Kano State (Hausa: Jihar Kano جِهَرْ كَنُوَ; Fula: 𞤤𞤫𞤴𞤣𞤭 𞤳𞤢𞤲𞤮𞥅, romanized: Leydi Kano) is one of the 36 states of Nigeria, located in the northern region of the country.[6] According to the national census done in 2006, Kano State is the most populous state in Nigeria. The recent official estimates taken in 2016 by the National Bureau of Statistics found that Kano State was still the largest state by population in Nigeria.[7][8] Created in 1967 out of the former Northern Region, Kano State borders on Katsina State to the northwest for about 210 km (130 miles), Jigawa State to the northeast for 355 km (221 miles), Bauchi State to the southeast for 131 km (82 miles), and Kaduna State to the southwest for 255 km.[6] The state's capital and largest city is the city of Kano, the second most populous city in Nigeria after Lagos.[6] The incumbent governor of the state is Abba Kabir Yusuf. He was sworn in on 29 May 2023.[9]

Kano State
Jihar Kano جِهَرْ كَنُوْ (Hausa)
Flag of Kano State
Seal of the Governor of Kano State
Centre of Commerce, Tumbin Giwa
Location of Kano State in Nigeria
Location of Kano State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 11°30′N 8°30′E / 11.500°N 8.500°E / 11.500; 8.500
Country Nigeria
Date created27 May 1967
 • BodyGovernment of Kano State
 • Governor[1]Abba Kabir Yusuf (NNPP)
 • Deputy GovernorAminu Abdussalam Gwarzo (NNPP)
 • LegislatureKano State House of Assembly
 • SenatorsC: Rufai Hanga (NNPP)
N: Barau Jibrin (APC)
S: Kawu Sumaila (NNPP)
 • RepresentativesList
 • Total20,131 km2 (7,773 sq mi)
 • Rank20th of 36
 (2023 census)[3]
 • Total21,389,766
 • Estimate 
 • Rank1st of 36
 • Density1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
 • Year2021
 • Total$27.17 billion[4]
13th of 36
 • Per capita$1,761[4]
36th of 36
Time zoneUTC+01 (WAT)
postal code
ISO 3166 codeNG-KN
HDI (2021)0.481[5]
low · 29th of 37
^1 Preliminary results

Modern day Kano State was the site of a number of prior kingdoms and empires, including the Kingdom of Kano, which was centered in Dala Hill (Dutsen Dala) and existed from prior to 1000 AD to 1349.[10] In 1349, the Sultanate of Kano was established with Yaji I as its first Sultan.[11] In the 15th century, Kurmi Market was opened, which helped Kano become a center of commercial activity in Hausaland;[12] the market remains open in the 21st century and its historic importance is reflected in the state's nickname, the Centre of Commerce.[13] During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Sultanate of Kano established itself as the most powerful of the Hausa Kingdoms.[14] In 1903, the British Empire conquered the Kano Emirate, incorporating it region into the Northern Nigeria Protectorate.[15] The major ethnic groups in pre-colonial Kano City were the Hausa, Fulani, Beriberi (Kanuri), Tuareg, Arab, Nupe and some tribes from the southern Nigeria. Most people in Kano city have come to use the Hausa language as a first language and some have accepted Hausa as an ethnic identification.[16]

Since independence, Kano State has developed a diverse economy, establishing itself as a center for industry,[17] agriculture,[18] and Islamic banking.[19] The Hausa and Fulani make up the majority of Kano State's population.[20] The Hausa language is the dominant language in the state, as it is in most of Northern Nigeria.[21][22] Challenges faced by Kano State in the 21st century include attacks by the Islamist terrorist group Boko Haram,[23][24][25] inter-religious violence,[26][27] and extreme poverty.[28] A Muslim-majority state, Kano State is one of the twelve states in Nigeria to operate under Sharia law within the legal framework of the Nigerian Constitution.[29]

Photo of Kano in December 1930

History edit

An important early center of commerce in the region was Kurmi Market, founded by the Emir of Kano Muhammadu Rumfa in 1463 CE.[18] Subsequent leaders made contributions to the emergence of Kano as a leading commercial centre in Sudanic Africa.[30] During the time of the Kano Emirate, Emir Ibrahim Dabo made a number of administrative reforms, seeking to increase commerce in the region.[31]

Leaders during this time encouraged traders to move from Katsina, capitalising on raids from the Hausa Sultanate of Maradi.[citation needed] The Jihad leaders of the Caliphate encouraged the Kola nut trade, and Kano was the greatest beneficiary with an annual turnover of about $30 million.[citation needed] Craft industries also evolved in the pre-colonial period contributing to the prosperity of the province.[citation needed]

After a British occupation of the region, culminating in the Battle of Kano in February 1903, the region became a part of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate.[32] Kano later became a part of the Northern Region of Nigeria.[6] Kano state was created on May 27, 1967.[6] In 1991, part of Kano State was separated to form Jigawa State.

