Minneapolis(Redirected from Minneapolis, Minnesota)
Minneapolis (// ( listen)) is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2016, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and 46th-largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 413,651. The Twin Cities metropolitan area consists of Minneapolis, its neighbor Saint Paul, and suburbs which together contain about 3.5 million people, the second-largest economic center in the Midwest, after Chicago.
|City of Minneapolis|
|Etymology: Dakota word mni (water) with Greek polis (city)|
|Nickname(s): "City of Lakes", "Mill City", "Twin Cities" (a nickname shared with Saint Paul), "Mini Apple"|
|Motto: En Avant (French: 'Forward')|
Location in Hennepin County and the U.S. state of Minnesota
|Founded by||John H. Stevens and Franklin Steele|
|• Type||Weak mayor–council|
|• Body||Minneapolis City Council|
|• Mayor||Betsy Hodges (DFL)|
|• City||58.4 sq mi (151.3 km2)|
|• Land||54.9 sq mi (142.2 km2)|
|• Water||3.5 sq mi (9.1 km2)|
|Elevation||830 ft (264 m)|
|• Estimate (2016)||413,651|
US: 46thMN: 1st
|• Density||7,660/sq mi (2,959/km2)|
|• Metro||3,551,036 (US: 16th)|
|• CSA||4,197,883 (US: 14th)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC−6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC−5)|
|ZIP codes||55401 – 55488 (range includes some zip codes which are for Minneapolis suburbs)|
|GNIS feature ID||0655030|
Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, and adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital. The city is abundantly rich in water, with 13 lakes, wetlands, the Mississippi River, creeks and waterfalls, many connected by parkways in the Chain of Lakes and the Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway. It was once the world's flour milling capital and a hub for timber. The city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Chicago and Seattle, with Minneapolis proper containing America's tenth-highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies. As an integral link to the global economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city.
In terms of its number of openly gay politicians, gay wedding ceremonies, pride events and gay-inclusive religious organizations relative to the size of the total population of the city, Minneapolis has one of the largest LGBT populations in the U.S. Noted for its strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. Reflecting the region's status as an epicenter of folk, funk, and alternative rock music, the city served as the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince.
Sioux natives, city foundedEdit
Native American Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents when French explorers arrived around 1680. For a time, amicable relations were based on fur trading. Gradually more European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Dakota.
In the early 19th century, the United States acquired this territory from France. It gradually established posts here. Fort Snelling was built in 1819 by the United States Army, and it attracted traders, settlers and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the East to settle here. The Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized present-day Minneapolis as a town in 1856 on the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago. It later joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872.
Waterpower; lumber and flour millingEdit
Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River and a source of power for its early industry. Forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, paper, sashes, and planing wood. Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s. The farmers of the Great Plains grew grain that was shipped by rail to the city's thirty-four flour mills. Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B.C., but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has ever seen."
A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to truly revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour very quickly. Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from the Hungarians by William de la Barre. Charles A. Pillsbury and C.A. Pillsbury Company across the river were barely a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to immediately use the new methods. The hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable ($.50 profit per barrel in 1871 increased to $4.50 in 1874), and Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world.
Not until later did consumers discover the value in the bran (which contains wheat's vitamins, minerals and fiber) that "Minneapolis... millers routinely dumped" into the Mississippi. Millers cultivated relationships with academic scientists especially at the University of Minnesota. Those scientists backed them politically on many issues, for example during the early 20th century, when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process. At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for 12 million loaves of bread each day, and by 1900, 14.1 percent of America's grain was milled in Minneapolis. Further, by 1895 through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four million barrels of flour a year to the United Kingdom, and when exports reached their peak in 1900, about one third of all flour milled in Minneapolis was shipped overseas.
Known initially as a kindly physician, Doc Ames led the city into corruption during four terms as mayor just before 1900. The gangster Kid Cann was famous for bribery and intimidation during the 1930s and 1940s. The city made dramatic changes to rectify discrimination as early as 1886 when Martha Ripley founded Maternity Hospital for both married and unmarried mothers.
When the country's fortunes turned during the Great Depression, the violent Teamsters Strike of 1934 resulted in laws acknowledging workers' rights. A lifelong civil rights activist and union supporter, mayor Hubert Humphrey helped the city establish fair employment practices and a human relations council that interceded on behalf of minorities by 1946. In the 1950s, about 1.6% of the population of Minneapolis was nonwhite. Minneapolis contended with white supremacy, participated in desegregation and the civil rights movement, and in 1968 was the birthplace of the American Indian Movement.
Minneapolis was a "particularly virulent" site of anti-semitism until 1950. A hate group known as the Silver Legion of America, or Silver Shirts, recruited members in the city and held meetings there around 1936 to 1938. The Jewish Free Employment Bureau tried to help victims of economic discrimination, with limited success. In 1938, the Jewish Community Relations Council of Minnesota and the Dakotas was established to combat rising anti-semitism, fighting against hate-filled leaflets and anti-Jewish remarks, while also attempting to expose discrimination by real estate agents and employers who attempted to subvert anti-discrimination laws. After years of discrimination towards Jewish doctors, the Jewish community raised funds to create the Mount Sinai Hospital, which opened in 1951. It was the first private non-sectarian hospital in the community to accept members of minority races on its medical staff.
During the 1950s and 1960s, as part of urban renewal, the city razed about 200 buildings across 25 city blocks (roughly 40% of downtown), destroying the Gateway District and many buildings with notable architecture, including the Metropolitan Building. Efforts to save the building failed but are credited with sparking interest in (but not always succeeding in) historic preservation in the state.
Geography and climateEdit
The history and economic growth of Minneapolis are tied to water, the city's defining physical characteristic, which was brought to the region during the last ice age ten thousand years ago. Ice blocks deposited in valleys by retreating glaciers created the lakes of Minneapolis. Fed by a receding glacier and Lake Agassiz, torrents of water from a glacial river cut the Mississippi riverbed and created the river's only waterfall, Saint Anthony Falls, important to the early settlers of Minneapolis.
