential, commercial, institutional, cultural and recreational zones along both sides of the river at a stretch of 33 km.[50] The riverfront will be dotted with highrise condominiums, modern piers, boardwalks and 70 per cent area dedicated to trees to make it environment friendly.[51] Around 25,000 acres of riverfront would be sold to investors for business, cultural and lifestyle activities.[52]
LDA City Lahore Under Development LDA City is the biggest housing society project ever undertaken by LDA,[80] and is the largest housing society in Punjab, Pakistan. The city is to be built on a 3,059 hectares (7560 acres) piece of virgin land located several kilometres south of Lahore.
Mubarak Center and new Central Business District at Gulberg Lahore Under Development $3,200,000,000 A new Central Business District for the city of Lahore to be built at land previously occupied by Walton Airport which will provide Lahore with a modern set of skyscrapers while the city itself retains most of its original architecture and historical character.[81]
Pak-US Knowledge Corridor Pakistan and United States Under Development Pak-Us Knowledge Corridor (PUKC) is a minister-proposed mega project. This project was proposed by Minister for Planning and Development Ahsan Iqbal, the term US-Pakistan Knowledge Corridor, he used to boost cooperation between Pakistan and America in education sector.
Sri LankaEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Colombo Port City Colombo Under Construction $15,000,000,000 A planned offshore city in Colombo, Sri Lanka which is to be built on reclaimed land adjacent to the Galle Face Green. The city will use construction resources from the Colombo Harbour Expansion Project, currently under construction near the site of this proposed city.[82]

Southeast AsiaEdit

IndonesiaEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
BSD City Greater Jakarta Completed An area half the size of Paris, encompasses an area of about 6000 hectares BSD City is the most ambitious urban planning scheme in Indonesia to combine housing, business and commercial properties.
Lippo Cikarang Greater Jakarta Completed $18,750,000,000 Lippo Cikarang is an industrial park with an area of 332 hectares, which also has apartment, hotel, office, shopping center, retail, school and university, hospital, convention center and other supporting facilities.
Pantai Indah Kapuk Jakarta Completed Pantai Indah Kapuk (PIK) is a well-planned model town in North Jakarta, spreading over 1200 hectares of land.
Ancol Dreamland Jakarta Completed Ancol Dreamland is currently the largest integrated tourism area in South East Asia with an area of about 600 hectares, boasting an international championship golf course, a theme park, an oceanarium, a convention centre, beaches, hotels and other recreational facilities.
Pluit City Jakarta Bay Under Development Standing on 160 hectares of artificial/reclaimed land, located on an open water at Jakarta Bay, Pluit City is a stunning modern city that will become a valuable addition to the capital city of Jakarta.
MalaysiaEdit
Project City/District Status Cost Special Notes
KL River City Kuala Lumpur In Development $11,638,736,500 "...the rehabilitation and transformation of a 2.2km stretch of Sungai Gombak, comprises 320 acres of potential development area..."[83]
Forest City Johor Bahru Under Construction $40,000,000,000 To Be Completed in 2035.
Iskandar Malaysia Johor Bahru Under Construction $100,000,000,000
Putrajaya Putrajaya, Sepang District Completed $8,100,000,000 In 1999 most of the seats of government moved from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya.
PhilippinesEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Lancaster New City Zone 1 and Zone 2 Cavite Under Construction

Ongoing 2,000 hectare township project in the buzzling province of Cavite. Touted to be a full pledged city, Lancaster New City has its own transport terminal, several campuses throughout the project, a 25 Hectare BPO center, a Church, Multiple club houses and retail strip complex. Future expansions are on going with Zones 3, 4 and 5 that consists of low rise residential complexes.