Geography edit

Climate edit

The climate of Kano state is characterised by variability in rainfall between the 70s and 80s, with drought and near drought conditions. Between the 90s and the year 2015, the moisture conditions have improved considerably but for fluctuations in rainfall in the state.[33] However, since 2015 till date, there has been an increase in rainfall in the state, which has helped increase agricultural production in this northern Nigerian state considerably.[34] Based on the report of the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET), the amount of rainfall varies between years with a mean value of 897.7mm.[35]

In the first quarter of 2022, the Nigerian Meteorological Agency sounded an early warning of floods in some states, including Kano state. The agency asserted that their warning was based on the amount and distribution of rainfall that had been observed in the nation during the rainy season. According to the Kano State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA), 25 local government districts experienced flooding as a result of the extreme rain's aftermath.[36]

Temperature edit

The temperature of Kano has been on the rise since the 60s and this is highly remarkable[37] The annual temperature of the state is between 260C to 300C of dumal temperature, which is high, and measurable between the range of 13.1%, with the relative humidity of between 17% and 90% respectively.[38][39]

Economy edit

Many large markets exist within Kano today, such as Kurmi Market, Kantin Kwari Market,[40] Sabon Gari Market, Dawanau Market [41] Kofar Wanbai Market, Galadima Market, Kurumi Market, Yankura Market and Bata Market.[18] Many of these markets specialize in a certain product, such as textiles or grain.[18]

Agriculture edit

Subsistence and commercial agriculture is mostly practised in the outlying districts of the state. Some of the food crops cultivated are millet, cowpeas, sorghum, maize and rice for local consumption while groundnuts and cotton are produced for export and industrial purposes. During the colonial period and several years after the country's independence, the groundnuts produced in the state constituted one of the major sources revenue of the country. Kano State is a major producer of hides and skins, sesame, soybean, cotton, garlic, gum arabic and chili pepper.[42]

A 2018 study of Tudun Wada found that both temperature and rainfall were likely to increase with climate change, causing increased stress on crops, and would require increased climate change adaptation for agricultural practices.[43]

Industry edit

Kano State is the second-largest industrial Centre after Lagos State in Nigeria and the largest in Northern Nigeria with textile, tanning, footwear, cosmetics, plastics, enamelware, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, furniture and other industries.[17] Others include agricultural implements, soft drinks, food and beverages, dairy products, vegetable oil, animal feeds etc.[44] Kano is also the center of a growing Islamic banking industry in Nigeria.[19][45][46][47][48][49]

Tourism edit

Gidan Dan Hausa Museum
Bashir Uthman Tofa Mosque
Palace of Kano Emirate

The tourist attractions in the state include:

Natural resources edit

Kano State has different natural resources[55] in abundant, these include

Mineral raw materials edit

  • Cassiterite
  • Copper
  • Gemstone
  • Glass-sand
  • Lead/Zinc
  • Pyrochinre & Tantalite

Agro raw materials edit

Transport edit

Federal Highways edit

  • A2 (part of the African Unity Road or Trans-Sahara Highway or Trans Africa 2: TAH2) north from Kaduna State at Gidan Mallam Idi for 166 km as the Zaria Rd via Kura, Nassarawa, Kano, Bankaura, Kunya, Dambarta and Ajumawa to Jigawa State at Yanzaki,
  • A9 (part of the Dakar-Ndjamena Trans-Sahelian Highway or TAH 5) northwest from A2 at Bankaura (14 km north of Kano) for 71 km via Bichi, Dan Zabuwa and Tsanyawa as IBB Way to Katsina State at Yan Kamaye,
  • A237 continuing TAH5 east from A2 in Kano for 110 km across the Hadejia River at Wudil via Takai and Kachako to Jigawa State as the Kano Rd. Google. "Kano State" (Map). Google Maps. Google. No URL entered.

Other major roads edit

  • the Kunya-Mutum Rd northeast from A2 to Jigawa State at Duma,
  • the Kano-Gumel Rd northeast via Dosai, Gezawa, Kirazare and Dadin Diniya to Jigawa State near Magama,
  • the Kano-Ringim Rd east from Dosai via Gwandu, Wangara, Zugachi and Zakirai to Jigawa State at Gorshinsi,
  • south from Gwandu via Gogel to A237 at Zogarava,
  • the Gaya-Wudil Rd east from A237 to Jigawa at Dundubis as the Gaya-Azare Rd,
  • south from A2 at Karfi Ruga as the Kano-Kumbotso-Rano or Rano-Karfin Ruga Rd via Bunkure, Rano, Kibiya, Tarai, Burunburum, Sitti and Masu to Bauchi State at Gwanda as the Sabon Gari-Gwanda-Kafin-Birgi Rd,
  • the Kafin Maiyaki-Sabin Bimi Rd south from A2 via Arna, Tudun Wada, Falgore Game Reserve, Tagwaye and Dadin Kowa to Kaduna State at Murai,
  • the Kiru-Rurum Rd north from A2 at Kafin Maiyaki via Yako and Karaye to Gwarzo as the Kafi-Jamaa Kosa Rd,
  • Murtala Mohammed Rd west from Kano to Katsina State at Gangara,
  • the Gwarzo-Shanono Rd north via Bagawi to A9 at Bichi.