Lying on an artesian aquifer and flat terrain, Minneapolis has a total area of 58.4 square miles (151.3 km2) and of this 6% is water. Water supply is managed by four watershed districts that correspond to the Mississippi and the city's three creeks. Twelve lakes, three large ponds, and five unnamed wetlands are within Minneapolis.
The city center is located at 45° N latitude. The city's lowest elevation of 686 feet (209 m) is near where Minnehaha Creek meets the Mississippi River. The site of the Prospect Park Water Tower is often cited as the city's highest point and a placard in Deming Heights Park denotes the highest elevation. A spot at 974 feet (297 m) in or near Waite Park in Northeast Minneapolis, however, is corroborated by Google Earth as the highest ground.
Minneapolis has a hot-summer humid continental climate zone (Dfa in the Köppen climate classification), typical of southern parts of the Upper Midwest, and is situated in USDA plant hardiness zone 4b, with small enclaves of the city classified as being zone 5a. As is typical in a continental climate, the difference between average temperatures in the coldest winter month and the warmest summer month is great: 60.1 °F (33.4 °C).
The city experiences a full range of precipitation and related weather events, including snow, sleet, ice, rain, thunderstorms, and fog. The highest recorded temperature was 108 °F (42 °C) in July 1936 while the lowest was −41 °F (−41 °C) in January 1888. The snowiest winter of record was 1983–84, when 8.2 feet or 98.4 inches (250 cm) of snow fell, and the least snowy winter was 1890-91, when only 11.1 inches (28 cm) fell.
|Climate data for Minneapolis/St. Paul International Airport (1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1871–present)[b]|
|Record high °F (°C)||58
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||43.1
|Average high °F (°C)||23.7
|Average low °F (°C)||7.5
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||−15
|Record low °F (°C)||−41
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||0.90
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||12.2
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||8.9||7.4||9.3||10.7||11.5||11.3||10.2||9.7||9.8||9.2||8.7||9.8||116.5|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||8.4||6.8||5.4||2.0||0.1||0||0||0||0||0.6||5.2||9.3||37.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||69.9||69.5||67.4||60.3||60.4||63.8||64.8||67.9||70.7||68.3||72.6||74.1||67.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||156.7||178.3||217.5||242.1||295.2||321.9||350.5||307.2||233.2||181.0||112.8||114.3||2,710.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||55||61||59||60||64||69||74||71||62||53||39||42||59|
|Source #1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)|
|Source #2: The Weather Channel|
|Black or African American||18.6%||13%||4.4%||1.3%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||10.5%||2.1%||0.9%||n/a|
|Two or more races||4.4%||n/a||n/a||n/a|
- White: 63.8%
- Black or African American: 18.6%
- American Indian: 2.0%
- Asian: 5.6% (1.9% Hmong, 0.9% Chinese, 0.7% Indian, 0.6% Korean, 0.4% Vietnamese, 0.3% Thai, 0.3% Laotian, 0.2% Filipino, 0.1% Japanese, 0.2% Other Asian)
- Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander: 0.1%
- Other: 5.6%
- Multiracial: 4.4%
- Hispanic or Latino (of any race): 10.5% (7.0% Mexican, 1.3% Ecuadorian, 0.4% Puerto Rican, 0.3% Guatemalan, 0.2% Salvadoran, 1.3% Other Latino)
White Americans make up about three-fifths of Minneapolis's population. This community is predominantly of German and Scandinavian descent. There are 82,870 German Americans in the city, making up over one-fifth (23.1%) of the population. The Scandinavian-American population is primarily Norwegian and Swedish. There are 39,103 Norwegian Americans, making up 10.9% of the population; there are 30,349 Swedish Americans, making up 8.5% of the city's population. Danish Americans are not nearly as numerous; there are 4,434 Danish Americans, making up only 1.3% of the population. Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish Americans together make up 20.7% of the population. This means that ethnic Germans and Scandinavians together make up 43.8% of Minneapolis's population, and make up the majority of Minneapolis's non-Hispanic white population. Other significant European groups in the city include those of Irish (11.3%), English (7.0%), Polish (3.9%), French (3.5%) and Italian (2.3%) descent.
There are 10,711 individuals who identify as multiracial in Minneapolis. People of black and white ancestry number at 3,551, and make up 1.0% of the population. People of white and Native American ancestry number at 2,319, and make up 0.6% of the population. Those of white and Asian ancestry number at 1,871, and make up 0.5% of the population. Lastly, people of black and Native American ancestry number at 885, and make up 0.2% of Minneapolis's population.
Dakota tribes, mostly the Mdewakanton, as early as the 16th century were known as permanent settlers near their sacred site of St. Anthony Falls. New settlers arrived during the 1850s and 1860s in Minneapolis from New England, New York, and Canada, and during the mid-1860s, immigrants from Finland and Scandinavians (from Sweden, Norway and Denmark) began to call the city home. Migrant workers from Mexico and Latin America also interspersed. Later, immigrants came from Germany, Italy, Greece, Poland, and Southern and Eastern Europe. These immigrants tended to settle in the Northeast neighborhood, which still retains an ethnic flavor and is particularly known for its Polish community. Jews from Russia and Eastern Europe began arriving in the 1880s and settled primarily on the north side of the city before moving in large numbers to the western suburbs in the 1950s and 1960s. Asians came from China, the Philippines, Japan, and Korea. Two groups came for a short while during U.S. government relocations: Japanese during the 1940s, and Native Americans during the 1950s. From 1970 onward, Asians arrived from Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Beginning in the 1990s, a large Latino population arrived, along with immigrants from the Horn of Africa, especially Somalia. The metropolitan area is an immigrant gateway which had a 127% increase in foreign-born residents between 1990 and 2000.