Nuvali Laguna Under Construction Situated at Laguna's 2290 hectare land, Nuvali is the second largest township development in the Philippines. To date, approximately 50 percent of the total land area of Nuvali has been developed, along with the road networks surrounding the commercial and residential developments. It has its own educational institutions, shopping areas, hotel, soccer field, and a bike trail.
Bonifacio Global City Manila Completed A new CBD area for Metro Manila, previously occupied by the Philippine Army headquarters.
Pagcor City Manila Bay Under Development $15,000,000,000 A casino and entertainment hub project, dubbed as the "Philippines' Las Vegas".
Clark Green City Pampanga Under Construction $59,288,000,000 The 9,450-hectare master-planned property will be the Philippines’ most modern and the first technologically-integrated city with a mix of residential, commercial, agro-industrial, institutional and information technology developments. Modeled after South Korea's Songdo City, with sustainable buildings and efficient power and energy use operated by Singapore's SSR C-Solar power plant.
Eastwood City Quezon City Completed Ongoing project of MegaWorld Corporation, one of the biggest real-estate companies in the Philippines.

Southwest Asia (a.k.a. the Middle East)Edit

AzerbaijanEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Khazar Islands Azerbaijan Under Construction $100,000,000,000 Artificial archipelago 25 km (16 mi) south of Baku, Azerbaijan consisting of 41 islands spreading 3,000 hectares (about 11.6 sq mi) over the Caspian Sea. Expected to be finished by 2020–2025, and house a population of 1 million.
IraqEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
The Bride of the Gulf Basra Proposed Basra is in the midst of rebuilding and is in need of something that will return it to its pre-Hussein period.
JordanEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Abdali Project[84][85] Amman, Jordan Under Development $5,000,000,000 Project is being developed on 384,000 square metres (0.148 sq mi) of land, intending to create a total built-up area of over 1,700,000 square metres (0.66 sq mi) consisting of hotels, apartments, offices, commercial outlets and entertainment.[84][85]
KuwaitEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Madinat al-Hareer Kuwait Under Development $132,000,000,000 Proposed 250 km2 (62,000-acre) planned urban area in Subiya, Kuwait, an area just opposite Kuwait City.
QatarEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Lusail Al Daayen Municipality Under Development $45,000,000,000 Planned to be a host city of the 2022 FIFA World Cup, planned population of 260,000 people
Saudi ArabiaEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Jeddah Economic City Jeddah Under Construction $20,000,000,000 Will host both commercial and residential development including homes, hotels, and offices. The centerpiece of the development project will be the $1.2 Billion Jeddah Tower, a tower planned to become the tallest in the world.
Masjid Al-Haram Mecca Under Construction $100,000,000,000 The Saudi government is reportedly paying as high as 500,000 Saudi riyals (around $133,000) per square meter to the owners of the buildings close to the mosque in return for the expropriation. This brings the total figure to around $100 billion. Slated to Completed by 2020.
Neom (Neo-Mustaqbal) Neom In Development $500,000,000,000 Saudi Arabia's most ambitious mega-city project ever, which is to build a city "from scratch on 10,231 square miles of untouched land in the northwestern region of Saudi Arabia, including territory from within the Egyptian and Jordanian borders."[86] At the core of this new city will be Artificial Intelligence.[87]
King Abdullah Financial District Riyadh Under Construction $78,000,000,000 About a fifth (Phase 1) of the project is completed.
King Abdullah Economic City Saudi Arabia Under Construction $100,000,000,000 Currently in various stages of Construction and Completion stages.
 
Nighttime photo of the Burj Al Arab.
 