Railways edit

Kano is on the 1067 mm Cape Gauge Western Railway Line from Lagos via Kaduna to Jigawa State (rehabilitated 2013), with a new double track standard gauge line under construction. Rail transport in Nigeria[citation needed]

Airports edit

Malam Aminu Kano International Airport

Mallam Aminu Kano International Airport (1936), HQ of Kabo Air, Azman Airlines and Max Air.[56][57]

Education edit


Secondary Schools edit

Universities edit

Kano State is home to five universities: one federal university, one regimented federal university, two states universities, and one private university.

Polytechnics and Colleges edit

The following is a list of the approved Polytechnics and Colleges in the state of Kano:

Local government areas edit

Kano State consists of forty-four (44) Local Government Areas (LGAs).

LGA Name Area (km2) Census 2006
Administrative capital Postal
Fagge 21 200,095 Waje 700
Dala 19 418,759 Gwanmaja 700
Gwale 18 357,827 Gwale 700
Kano Municipal 17 371,243 Kofar Kudu 700
Tarauni 28 221,844 Unguwa Uku 700
Nassarawa 34 596,411 Bompai 700
Kumbotso 158 294,391 Kumbotso 700
Ungogo 204 365,737 Ungogo 700
Kano Metropolitan Area 499 2,828,861 700
Dawakin Tofa 479 246,197 Dawakin Tofa 701
Tofa 202 98,603 Tofa 701
Rimin Gado 225 103,371 Rimin Gado 701
Bagwai 405 161,533 Bagwai 701
Gezawa 340 282,328 Gezawa 702
Gabasawa 605 211,204 Zakirai 702
Minjibir 416 219,611 Minjibir 702
Dambatta 732 210,474 Dambatta 702
Makoda 441 220,094 Makoda 702
Kunchi 671 110,170 Kunchi 703
Bichi 612 278,309 Bichi 703
Tsanyawa 492 157,730 Tsanyawa 703
Shanono 697 139,128 Shanono 704
Gwarzo 393 183,624 Gwarzo 704
Karaye 479 144,045 Karaye 704
Rogo 802 227,607 Rogo 704
Kabo 341 153,158 Kabo 704
Northern Kano State 8,332 3,143,899 701 to 704
Bunkure 487 174,467 Bunkure 710
Kibiya 404 138,618 Kibiya 710
Rano 520 148,276 Rano 710
Tudun Wada 1,204 228,658 Tudun Wada 710
Doguwa 1,473 150,645 Riruwai 710
Madobi 273 137,685 Madobi 711
Kura 206 143,094 Kura 711
Garun Mallam 214 118,622 Garun Mallam 711
Bebeji 717 191,916 Bebeji 711
Kiru 927 267,168 Kiru 711
Sumaila 1,250 250,379 Sumaila 712
Garko 450 161,966 Garko 712
Takai 598 202,639 Takai 712
Albasu 398 187,639 Albasu 712
Gaya 613 207,419 Gaya 713
Ajingi 714 172,610 Ajingi 713
Wudil 362 188,639 Wudil 713
Warawa 360 131,858 Warawa 713
Dawakin Kudu 384 225,497 Dawakin Kudu 713
Southern Kano State 11,554 3,410,922 710 to 713

Demographics edit

Population edit

According to the 2006 PON census figures from Nigeria Kano State had a population totaling 9,401,288. Based on the official data by the National Bureau of Statistics.,[65] Kano State is the most populous state in the country followed by Lagos State.[66] The state is mostly populated by the Hausa and Fulani people.[20]

Historical population
1991 5,810,470—    
2006 9,401,288+61.8%
2016 13,076,900+39.1%

Languages edit

The official language of Kano State are Hausa and Fulfulde.[68][verification needed][69]

The Kainji languages Moro, Kurama and Map are also spoken in Doguwa LGA.

Notable people edit

Politics edit

The state government is led by a democratically elected governor who works closely with the sate house of assembly. The capital city of the state is Kano.[74]

Electoral system edit

The governor of each state is selected using a modified two-round system. To be elected in the first round, a candidate must receive the plurality of the vote and over 25% of the vote in at least two -third of the State local government Areas. If no candidate passes threshold, a second round will be held between the top candidate and the next candidate to have received a plurality of votes in the highest number of local government Areas.[74]

See also edit

References edit

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Further reading edit

External links edit