U.S. Census Bureau estimates in the year 2015 show the population of Minneapolis to be 410,939, a 7.4% increase since the 2010 census. The population grew until 1950 when the census peaked at 521,718, and then declined as people moved to the suburbs until about 1990.
Among U.S. cities as of 2006, Minneapolis has the fourth-highest percentage of gay, lesbian, or bisexual people in the adult population, with 12.5% (behind San Francisco, and slightly behind both Seattle and Atlanta). In 2012, The Advocate named Minneapolis the seventh gayest city in America. In 2013, the city was among 25 U.S. cities to receive the highest possible score from the Human Rights Campaign, signifying its support for LGBT residents.
Racial and ethnic minorities lag behind white counterparts in education, with 15.0% of blacks and 13.0% of Hispanics holding bachelor's degrees compared to 42.0% of the white population. The standard of living is on the rise, with incomes among the highest in the Midwest, but median household income among minorities is below that of whites by over $17,000. Regionally, home ownership among minority residents is half that of whites though Asian home ownership has doubled. In 2000, the poverty rate for whites was 4.2%; for blacks it was 26.2%; for Asians, 19.1%; Native Americans, 23.2%; and Hispanics, 18.1%.
The Dakota people, the original inhabitants of the area where Minneapolis now stands, believed in the Great Spirit and were surprised that not all European settlers were religious. Over fifty denominations and religions and some well known churches have since been established in Minneapolis. Those who arrived from New England were for the most part Christian Protestants, Quakers, and Universalists. The oldest continuously used church in the city, Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church in the Nicollet Island/East Bank neighborhood, was built in 1856 by Universalists and soon afterward was acquired by a French Catholic congregation. The first Jewish congregation in Minneapolis was formed in 1878 as Shaarai Tov (though it has been known since 1920 as Temple Israel); in 1928, it built the synagogue in East Isles. St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral was founded in 1887, opened a missionary school in 1897 and in 1905 created the first Russian Orthodox seminary in the U.S. Edwin Hawley Hewitt designed both St. Mark's Episcopal Cathedral and Hennepin Avenue United Methodist Church on Hennepin Avenue just south of downtown. The first basilica in the United States, and co-cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis, the Basilica of Saint Mary near Loring Park was named by Pope Pius XI in 1926.
The Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, Decision magazine, and World Wide Pictures film and television distribution were headquartered in Minneapolis between the late 1940s into the 2000s. Jim Bakker and Tammy Faye met while attending the Pentecostal North Central University and began a television ministry that by the 1980s reached 13.5 million households. Today, Mount Olivet Lutheran Church in southwest Minneapolis with about 6,000 attendees is the nation's second-largest Lutheran congregation. Christ Church Lutheran in the Longfellow neighborhood is among the finest work by architect Eliel Saarinen. The congregation later added an education building designed by his son Eero Saarinen.
Religions outside the Judeo-Christian mainstream also have a home in the city. During the mid-to-late 1950s, members of the Nation of Islam created a temple in north Minneapolis, and the first mosque was built in 1967. In 1972 a relief agency resettled the first Shi'a Muslim family from Uganda. By 2004, between 20,000 and 30,000 Somali Muslims made the city their home. In 1972, Dainin Katagiri was invited from California to Minneapolis—by one account, a place he thought nobody else would want to go—where he founded a lineage which today includes three Sōtō Zen centers among the city's nearly 20 Buddhist and meditation centers. Atheists For Human Rights has its headquarters in the Shingle Creek neighborhood in a geodesic dome. Minneapolis has had a chartered local body of Ordo Templi Orientis since 1994.
According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 70% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, with 46% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, and 21% professing Roman Catholic beliefs while 23% claim no religious affiliation. The same study says that other religions (including Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism) collectively make up about 5% of the population.
The Minneapolis–St. Paul area is the second largest economic center in the Midwest, behind Chicago. The economy of Minneapolis today is based in commerce, finance, rail and trucking services, health care, and industry. Smaller components are in publishing, milling, food processing, graphic arts, insurance, education, and high technology. Industry produces metal and automotive products, chemical and agricultural products, electronics, computers, precision medical instruments and devices, plastics, and machinery. The city at one time produced farm implements.
Five Fortune 500 corporations make their headquarters within the city limits of Minneapolis: Target, U.S. Bancorp, Xcel Energy, Ameriprise Financial and Thrivent Financial. As of 2015, the city's largest employers downtown are Target, Wells Fargo, HCMC, Hennepin County, Ameriprise, U.S. Bancorp, Xcel Energy, City of Minneapolis, RBC Wealth Management, the Star Tribune, Capella Education Company, Thrivent, CenturyLink, ABM Industries, and the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
Availability of Wi-Fi, transportation solutions, medical trials, university research and development expenditures, advanced degrees held by the work force, and energy conservation are so far above the national average that in 2005, Popular Science named Minneapolis the "Top Tech City" in the U.S. The Twin Cities was ranked as the country's second best city in a 2006 Kiplinger's poll of Smart Places to Live and Minneapolis was one of the Seven Cool Cities for young professionals.
The Twin Cities contribute 63.8% of the gross state product of Minnesota. Measured by gross metropolitan product per resident ($62,054), Minneapolis is the fifteenth richest city in the U.S. The area's $199.6 billion gross metropolitan product and its per capita personal income rank thirteenth in the U.S. Recovering from the nation's recession in 2000, personal income grew 3.8% in 2005, though it was behind the national average of 5%. The city returned to peak employment during the fourth quarter of that year.
The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis serves Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, and parts of Wisconsin and Michigan. The smallest of the 12 regional banks in the Federal Reserve System, it operates a nationwide payments system, oversees member banks and bank holding companies, and serves as a banker for the U.S. Treasury. The Minneapolis Grain Exchange, founded in 1881, is still located near the riverfront and is the only exchange for hard red spring wheat futures and options.
Minneapolis's cultural organizations draw creative people and audiences to the city for theater, visual art, writing and music. The community's diverse population also continues to manage a long tradition of charitable support through progressive public social programs, VOLAGs and volunteering, as well as through private and corporate philanthropy.