The Burj Khalifa in October 2012.
United Arab EmiratesEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Masdar City Abu Dhabi Under Construction $22,000,000,000 The city will rely entirely on solar energy and other renewable energy sources, with a sustainable, zero-carbon, zero-waste ecology and will be a car free city.
Yas Island Abu Dhabi Under Development $36,000,000,000 It occupies a total land area of 2,500 ha (25 km2), of which 1,700 ha will be claimed for development. The island holds the Yas Marina Circuit, which hosts the Formula One United Arab Emirates Grand Prix since 2009.
Burj Al Arab Dubai Completed $1,000,000,000 Completed and Opened in 1999, it is the 3rd tallest hotel in the World.
Burj Khalifa Dubai Completed $1,500,000,000 Originally call the Burj Dubai, the Burj Khalifa is currently the tallest building in the World and has held that title since its Completion and Grand Opening on 4 January 2010.
Dubai Meydan City Dubai Under Construction $2,200,000,000 Expected Completion date about 2020.
Falconcity of Wonders Dubai Under Development $36,500,000,000
Business Bay Dubai Under Development $30,000,000,000 Comprises 240 high and low rise buildings, mostly residential and mixed use skyscrapers.
The World Dubai Under Development $14,000,000,000 Artificial archipelago of various small islands constructed in the rough shape of a world map. Development has slowly restarted.
Palm Jumeirah Dubai Completed $12,300,000,000 It is the world's largest man-made island.
Dubai Marina Dubai Completed World's largest man-made marina, with 200 residential and hotel high rises.
Palm Jebel Ali Dubai On-Hold $4,000,000,000 Will accommodate over 250,000 people by 2020.
Palm Deira Dubai On-Hold Will be the largest palm island, in Dubai.
Dubai International City Dubai Under Construction $95,000,000,000 A country-themed architecture of residences, business, and tourist attractions.
Jumeirah Garden City Dubai On-Hold $95,000,000,000 Will be built across an area north of Sheikh Zayed Road between Diyafa Street and Safa Park.
Dubai Waterfront Dubai Under Development Expected to become the largest waterfront and largest man-made development in the world.
Dubailand Dubai Under Construction $64,300,000,000 Will be world's largest Retail and Entertainment World, twice the size of Walt Disney World Resort, it include 45 mega projects and 200 sub projects. Currently, there are 22 projects under development. Expected Completion Date about 2020.
The Universe Dubai On-Hold A planned artificial archipelago in the shape of the Milky Way and Solar System.
The Tower Dubai Under Construction $1,000,000,000 Located at Dubai Creek Harbour, The Tower will be a mixed-use skyscraper that will be a notch taller than the Burj Khalifa when Completed in 2020.
Mall of the World Dubai Under Construction $6,806,425,500 To be located along the Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Road and set to Open in 2029.

EurasiaEdit

Republic of Turkey (Europe West and Asia East of the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles)Edit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
İstanbul Finance Center İstanbul Under Development $5,000,000,000 Apart from the main urban renewal project of İstanbul. It will station in Ataşehir
Turkey Urban Renewal Project Turkey Under Development $400,000,000,000[88][89] Renewals are being conducted all over Turkey but mainly on İstanbul[90] as Law 6306 announced by Ministry of Environment and City Planning (Turkey).[91] Fikirtepe, a neighborhood of Kadıköy has been chosen as pilot area for project.[92] Construction started in 2012 and is expected to take 20 years to complete setting for 2032.

Russia (Europe West and Asia East of the Ural Mountains)Edit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Moscow International Business Center Moscow Under Construction $12,000,000,000 Construction on Plots 1, 2-3, 4 (Tower 1), 6-8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, and 19 is completed. Construction on Plots 4 (Tower 2), 15, and 17-18 is in progress.
Lakhta Center Lakhta, Saint Petersburg Under Construction $2,500,000,000 Replaces the Okhta Center, which was cancelled due to official objections of UNESCO World Heritage Committee.
Okhta Center Saint Petersburg Cancelled $2,500,000,000 Never built, will be replaced by the new project Lakhta Center

EuropeEdit

FranceEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
La Défense (1958 - 2014) Paris Completed $10,000,000,000+ The Central Business District of the Paris Metropolitan area, La Défense provides France with a modern set of skyscrapers while Paris itself retains most of its original architecture and character.
La Défense (2016–Present) Paris Under Construction $1,000,000,000+ The Central Business District of the Paris Metropolitan area, La Défense provides France with a modern set of skyscrapers while Paris itself retains most of its original architecture and character. This current round of the project includes modernize, refurbish and green the area.

GermanyEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Potsdamer Platz Redevelopment Berlin Completed Project divided onto four parts in which four investors bids in turn.
HafenCity Hamburg Under Development Completion expected in 2020–2030

PortugalEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Vasco da Gama Bridge Lisbon Completed $1,100,000,000 Construction began in February 1995; the bridge was opened to traffic on 29 March 1998, just in time for Expo 98, the World's Fair that celebrated the 500th anniversary of the discovery by Vasco da Gama of the sea route from Europe to India.

