Bærum ([²bæːrʉm] (listen)) is a municipality in Akershus County, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Sandvika. Bærum was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. A suburb of Oslo, Bærum is located on the west coast of the city.
Bærum within Akershus
|• Mayor (2011)||Lisbeth Hammer Krog (H)|
|• Total||192 km2 (74 sq mi)|
|• Land||189 km2 (73 sq mi)|
|Area rank||#334 in Norway|
|• Rank||#5th in Norway|
|• Density||547/km2 (1,420/sq mi)|
|• Change (10 years)||9.8%|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||NO-0219|
|Official language form||Bokmål|
|Source: Statistics Norway.|
Bærum has the highest income per capita in Norway and the highest proportion of university-educated individuals. Bærum, particularly its eastern neighbourhoods bordering West End Oslo, is one of Norway's priciest and most fashionable residential areas, leading Bærum residents to be frequently stereotyped as snobs in Norwegian popular culture. The municipality has been voted the best Norwegian place to live in considering governance and public services to citizens.
The name (Old Norse: Bergheimr) is composed of berg, which means "mountain", and heimr, which means "homestead" or "farm". It probably originally belonged to a farm located at the base of the prominent mountain of Kolsås. In Old Norse times, the municipality was often called Bergheimsherað, meaning "the herað (parish/district) of Bergheimr".
The coat-of-arms was granted on 9 January 1976. They show an old silver-colored lime kiln on a green background. That was an important aspect of the local economy from the Middle Ages until around 1800. There are still some original ovens visible in the municipality.
The area known today as Bærum was a fertile agricultural area as far back as the Bronze Age, and several archeological finds stem from the Iron Age. The first mention of the name is from the saga of Sverre of Norway, from about 1200. There are ruins of stone churches from the 12th century at Haslum and Tanum.
The pilgrim road to Trondheim that was established after 1030 went through Bærum, and there is evidence that lime kilns were in use in the area in 850. There were shipping ports for the quicklime at Slependen and Sandvika. The lime kiln is the main motif for the municipality's coat of arms.
In the 17th century, iron ore was discovered in Bærum and the ironworks at Bærums Verk were founded. Industries such as paper mills, nail factories, sawmills, glassworks, and brickworks were established along the rivers Lysakerelven and Sandvikselva in the following centuries. There were orchards and other agricultural concerns throughout the area, remnants of which still exist today.
A number of artists established themselves in Bærum, particularly around the art school run by Johan Fredrik Eckersberg. Among the artists who did much of their work in Bærum are Frits Thaulow, Christian Skredsvig, Harriet Backer, Kitty Lange Kielland, Otto Sinding, Eilif Pettersen, Gerhardt Munthe, and Erik Werenskiold.
Starting in the mid-20th century, Bærum's agricultural base gradually gave way to residential construction. Still, only a third of the area, 64 square kilometres (24.7 sq mi), is built up for residential use; over half is productive forestry; and nearly 17 square kilometres (6.6 sq mi) is still agricultural.
In 2010, the city hosted that year's Eurovision Song Contest.
The physical geography of Bærum is dominated by a craggy coastline along the Oslofjord and inland, hilly areas rising to the north and east, where there are large forested areas. The mountain of Kolsås forms a natural center, but the municipality also includes the secluded valley of Lommedalen. Four major rivers flow through the municipality: Lysakerelven, Sandvikselva, Lomma, and Øverlandselva, and there are numerous lakes, both in residential and forested areas. The official municipality flower is Anemone ranunculoides.
Since nearly two-thirds of Bærum's area consists of forests, there are rich opportunities for outdoor activities, such as skiing, hiking, and fishing. The forests are considered part of Marka, the forested areas in and around Greater Oslo. Areas within the municipality of Bærum include Bærumsmarka, Vestmarka, and Krokskogen.
Bærum's industrial base has since the 1950s given way to service industries, including retailing, engineering, public services, etc. It derives much of its tax base by being a bedroom community to Oslo. It is one of the most affluent areas in Norway.