The Walker Art Center, one of the five largest modern art museums in the U.S., sits atop Lowry Hill, near the downtown area. The size of the Center was doubled with an addition in 2005 by Herzog & de Meuron, and expanded with the conversion of a 15 acres (6.1 ha) park designed by Michel Desvigne, located across the street from the Minneapolis Sculpture Garden.
The Minneapolis Institute of Art, designed by McKim, Mead & White in 1915 in south central Minneapolis, is the largest art museum in the city, with 100,000 pieces in its permanent collection. New wings, designed by Kenzo Tange and Michael Graves, opened in 1974 and 2006, respectively, for contemporary and modern works, as well as more gallery space.
The Weisman Art Museum, designed by Frank Gehry for the University of Minnesota, opened in 1993. An addition which doubled the size of the galleries, also designed by Gehry, opened in 2011. The Museum of Russian Art opened in a restored church in 2005 and exhibits a collection of 20th-century Russian art as well as lecture series, seminars, social functions and other special events.
USA Today voted the Northeast Minneapolis Arts District as the nation's best art district in 2015, citing 400 independent artists, a center at the Northrup King Building, and recurring annual events like Art-A-Whirl every spring, and the Fine Arts Show Art Attack and Casket Arts Quad's Cache open studio events in November.
Theater and performing artsEdit
Minneapolis has been a cultural center for theatrical performances since the mid 1800s. Early theaters included the Pence Opera House, the Academy of Music, the Grand Opera House, the Lyceum, and later the Metropolitan Opera House, which opened in 1894.
The city is second only to New York City in terms of live theater per capita and is the third-largest theater market in the U.S., after New York City and Chicago. Theater companies and troupes such as the Illusion, Jungle, Mixed Blood, Penumbra, Mu Performing Arts, Bedlam Theatre, Blackout Improv, HUGE Improv Theater, the Brave New Workshop, the Minnesota Dance Theatre, Red Eye Theater, Skewed Visions, Theater Latté Da, In the Heart of the Beast Puppet and Mask Theatre, Lundstrum Center for the Performing Arts and the Children's Theatre Company are based in Minneapolis.
The Guthrie Theater, the area's largest theater company, occupies a three-stage complex overlooking the Mississippi, designed by French architect Jean Nouvel. The company was founded in 1963 by Sir Tyrone Guthrie as a prototype alternative to Broadway, and it produces a wide variety of shows throughout the year. Minneapolis purchased and renovated the Orpheum, State, and Pantages Theatres vaudeville and film houses on Hennepin Avenue, which are now used for concerts and plays. A fourth renovated theater, the former Shubert, joined with the Hennepin Center for the Arts to become the Cowles Center for Dance and the Performing Arts, home to more than one dozen performing arts groups. The city is home to Minnesota Fringe Festival, the largest nonjuried performing arts festival in the U.S.
The son of a jazz musician and a singer, Prince was born in Minneapolis, lived in the area most of his life, and became Rolling Stone's 27th greatest artist of the rock era. With fellow local musicians, many of whom recorded at Twin/Tone Records, he helped make First Avenue and the 7th Street Entry prominent venues for both artists and audiences. Other prominent artists from Minneapolis include Hüsker Dü and The Replacements—who were pivotal in the U.S. alternative rock boom during the 1990s. The Replacements' frontman, Paul Westerberg, developed a successful solo career, as did Hüsker Dü's Bob Mould.
The Minnesota Orchestra plays classical and popular music at Orchestra Hall under music director Osmo Vänskä—a critic writing for The New Yorker in 2010 described it as "the greatest orchestra in the world." In 2013, the orchestra received a Grammy nomination for its recording of "Sibelius: Symphonies Nos. 2 & 5" and it won a Grammy Award in 2014 for "Sibelius: Symphonies Nos 1 & 4". Vänskä departed in 2013 when a labor dispute remained unresolved and forced the cancellation of concerts scheduled for Carnegie Hall. After a 15-month lockout, a contract settlement resulted in the return of the performers, including Vänskä, to Orchestra Hall in January 2014.
Tom Waits released two songs about the city, "Christmas Card from a Hooker in Minneapolis" (Blue Valentine (1978)) and "9th & Hennepin" (Rain Dogs (1985)), while Lucinda Williams recorded "Minneapolis" (World Without Tears (2003)). In 2008, the century-old MacPhail Center for Music opened a new facility designed by James Dayton.
Home to the MN Spoken Word Association and independent hip hop label Rhymesayers Entertainment, the city has garnered attention for rap, hip hop and its spoken word community. Underground Minnesota hip hop acts like Atmosphere and Manny Phesto frequently comment about the city and Minnesota in song lyrics.
Minneapolis is home to four opera companies, including the Minnesota Opera and the Mill City Summer Opera. In recent years, Skylark Opera Theatre and Really Spicy Opera have also gained national prominence – Skylark for its use of site-specific productions, and Really Spicy for its productions of new musicals and operas.
Minneapolis is the third-most literate city in the U.S. A center for printing and publishing, Minneapolis was the city in which Open Book, the largest literary and book arts center in the U.S., was founded. The Center consists of the Loft Literary Center, the Minnesota Center for Book Arts and Milkweed Editions (the latter is sometimes called the country's largest independent nonprofit literary publisher). The Center exhibits and teaches both contemporary art and traditional crafts of writing, papermaking, letterpress printing and bookbinding.
Philanthropy and charitable giving are part of the community. More than 40% of adults in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area give time to volunteer work, the highest such percentage of any large metropolitan area in the United States. Catholic Charities USA is one of the largest providers of social services locally. The American Refugee Committee helps 2.5 million refugees and displaced persons each year in Asili-Democratic Republic of Congo, Jordan, Myanmar, Pakistan, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Thailand, and Uganda. In 2011, Target Corporation was #42 in a list of the best 100 corporate citizens in CR magazine for corporate responsibility officers. The oldest foundation in Minnesota, the Minneapolis Foundation invests and administers over nine hundred charitable funds and connects donors to nonprofit organizations. The metropolitan area gives 13% of its total charitable donations to the arts and culture. The majority of the estimated $1 billion recent expansion of arts facilities was contributed privately.