It is the longest bridge in Europe (including viaducts), with a total length of 12.3 kilometres (7.6 mi), including 0.8 kilometres (0.50 mi) for the main bridge and 11.5 kilometres (7.1 mi) in viaducts. The Bridge is served by 4.8 kilometres (3.0 mi) of dedicated access roads. It was built to alleviate the congestion on Lisbon's 25 de Abril Bridge, and eliminate the need for traffic between the country's northern and southern regions to pass through the capital city.

RomaniaEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Esplanada City Center Bucharest Cancelled $4,200,000,000

SpainEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Bilbao Renovation Project Bilbao Completed In the 1990s, the city began a de-industralisation process, which radically changed its image. After closing several factories and decontaminating the city's river, several megaprojects were built. A whole new airport, designed by Spanish world-famous architect Santiago Calatrava, a metro system designed by British Lord Norman Foster, a recovery of the city's old fashioned tram network changed the city's public transport system. The Iberdrola Tower, which is Bilbao's tallest building, the Alhondiga, the Zubizuri bridge and several other significant buildings changed the city center's polluted past. The whole renovation process started because of the construction of The Guggemheim Museum Of Bilbao, the city's landmark and main museum.
CTBA - Madrid Financial District Madrid Completed est. $1,000,000,000 A complex of four skyscrapers, each about 240 metres high, located on one of Madrid's most expensive avenua, La Castellana. The towers were built on Real Madrid's former Ciudad Deportiva, and were completed in 2008. The tallest building is Torre Cepsa, designed by world-famous architect Norman Foster, and has a height of 249 metres, making it Spain's tallest structure.

SwedenEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Movement of Kiruna Centrum Kiruna, Sweden Under Development $2,100,000,000 Entire project to be completed between 2020 and 2021.[93]

United KingdomEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Big City Plan Birmingham, England Under Development $17,000,000,000
Stratford City London, England Under Development £3,500,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2020.

North AmericaEdit

 
Verclaire Gate South in Downtown Markham.

CanadaEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Downtown Markham Markham, Toronto, Ontario Under Construction $4,000,000,000 One of the many city center projects in York Region. Scheduled for Completion in 2025.

Mexico (Latin America)Edit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Cancún Quintana Roo Completed One of main tourist destinations in the world.
Santa Fe, Mexico City Mexico City Completed Before the city dump, today one of largest CBDs in the world.
 
Brickell Key in Miami.
 
Las Vegas CityCenter, the largest set of resorts in the largest gambling center in the world.

