Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria)

The Federal Capital Territory (FCT), is a federal territory in central Nigeria. Abuja, the capital city of Nigeria, is located in this territory. The FCT was formed in 1976[4] from parts of the states of old Kaduna, Kwara, Niger, and Plateau states, with the bulk of land mass carved out of Niger state. The Federal Capital Territory is within the North Central region of the country. Unlike other states of Nigeria, which are headed by elected Governors, it is administered by the Federal Capital Territory Administration, headed by a minister, who is appointed by the President.[5]

Federal Capital Territory
Flag of the Federal Capital Territory
Seal of the Federal Capital Territory
Location of Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria
Location of Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria
Coordinates: 8°50′N 7°10′E / 8.833°N 7.167°E / 8.833; 7.167
Country Nigeria
Date created3 February 1976
 • BodyFederal Capital Territory Administration (FCTA)
 • Minister[1]Mohammed Musa Bello
 • Minister of StateRamatu Tijani Aliyu
 • Permanent SecretaryAjakaiye Babatope
 • National Assembly delegationSenator: Philips Tanimu Aduda (PDP)
Representatives: List
 • Total7,315 km2 (2,824 sq mi)
 (2006 Census)1
 • Total1,406,239
 • Estimate 
(2011 estimate)
 • Density190/km2 (500/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (WAT)
ISO 3166 codeNG-FC
HDI (2021)0.646[3]
medium · 7th of 37
^1 Preliminary results


The Federal Capital Territory was created upon the promulgation of decree number 6 of 1976. It came into existence due to a need to find a replacement for the capital city of Lagos, which had become congested and had little space for expansion. The area chosen as the new capital was principally Gwari Land (the home of the tribes referred to as the Gbagyis, their language is referred to as Gwari) with high concentrations of Muslims and Christians and high degree of neutrality from the dominant ethnic groups. It is the least populated state in Nigeria.[6]

Decree 6 of 1976, gave the federal government rights over land within the territory. The population density prior to the takeover by the government was sparse with a population of 120,000 residents living in 840 villages and mostly of Gwari heritage.[6] Inhabitants were relocated to nearby towns like Suleja in Niger state, and New Karshi in Nasarawa State on the outskirts of the territory.


A Farmland in Kuje, the Food Basket of the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria

The territory is located just north of the confluence of the Niger River and Benue River. It is bordered by the states of Niger to the West and North, Kaduna to the northeast, Nasarawa to the east and south, and Kogi to the southwest.

Lying between latitudes 8.25 and 9.20 north of the equator and longitudes 6.45 and 7.39 east of Greenwich Meridian, The Federal Capital Territory is geographically located at the center of the country.

The Federal Capital Territory has a landmass of approximately 7,315 km2, and it is situated within the savannah region with moderate climatic conditions.

Natural resourcesEdit

Minerals found in the FCT include marble, tin, clay, mica, and tantalite.[7]


The hills of the FCT provide home to many bushbuck, forest Black duiker, bush pig, chimpanzee and red-flanked duiker. Also found in FCT woodland are leopard, buffalo, roan antelope, Western hartebeest, elephant, warthog, grey duiker, dog-faced baboon, patas monkey and green monkey.[8]


Like some northern states in Nigeria, the Federal Capital Territory is relatively mild. The Federal Capital Territory is usually very hot between the months of January and April.[9] The average daily maximum temperature of the city is above 30 °C or 86 °F, with the month of March being the hottest month. The rainy season in the territory lasts between July and October of every year but the coolest month is December, during the harmattan season.[10] During the harmattan, there is high relative humidity, coupled with windy and foggy atmosphere.


While the Federal Capital Territory minister administers the whole of the Federal Capital Territory, the Federal Capital Development Authority (FCDA) specifically manages the construction and infrastructure development of the region.[11]

The territory is currently made up of six local government areas, namely:[12]


Languages of the Federal Capital Territory listed by local government area (LGA) are presented in tabular format as follows:[13]

LGA Languages
Abaji Dibo; Gupa-Abawa, Ebira, Ganagana
Municipal Gade; Gbagyi, Gwandara, Nupe, Hausa
Bwari Gwandara; Ashe; Gbagyi
Gwagwalada Gbari, Egibra, Hausa
Kuje Gade; Gbagyi
Kwali Gwandara; Gbagyi; Ebira, Kami, Ganagana, Nupe, Hausa

Hausa language is widely spoken at the Federal Capital Territory.[13]


The council was elected in the 2022 Federal Capital Territory local elections.[14]


  1. ^ See List of Ministers of the Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria) for a list of prior ministers
  2. ^ "Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria)". City Population. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  3. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  4. ^ "Abuja at 46: The Dreams, Strides, Challenges | Premium Times Nigeria". 2022-02-03. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  5. ^ Nigeria Education. Federal Capital Territory. Retrieved 28 December 2021.
  6. ^ a b Elleh, Nnamdi (August 2015). "Chapter 3". Architecture and politics in Nigeria : the study of a late twentieth-century enlightenment-inspired modernism at Abuja, 1900-2016. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon. ISBN 9781472465306. OCLC 965828210.
  7. ^ "FCT State". rmrdc.gov.ng. Raw Materials Research and Development Council. Archived from the original on 22 May 2018. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  8. ^ "Federal Capital Territory Administration - Facts". Federal Capital Territory Administration. Archived from the original on 23 December 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  9. ^ "Weather sparks".
  10. ^ "Trip report".
  11. ^ "Abuja | City Profile, Culture, History & Districts – Villa Afrika". Villa Afrika Realty. Retrieved 2019-02-03.
  12. ^ Odunsi, Wale (13 January 2018). "Gwagwalada re-run poll: APC beats APGA, PDP in narrow victory". Daily Post Nigeria.
  13. ^ a b "Nigeria". Ethnologue (22 ed.). Retrieved 2020-01-10.
  14. ^ "FCT Area Councils election to hold February 2022 - INEC". Voice of Nigeria. 2021-03-31. Retrieved 2022-03-29.

External linksEdit