Minneapolis is home to award-winning restaurants and chefs. As of 2016, four Minneapolis-based chefs have won James Beard Foundation Awards: Alexander Roberts, Restaurant Alma; Isaac Becker, 112 Eatery; Paul Bergland, Bachelor Farmer; and Tim McKee, La Belle Vie. In 2014, seven chefs and restaurants in the area were named as semifinalists. When thirteen chefs and restaurants were nominated for James Beard awards in 2017, The Wall Street Journal named Minneapolis one of the ten best places to visit in the world.
Julia Moskin wrote about New Nordic cuisine, chef Paul Berglund and the Bachelor Farmer, and the restaurants La Loma, Tilia, the Red Stag Supper Club, Fika and Haute Dish in The New York Times in 2012. She said Minneapolis chefs served trendy Nordic ingredients like root vegetables, fish roe, wild greens, venison, dried mushrooms, seaweed and cow's milk. Two months later, Bon Appétit featured the Bachelor Farmer, Piccolo, Saffron, Salty Tart, and Smack Shack/1029 Bar, writing about New Nordic cuisine and the Scandinavian heritage of Minneapolis. In 2012 Food & Wine magazine named Minneapolis the nation's best and best-priced new food city. In 2015, profiling chef Gavin Kaysen and Spoon and Stable, Saveur named Minneapolis "the next great American food city." Then, Food & Wine voted Spoon and Stable one of five 2015 restaurants of the year. Minneapolis is noted for its East African cuisine due to a wave of Somali immigration which started in the 1990s.
In 2015, Bon Appétit named Spoon and Stable, along with Hola Arepa and Heyday, three of the 50 best places in the U.S. for a meal. In 2015, Spoon and Stable was nominated for a James Beard Award for Best New Restaurant, and Shea, Inc., who designed the Spoon and Stable renovation, was nominated for Outstanding Restaurant Design. Jason DeRusha of WCCO-TV was nominated for his television segment, DeRusha Eats.
USA Today reader's choice 10 Best decided that Minneapolis–Saint Paul was the Best Local Food Scene in 2015. Four fine dining restaurants closed during 2015 and 2016: La Belle Vie, Vincent, Brasserie Zentral, and Saffron. Food & Wine named Brewer's Table at Surly Brewing one of its ten 2016 restaurants of the year. Also in 2016, Food & Wine named Eat Street Social, Constantine, and Coup d'État three of the best cocktail bars in the U.S. Young Joni was selected one of the GQ top ten new restaurants and one of Eater's twelve best new restaurants of 2017.
|Minnesota Lynx||Basketball||Women's National Basketball Association||1999||Target Center (19,400)||2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017|
|Minnesota Timberwolves||Basketball||National Basketball Association||1989||Target Center (19,400)|
|Minnesota Twins||Baseball||Major League Baseball||1961||Target Field (39,500)||1987 and 1991|
|Minnesota United FC||Soccer||Major League Soccer||2017||TCF Bank Stadium (50,805)|
|Minnesota Vikings||American Football||National Football League||1961||U.S. Bank Stadium (66,655)||1969|
Minneapolis is home to five professional sports teams. In recent years, the Minnesota Lynx have been the most successful sports team in the city and a dominant force in the WNBA, reaching the WNBA Finals in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016, and 2017 and winning in 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017. The Minnesota Timberwolves brought NBA basketball back to Minneapolis in 1989, followed by the Lynx in 1999. Both basketball teams play in the Target Center.
The Minnesota Vikings and the Minnesota Twins have played in the state since 1961. The Vikings were an NFL expansion team, and the Twins were formed when the Washington Senators relocated to Minnesota. The Twins have won 10 division titles (1969, 1970, 1987, 1991, 2002–04, 2006, 2009, and 2010), 3 American League Pennants (1965, 1987 and 1991) and the World Series in 1987 and 1991. The Twins have played at Target Field since 2010. The Vikings have played in the Super Bowl following the 1969, 1973, 1974, and 1976 seasons (Super Bowl IV, Super Bowl VIII, Super Bowl IX, and Super Bowl XI, respectively), losing all four games.
The Minnesota Wild of the NHL play in St. Paul at the Xcel Energy Center. The professional soccer team Minnesota United FC of the NASL played in suburban Blaine at the National Sports Center through 2016. In 2017, the team joined the MLS and play the 2017 season in the University of Minnesota's TCF Bank Stadium, and then will relocate to St. Paul in 2019 when Allianz Field has been built there.
Other professional teams have played in Minneapolis in the past. First playing in 1884, the Minneapolis Millers baseball team produced the best won-lost record in their league at the time and contributed fifteen players to the Baseball Hall of Fame. During the 1920s, Minneapolis was home to the NFL team the Minneapolis Marines, later known as the Minneapolis Red Jackets. During the 1940s and 1950s the Minneapolis Lakers basketball team, the city's first in the major leagues in any sport, won six basketball championships in three leagues to become the NBA's first dynasty before moving to Los Angeles. The American Wrestling Association, formerly the NWA Minneapolis Boxing & Wrestling Club, operated in Minneapolis from 1960 until the 1990s.
The 1,750,000-square-foot (163,000 m2) U.S. Bank Stadium was built for the Vikings for about $1.122 billion, over half financed by Vikings owner Zygi Wilf and private investment. Called "Minnesota's biggest-ever public works project," the stadium opened in 2016 with 66,000 seats, expandable to 70,000 for the 2018 Super Bowl. Two thousand high-definition televisions are dominated by two scoreboards, the league's 10th largest, that together measure 12,560 square feet (1,167 m2) and are each larger than a city house lot. Thanks to a state of the art Wi-Fi network, fans can order food and drink and have them delivered to their seats or ready for pickup. A Vikings' vice president thought that the Vikings' Longhouse bar and concessions area and The Commons park could be attractions to those without football tickets. Season tickets sold out before the football season began. U.S. Bank Stadium will also feature rollerblading nights and will host concerts and events.