United StatesEdit

Project City/State Status Cost Special Notes
Mercedes-Benz Stadium Atlanta, Georgia Completed $1,500,000,000 The new home of the Atlanta Falcons is Complete and hosted the Atlanta Falcon/Arizona Cardinals 2017 Pre-Season Game.
Vista Tower Project Chicago, Illinois Under Construction $1,000,000,000 Set for Completion in 2020.
Brickell Key Claughton Island, Miami, Florida Completed $2,000,000,000+ A man-made island called Claughton Island[94] off the mainland Brickell neighborhood of Miami, Florida.
Apple Park Cupertino, California Completed $3,000,000,000+ The "spaceship", as it is nicknamed, is Apple's new flagship headquarters (formally named Apple Campus 2). Taking the shape of a giant ring, it is expected to house over 14,000 employees. It was completed and opened in April 2017.
Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park Inglewood, California Under Construction $2,600,000,000 Planned to open in 2020, the stadium will serve as the home to the Los Angeles Rams and Los Angeles Chargers of the National Football League (NFL).
CityCenter Las Vegas, Nevada Completed $11,000,000,000 The largest privately financed development in the United States.
Wilshire Grand Center Los Angeles, California Completed $1,200,000,000 Set to be Completed 23 June 2017. It is the tallest building in Los Angeles, the tallest building in California, and the tallest building west of the Mississippi at a height of 1,100 feet.
Riverside South New York City, New York Under Construction $3,000,000,000 An urban development project in the Lincoln Square neighborhood of the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City.
Pacific Park New York City, New York Under Construction $8,000,000,000 The project's centerpiece, Barclays Center, opened in September 2012. The project name Atlantic Yards has been renamed Pacific Park, Brooklyn. The Project is expected to be Completed by 2025 as the earliest.
Battery Park City New York City, New York Completed $1,400,000,000+ Mainly a residential 92-acre (37 ha) planned community at the southwestern tip of the island of Manhattan in New York City, New York, United States, more than  1⁄3 of which is parkland.[95]
Cornell Tech Campus New York City, New York Under Construction $2,000,000,000 Construction began in 2014 on the South end of Roosevelt Island. Phase 1 to be Completed in 2017 and Phase 2 to be Completed sometime later.
Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project New York City, New York Under Construction $20,000,000,000 A mixed-use real estate development currently being built over the 28-acre West Side Rail Yard.
Rebuilding of the World Trade Center New York City, New York Re-Construction In Progress $32,000,000,000[96] Recovery from the September 11 attacks. One, Four, and Seven World Trade Center Towers completed 2006-2014. Two, Three, Five, and Six World Trade Center Towers are either nearing Completion or are Currently On Hold.
53W53 New York City, New York Under Construction $1,200,000,000 Formerly the Tower Verre is a Supertall Skyscraper with a Museum and Residential Condominiums.
Comcast Technology Center Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Under Construction $1,500,000,000 Ninth-tallest building in the Western Hemisphere as well as the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere outside of Manhattan and Chicago at a height of 1,121 feet, which is expected to be Completed in 2018.
Gigafactory 1 Reno, Nevada Under Construction $5,000,000,000 3 Blocks (14%) of the total 21 Blocks of the factory Completed and the remaining 18 Blocks to be completed by 2020.
Salesforce Tower San Francisco, California Nearing Completion $1,100,000,000 A 1,070-foot Supertall Office Skyscraper under construction in the South of Market district of downtown San Francisco.
San Francisco Shipyard and Candlestick Redevelopment San Francisco, California Under Construction $8,000,000,000 Set to be Completed sometime after 2028.
Treasure Island Redevelopment San Francisco, California In Development $6,000,000,000 Set to be Completed by 2028.
The Mission Bay Redevelopment San Francisco, California Under Construction $1,000,000,000
Parkmerced San Francisco, California Under Construction $1,350,000,000 Expected to be Completed by 2035.
Washington State Convention Center Seattle, Washington Under Construction $1,600,000,000 This expansion project is expected to be Completed in 2020.
Sasol Ethane Cracker Complex Project Westlake-Mossville-Lake Charles, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana Under Construction $8,900,000,000 Sasol is constructing a world-scale petrochemical complex in Southwest Louisiana, which will roughly triple the company’s chemical production capacity in the U.S. and enable it to build on its strong positions in robust and growing global chemicals markets.

OceaniaEdit

AustraliaEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Queen's Wharf Brisbane Brisbane, Queensland Under Construction $3,000,000,000 Integrated Resort Development located on the north bank of the Brisbane River in the Brisbane central business district. Entire project to be completed by 2024.[97]
Barangaroo Sydney, New South Wales Under Construction $6,000,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2023
Victorian Desalination Plant Williamsons Beach, Dalyston-Wonthaggi, Bass Coast Shire, Victoria Completed $4,000,000,000 Built to provide more drinking to Melbourne because in the mid-2000s the city's water reserves were at 28% of capacity.

New ZealandEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Rebuilding of Christchurch New Zealand Re-Construction In Progress $17,000,000,000 Recovery from earthquakes in 2010–2011. Rebuild of central business district, demolition and remediation of several residential neighbourhoods now deemed unsuitable for building. Infrastructure upgrades and addition of commuter rail. Entire project to be completed by 2020.

South America (Latin America)Edit

BrazilEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Brasília Brasília Completed $21,900,000,000 At the close of the 20th century, Brasília held the distinction of being the largest city in the world which had not existed at the beginning of the century.[98] Construction cost for Brasília in 1957 was about $2.5 Billion.[99]

ColombiaEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Bogota Urban Renewal Bogota Under Development $50,000,000,000 One of the most ambitious projects in Latin American history. Includes building over 60 skyscrapers, 500 highrises, 3 new CBDs, a subway system, and a smart city near Usaquén. The project is meant to establish Bogota as the financial, industrial, and technological capital of Latin America.