Two of Norway's busiest highways (E18 and E16) and one railroad traverse the municipality. There has been considerable development of office parks along E18, especially around Lysaker in the last 20–30 years, reducing some of the pressure on downtown areas of Oslo.
Scandinavian Airlines System Norway has its offices in Fornebu, Bærum. The airline Widerøe has some administrative offices in Lysaker, Bærum. Norwegian Air Shuttle has its head office in Fornebu.
Partnair, a charter airline, was headquartered at Fornebu Airport. When the airline Busy Bee of Norway existed, its head office was on the grounds of Fornebu Airport. Braathens and SAS Braathens had their head office facilities in a building on the grounds of Fornebu Airport. In 2010 Norwegian Air Shuttle bought the former Braathens head office.
Bærum (2009) is the fifth most densely populated municipality in Norway. Along the E18 highway, the residential area is continuous with Oslo and continues with some interruption through to the neighboring municipality of Asker.
Bærum is also the most affluent of Norwegian municipalities, with average per capita income (2002 figures) of NOK 370,800; compared with the national average of NOK 262,800. It also has the highest level of education nationwide.
Administratively, Bærum is divided into 22 sections. The population for each section on 1 January 2005 was:
According to a local survey conducted by Dagbladet, Bærum is the best place to live in Norway in terms of governance and services to residents. In addition is it also one of the best places for young people to grow up. Bærum score high on national surveys when it comes to local economical governance, education and possibilities for young people, health coverage, school rankings, and work rights and possibilities
Churches in BærumEdit
- Østerås kirke
- Grinilund kirke
- Haslum kirke
- Jar kirke
- Høvik kirke
- Snarøya kirke
- Kilentunet kapell
- Tanum kirke
- Bryn kirke
- Haslumseter kapell
- Helgerud kirke
- Lommedalen Kirke
- Bærums Verk Kapell
Schools in BærumEdit
There are a number of schools in Bærum, both public and private. There are a total of 43 public elementary schools ( primary and / or secondary ) and some private, including Bærum Montessori School. According to national surveys, Jar public elementary school ranks the highest when it comes to math, while Lommedalen public elementary school ranks the highest in reading, both are located in Bærum.
There are eight public high schools in Bærum; Dønski, Eikeli, Nadderud, Rosenvilde, Rud, Sandvika, Stabekk and Valler. In addition, the Norwegian College of Elite Sport and Steiner School. The Folk University also has a branch in Sandvika. Valler High School has been ranked within the top 5 high schools in Norway for several years, while Nadderud High School ranks within the top 20. In the later years both schools have met competition from the newly established Sandvika High School. Sandvika High School has had the highest number of applications in the county for the past six years, and is now ranked within top 10 in the country. In 2013 the school also won for Best Entrepreneurship School in Norway.
- Princess Märtha Louise of Norway
- Finn Alnæs (1932–1991), writer
- Torger Baardseth (1875–1947), bookseller and publisher
- Harriet Backer (1845–1932), painter
- Herman Bang (1857–1912), Danish writer
- Jo Benkow (1924–2013), politician and author
- Gro Harlem Brundtland (born 1939), politician and former prime minister
- Hans Petter Buraas (born 1975), Alpine skier
- Ivo Caprino (1920–2001), filmmaker
- Magnus Carlsen (born 1990), chess player
- Harald Eia (born 1966), comedian
- Viktor Esbensen (1881–1942), Whaler, explorer
- Kjell Hallbing (1934–2004), writer
- Kitty Lange Kielland (1845–1932), painter
- Claude Monet (1840–1926), painter, stayed in Sandvika for two months in the winter of 1895. His most famous painting from his stay is probably one of Sandvika featuring the Løkke bridge, with Kolsås in the background.