The downtown Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome, demolished beginning in January 2014, was the largest sports stadium in Minnesota from 1982 to 2013. Major sporting events hosted by the city include the 1985 and 2014 Major League Baseball All-Star Games, the 1987 and 1991 World Series, Super Bowl XXVI in 1992, the 1992 NCAA Men's Division I Final Four, the 2001 NCAA Men's Division 1 Final Four and the 1998 World Figure Skating Championships. Minneapolis has made it to the international round finals to host the Summer Olympic Games three times, being beaten by London in 1948, Helsinki in 1952 (when the city finished in second place), and Melbourne in 1956. In May 2014, the NFL announced that Minneapolis will host Super Bowl LII in 2018.
Since the 1930s, the Golden Gophers have won national championships in baseball, boxing, football, golf, gymnastics, ice hockey, indoor and outdoor track, swimming, and wrestling. The Gophers women's ice hockey team is a six-time NCAA champion and seven-time national champion.
Parks and recreationEdit
The Minneapolis park system has been called the best-designed, best-financed, and best-maintained in America. Foresight, donations and effort by community leaders enabled Horace Cleveland to create his finest landscape architecture, preserving geographical landmarks and linking them with boulevards and parkways. The city's Chain of Lakes, consisting of seven lakes and Minnehaha Creek, is connected by bike, running, and walking paths and used for swimming, fishing, picnics, boating, and ice skating. A parkway for cars, a bikeway for riders, and a walkway for pedestrians runs parallel along the 52 miles (84 km) route of the Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway.
Theodore Wirth is credited with the development of the parks system. Today, 16.6% of the city is parks and there are 770 square feet (72 m2) of parkland for each resident, ranked in 2008 as the most parkland per resident within cities of similar population densities. In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that Minneapolis had the best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities.
Parks are interlinked in many places and the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area connects regional parks and visitor centers. The country's oldest public wildflower garden, the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden and Bird Sanctuary, is located within Theodore Wirth Park. Wirth Park is shared with Golden Valley and is about 60% the size of Central Park in New York City. Site of the 53-foot (16 m) Minnehaha Falls, Minnehaha Park is one of the city's oldest and most popular parks, receiving over 500,000 visitors each year. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow named Hiawatha's wife Minnehaha for the Minneapolis waterfall in The Song of Hiawatha, a bestselling and often-parodied 19th century poem.
Runner's World ranks the Twin Cities as America's sixth best city for runners. Team Ortho sponsors the Minneapolis Marathon, Half Marathon and 5K which began in 2009 with more than 1,500 starters. The Twin Cities Marathon run in Minneapolis and Saint Paul every October draws 250,000 spectators. The 26.2-mile (42.2 km) race is a Boston and USA Olympic Trials qualifier. The organizers sponsor three more races: a Kids Marathon, a 1-mile (1.6 km), and a 10-mile (16 km).
The American College of Sports Medicine ranked Minneapolis and its metropolitan area the nation's first, second, or third "fittest city" every year from 2008 to 2016, ranking it first from 2011 to 2013. In other sports, five golf courses are located within the city, with the nationally ranked Hazeltine National Golf Club and Interlachen Country Club in nearby suburbs. Minneapolis is home to more golfers per capita than any other major U.S. city. The state of Minnesota has the nation's highest number of bicyclists, sport fishermen, and snow skiers per capita. Hennepin County has the second-highest number of horses per capita in the U.S. While living in Minneapolis, Scott and Brennan Olson founded (and later sold) Rollerblade, the company that popularized the sport of inline skating.
Minneapolis is a stronghold for the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL), an affiliate of the Democratic Party. The Minneapolis City Council holds the most power and represents the city's thirteen districts called wards. The city adopted instant-runoff voting in 2006, first using it in the 2009 elections. The council has 12 DFL members and one from the Green Party. Election issues in 2013 included funding for a new Vikings stadium over which some incumbents lost their positions. That year, Minneapolis elected Abdi Warsame, Alondra Cano, and Blong Yang, the city's first Somali-American, Mexican-American, and Hmong-American city councilpeople, respectively.
Betsy Hodges of the DFL is the current mayor of Minneapolis. Jacob Frey, a DFL city councilman, won the mayoral election on November 7, 2017. The office of mayor is relatively weak but has some power to appoint individuals such as the chief of police. Parks, taxation, and public housing are semi-independent boards and levy their own taxes and fees subject to Board of Estimate and Taxation limits.
At the federal level, Minneapolis proper sits within Minnesota's 5th congressional district, which has been represented since 2006 by Democrat Keith Ellison, the first practicing Muslim in the United States Congress. Both of Minnesota's two U.S. Senators, Amy Klobuchar and Al Franken, were also elected while living in Minneapolis and are also Democrats.
Citizens had a unique and powerful influence in neighborhood government. Neighborhoods coordinated activities under the Neighborhood Revitalization Program (NRP), which ended in 2009. Minneapolis is divided into communities, each containing neighborhoods. In some cases two or more neighborhoods act together under one organization. Some areas are commonly known by nicknames of business associations.
The organizers of Earth Day scored Minneapolis ninth best overall and second among mid-sized cities in their 2007 Urban Environment Report, a study based on indicators of environmental health and their effect on people. Minneapolis has also been cited as one of the most environmentally responsible cities in America.