Water-relatedEdit

Ports, waterways, canals, and locks for Passenger Ships and Cargo Ships carrying passengers and cargo from country to country and islands nations are built as megaprojects

AfricaEdit

North AfricaEdit

 
Old and New Suez Canal
EgyptEdit
Project Province(s) Status Cost Special Notes
New Suez Canal Ismailia and Suez Completed $8,400,000,000 In August 2014, work started on expanding the Suez Canal, dubbed the "New Suez Canal" was completed and opened on 6 August 2015.
Suez Canal Ismailia and Suez Completed $1,725,950,238.22 A man-made canal that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea cost $100 million in 1869.

West AfricaEdit

NigeriaEdit
Project City/State Status Cost Special Notes
Lekki Port Lekki, Lagos State Under Construction $1,650,000,000 The Port at Lekki is a new seaport in Lekki, and construction commenced in 2015. The port is planned to be developed in phases to meet the growing demand; phase one is expected to be operational by 2018.[47] The port is financed by private investors and a consortium of banks who have funded the project with $1.65 billion so far.[100]

AsiaEdit

East AsiaEdit

ChinaEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
South–North Water Transfer Project South to North China Under Construction $79,000,000,000[101] No timeline to indicate a completion date of this project and no telling how much more the project will cost.
JapanEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Kamaishi Tsunami Protection Breakwater Kamaishi, Iwate Completed $1,500,000,000 Completed in March 2009, it soon became the tsunami barrier that failed to protect Kamaishi during the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.

South AsiaEdit

Sri LankaEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Colombo Harbour Expansion Project Colombo Completed $1,200,000,000 Construction began in 2008 and completely finished on 8 August 2013.

Southwest Asia (a.k.a. the Middle East)Edit

United Arab EmiratesEdit
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Dubai Marina Dubai Completed World's largest man-made marina, with 200 residential and hotel high rises.
Dubai Waterfront Dubai Under Development Expected to become the largest waterfront and largest man-made development in the world.

Caribbean (Latin America)Edit

CubaEdit

Project City/Province(s) Status Cost Special Notes
New Port of Mariel Development Project Mariel, Artemisa Completed $900,000,000[102] Though the project falls $100 million short of the billion dollar mark, it still counts as mega project for Cuba the first of many in 50+ years.

Central America (Latin America)Edit

NicaraguaEdit

Project City/Province(s) Status Cost Special Notes
Nicaragua Canal Proposed est. $100,000,000,000 Formally the Nicaraguan Canal and Development Project (also referred to as the Nicaragua Grand Canal, or the Grand Interoceanic Canal) is a planned shipping route through Nicaragua to connect the Caribbean Sea (and therefore the Atlantic Ocean) with the Pacific Ocean. Its viability has been questioned by shipping experts and engineers[103]
 
New Panama Canal expansion project. July 2015

PanamaEdit

Project Province(s) Status Cost Special Notes
Panama Canal Colón Province and Panamá Province Completed $8,961,664,698.46 Originally constructed by the United States for about $360 million. Opened on 15 August 1914 with a series of locks, canals, and lakes which connect ships traveling between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
Panama Canal Expansion Colón Province and Panamá Province Completed $5,250,000,000 The Expansion Opened 26 June 2016.

EuropeEdit

NetherlandsEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Zuiderzee Works Centeral A man-made system of dams and dikes, land reclamation and water drainage work, in total the largest hydraulic engineering project undertaken by the Netherlands during the twentieth century.
Delta Works Southwest A series of construction projects in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land around the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta from the sea.

North AmericaEdit

CanadaEdit

Project City/Province Status Cost Special Notes
Rideau Canal Kingston to Ottawa Completed £822,804 (January 1834) A 202 km waterway opened in 1832 to provide a secure supply and communications route between Montreal and the British naval base in Kingston.

United StatesEdit

Project City/State Status Cost Special Notes
Intracoastal Waterway Boston, Massachusetts to Brownsville, Texas A 3,000-mile (4,800 km) inland waterway along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the United States, running from Boston, Massachusetts, southward along the Atlantic Seaboard and around the southern tip of Florida, then following the Gulf Coast to Brownsville, Texas.

South America (Latin America)Edit

BrazilEdit

Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Porto Maravilha Rio de Janeiro Under Development $35,700,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2015.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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