- Fridtjof Nansen (1861–1930), Zoologist, explorer, scientist, Diplomat, Nobel Peace Prize, League of Nations High Commissioner
- Eilif Peterssen (1852–1928), painter
- Vebjørn Sand (born 1966), artist
- Jan Tore Sanner (born 1965), politician
- Anita Skorgan (born 1958), singer
- Bjørn Einar Romøren (born 1981), ski jumper
- Tom Hilde (born 1987), ski jumper
- Harcharan Chawla (1926–2001), writer
- Emilie Haavi (born 1992), footballer
- Henrik Myklestu (born 1992), Famous Paralympic athlete
- Andreas Martinsen (born 1990) Hockey Player
Twin towns – Sister citiesEdit
Notes and referencesEdit
- "Navn på steder og personer: Innbyggjarnamn" (in Norwegian). Språkrådet. Retrieved 2015-12-01.
- Projected population – Statistics Norway
- "Skattelister 2008". Oslo: NRK. 2009. Archived from the original on 25 December 2009.
- "Næringsliv". Sandvika: Bærum kommune. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011.
- "Norges beste sted" [Norway's best place]. Dagbladet. 9 September 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- Thorsnæs, Geir; Svein Askheim. "Bærum". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian).
- Norske Kommunevåpen (1990). "Nye kommunevåbener i Norden". Archived from the original on 15 July 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
- Bakken, Tor Chr., ed. (2008). Asker og Bærum-leksikon (in Norwegian). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. ISBN 978-82-573-1534-4.
- "Bærum i tall" (in Norwegian). Bærum kommune. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- Olav Harlen (20 February 2007). "På vulkansk jord". Asker og Bærums Budstikke (in Norwegian). Sandvika.[dead link]
- "Bærumsmarka" (in Norwegian). Skiforeningen. Retrieved 2009-01-02.
- "Vestmarka/Asker Syd" (in Norwegian). Skiforeningen. Retrieved 2009-01-02.
- "Krokskogen" (in Norwegian). Skiforeningen. Retrieved 2009-01-02.
- "SAS head office in Norway." Scandinavian Airlines System. Retrieved on 8 June 2009.
- "Headquarters." Widerøe. Retrieved on 15 November 2009.
- "Contact us Archived 11 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine." Norwegian Air Shuttle. Retrieved on 24 February 2010.
- "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 26 March 1988. 102.
- "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 27 March-2 April 1991. 78.
- Henriksen, Øyvind. "Kjos kjøper Braathensbygget Archived 27 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine." E24. 24 February 2010. Retrieved on 24 February 2010. "Norwegian-sjef Bjørn Kjos kjøper det tidligere hovedkvarteret til Braathens og SAS Norge. Nå skal Norwegian flytte inn i bygningen" and "Oksenøyveien 3 på Fornebu utenfor Oslo er kjøpt av Bjørn Kjos og Bjørn Kise."
- "Rangeringsliste for innbyggere per areal" (in Norwegian). Norges Kommunekalender., the four municipalities with greater density being: Stavanger, Oslo, Oppegård, and Skedsmo. All but Stavanger form the conurbation with Oslo
- "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, by immigration category, country background and percentages of the population". ssb.no. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- Dagbladet. "Bærum kommune børsen". Dagbladet. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- nettavisen. "Bærum kommune børsen". nettavisen. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Aftenposten. "Top 100 schools". Akershus. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- budstikka. "Sandvika application". budstikka. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- Budstikka. "Sandvika i Top". budstikka. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- Akershus. "Sandvika in the top". Akershus. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
- "Vennskapskommuner" (in Norwegian). Bærum kommune. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 2008-12-18.
- "Frederiksberg Municipality – Twin Towns" (in Danish). Frederiksberg Municipality. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 2009-09-09.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bærum.|
|Look up Bærum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Akershus travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Municipality of Bærum official web site (in Norwegian)
- Tourist information from the municipality of Bærum
- IT Fornebu[permanent dead link] (in Norwegian)
- Weather forecast and map for Bærum (in Norwegian)
- Budstikka (local newspaper for Asker and Bærum) (in Norwegian)
- Page featuring Monet's paintings from Norway