Early Minneapolis experienced a period of corruption in local government and crime was common until an economic downturn in the mid-1900s. Since 1950 the population decreased and much of downtown was lost to urban renewal and highway construction. The result was a "moribund and peaceful" environment until the 1990s. Along with economic recovery the murder rate climbed. The Minneapolis Police Department imported a computer system from New York City that sent officers to high crime areas. Despite accusations of racial profiling; the result was a drop in major crime. Since 1999 the number of homicides increased during four years. Politicians debated the causes and solutions, including increasing the number of police officers, providing youths with alternatives to gangs and drugs, and helping families in poverty.
|Crime in Minneapolis by neighborhood (2013)|
|Neighborhood||Population (2000)||Homicides||Rate||Rapes||Rate||Robberies||Rate||Burglary||Rate||Auto theft||Rate|
|Bryn — Mawr||2663||0||0||0||0||2||75.1||41||1539.6||5||187.8|
|Cedar — Isles — Dean||2698||0||0||3||111.2||1||37.1||23||852.5||4||148.3|
|Humboldt Industrial Area||N/A||0||0||0||0||4|
|Lind — Bohanon||4401||0||0||5||113.6||23||522.6||113||2567.6||22||499.9|
|Lowry Hill East||5912||1||16.9||3||50.7||32||541.3||57||964.1||33||558.2|
|Mid — City Industrial||N/A||0||0||1||8||14|
|Near — North||6921||1||14.4||15||216.7||94||1358.2||94||1358.2||53||765.8|
|Nicollet Island — East Bank||828||0||0||0||0||4||483.1||9||1087||7||845.4|
|Prospect Park — East River Road||6326||0||0||6||94.8||12||189.7||37||584.9||18||284.5|
|St. Anthony East||2105||0||0||1||47.5||8||380||28||1330.2||4||190|
|St. Anthony West||2666||0||0||0||0||10||375.1||12||450.1||12||450.1|
|Stevens Square — Loring Heights||3948||0||0||9||228||17||430.6||33||835.9||14||354.6|
|Sumner — Glenwood||144||0||0||3||2083.3||8||5555.6||12||8333.3||4||2777.8|
|University Of Minnesota||4026||0||0||2||49.7||5||124.2||16||397.4||6||149|
|Webber — Camden||5676||3||52.9||9||158.6||40||704.7||111||1955.6||43||757.6|
|Willard — Hay||9277||1||10.8||12||129.4||87||937.8||177||1907.9||63||679.1|
From 2006 to 2012, under chief Tim Dolan, the crime rate steadily dropped, and the police benefited from new video and gunfire locator resources, although Dolan was criticized for expensive city settlements for police misconduct. While violent crime dropped (from 6,374 in 2006 to 3,720 in 2011), homicides rose by 105% and rape was at the highest rate among large cities. U.S. News & World Report said in 2011 that Minneapolis tied with Cleveland, Ohio as the 10th most dangerous city in the United States.
Serving until January 2019, Medaria Arradondo is the chief of police. Mayor Hodges faced severe criticism after the police shooting of Jamar Clark who died in 2015. Facing new criticism when an Australian woman was shot and killed by police in July 2017, she asked for and received the resignation of chief Janeé Harteau who had served since 2012, and mayor Hodges appointed assistant chief and 28-year veteran Arradondo to the position.
The City Council passed a resolution in March 2015 making fossil fuel divestment city policy. With encouragement from Mayor Hodges, Minneapolis joined seventeen cities worldwide in the Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance. The city's climate plan is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 15 percent in 2015 "compared to 2006 levels, 30 percent by 2025 and 80 percent by 2050".
Minneapolis Public Schools enroll 36,370 students in public primary and secondary schools. The district administers about 100 public schools including 45 elementary schools, seven middle schools, seven high schools, eight special education schools, eight alternative schools, 19 contract alternative schools, and five charter schools. With authority granted by the state legislature, the school board makes policy, selects the superintendent, and oversees the district's budget, curriculum, personnel, and facilities. Students speak 90 different languages at home and most school communications are printed in English, Hmong, Spanish, and Somali. About 44% of students in the Minneapolis Public School system graduate, which ranks the 6th worst out of the nation's 50 largest cities. Some students attend public schools in other school districts chosen by their families under Minnesota's open enrollment statute. Besides public schools, the city is home to more than 20 private schools and academies and about 20 additional charter schools.
Minneapolis's collegiate scene is dominated by the main campus of the University of Minnesota where more than 50,000 undergraduate, graduate, and professional students attend 20 colleges, schools, and institutes. The graduate school programs ranked highest in 2007 were counseling and personnel services, chemical engineering, psychology, macroeconomics, applied mathematics and non-profit management. A Big Ten school and home of the Golden Gophers, the University of Minnesota is the fourth largest campus among U.S. public 4-year universities in terms of enrollment.
Augsburg University, Minneapolis College of Art and Design, and North Central University are private four-year colleges. Minneapolis Community and Technical College, the private Dunwoody College of Technology and Art Institutes International Minnesota provide career training. St. Mary's University of Minnesota has a Twin Cities campus for its graduate and professional programs. Capella University, Minnesota School of Professional Psychology, and Walden University are headquartered in Minneapolis and some others including the public four-year Metropolitan State University and the private four-year University of St. Thomas have campuses there.
The Hennepin County Library system began to operate the city's public libraries in 2008. The Minneapolis Public Library, founded by T. B. Walker in 1885, faced a severe budget shortfall for 2007, and was forced to temporarily close three of its neighborhood libraries. The new downtown Central Library designed by César Pelli opened in 2006. Ten special collections hold over 25,000 books and resources for researchers, including the Minneapolis Collection and the Minneapolis Photo Collection. At recent count 1,696,453 items in the system are used annually and the library answers over 500,000 research and fact-finding questions each year.
Five major newspapers are published in Minneapolis: Star Tribune, Finance and Commerce, Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder, the university's The Minnesota Daily and MinnPost.com. Other publications are the City Pages weekly, the Mpls.St.Paul and Minnesota Monthly monthlies, and Utne magazine. In 2008 readers of online news also used The UpTake, Minnesota Independent, Twin Cities Daily Planet, Downtown Journal, Cursor, MNSpeak and about fifteen other sites.
Minneapolis has a mix of radio stations and healthy listener support for public radio. In the commercial market three radio broadcasting companies iHeartMedia (formerly Clear Channel), CBS Radio, and Cumulus Media operate the majority of the radio stations in the market. Listeners support three Minnesota Public Radio non-profit stations and two community non-profit stations, the Minneapolis Public Schools and the University of Minnesota each operate a station, and religious organizations run four stations.
The city's first television was broadcast in 1948 by the Saint Paul station and ABC affiliate KSTP-TV, an NBC affiliate at the time. The first to broadcast in color was WCCO-TV, the CBS affiliate which is located in downtown Minneapolis. WCCO-TV, FOX affiliate KMSP-TV and MyNetworkTV affiliate WFTC operate as owned-and-operated stations of their affiliated networks. The city and suburbs are also home to independently-owned affiliates of NBC (KARE), PBS (KTCA-TV/KTCI-TV), The CW (WUCW) and one independent station (KSTC-TV).
A number of movies have been shot in Minneapolis, including The Heartbreak Kid (1972), Ice Castles (1978), Take This Job and Shove It (1981), Purple Rain (1984), That Was Then, This Is Now (1985), The Mighty Ducks (1992), Untamed Heart (1993), Beautiful Girls (1996), Jingle All the Way (1996), Fargo (1996), and Young Adult (2011). In television, two episodes of Route 66 were shot in Minneapolis in 1963 (and broadcast in 1963 and 1964). The 1970s CBS situation comedy fictionally based in Minneapolis, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, won three Golden Globes and 31 Emmy Awards. Downtown Minneapolis serves as a location in the 1999 video game Tony Hawk's Pro Skater.
Half of Minneapolis–Saint Paul residents work in the city where they live. Most residents drive cars, but 60% of the 160,000 people working downtown commute by means other than a single person per auto. Alternative transportation is encouraged. The Metropolitan Council's Metro Transit, which operates the light rail system and most of the city's buses, provides free travel vouchers through the Guaranteed Ride Home program to allay fears that commuters might otherwise be occasionally stranded if, for example, they work late hours.
On January 1, 2011, the city's limit of 343 taxis was lifted.
Minneapolis currently has two light rail lines and one commuter rail line. The METRO Blue Line LRT (formerly the Hiawatha Line) serves 34,000 riders daily and connects the Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport and Mall of America in Bloomington to downtown. Most of the line runs at surface level, although parts of the line run on elevated tracks (including the Franklin Avenue and Lake Street/Midtown stations) and approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) of the line runs underground, including the Lindbergh terminal subway station at the airport.
Minneapolis's second light rail line, the METRO Green Line shares stations with the Blue Line in downtown Minneapolis, and then at the Downtown East station, travels east through the University of Minnesota, and then along University Avenue into downtown Saint Paul. Construction began in November 2010 and the line began service on June 14, 2014. The third line, the Southwest Line (Green Line extension), will connect downtown Minneapolis with the southwestern suburb of Eden Prairie. Completion is expected sometime in 2022. A northwest LRT is planned along Bottineau Boulevard (Blue Line extension) from downtown to Brooklyn Park.
The 40-mile Northstar Commuter rail, which runs from Big Lake through the northern suburbs and terminates at the multi-modal transit station at Target Field, opened on November 16, 2009. It uses existing railroad tracks and serves 2,600 daily commuters.
Minneapolis ranks 27th in the nation for the highest percentage of commuters by bicycle, and was editorialized as the top bicycling city in "Bicycling's Top 50" ranking in 2010. Ten thousand cyclists use the bike lanes in the city each day, and many ride in the winter. The Public Works Department expanded the bicycle trail system from the Grand Rounds to 56 miles (90 km) of off-street commuter trails including the Midtown Greenway, the Light Rail Trail, Kenilworth Trail, Cedar Lake Trail and the West River Parkway Trail along the Mississippi. Minneapolis also has 34 miles (54 km) of dedicated bike lanes on city streets and encourages cycling by equipping transit buses with bike racks and by providing online bicycle maps. Many of these trails and bridges, such as the Stone Arch Bridge, were former railroad lines that have now been converted for bicycles and pedestrians. In 2007 citing the city's bicycle lanes, buses and LRT, Forbes identified Minneapolis the world's fifth cleanest city. In 2010, Nice Ride Minnesota launched with 65 kiosks for bicycle sharing, and 19 pedicabs were operating downtown. In 2016, Nice Ride expanded to 171 stations and 1,833 bikes supplied by PBSC Urban Solutions, a Canadian company.
Seven miles (11 km) of enclosed pedestrian bridges called skyways, the Minneapolis Skyway System, link eighty city blocks downtown. Second floor restaurants and retailers connected to these passageways are open on weekdays.
Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport (MSP) sits on 3,400 acres (1,400 ha) on the southeast border of the city between Minnesota State Highway 5, Interstate 494, Minnesota State Highway 77, and Minnesota State Highway 62. The airport serves international, domestic, charter and regional carriers and is a hub and home base for Sun Country Airlines, and Compass Airlines. It is also the second largest hub for Delta Air Lines, who fly more flights and passengers out of MSP than any other airline.
Health and utilitiesEdit
Minneapolis has seven hospitals, four ranked among America's best by U.S. News & World Report—Abbott Northwestern Hospital (part of Allina), Children's Hospitals and Clinics, Hennepin County Medical Center (HCMC) and the University of Minnesota Medical Center. Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Shriners Hospitals for Children and Allina's Phillips Eye Institute also serve the city. The Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota is a 75-minute drive away.
Cardiac surgery was developed at the university's Variety Club Hospital, where by 1957, more than 200 patients had survived open-heart operations, many of them children. Working with surgeon C. Walton Lillehei, Medtronic began to build portable and implantable cardiac pacemakers about this time.
HCMC opened in 1887 as City Hospital and was also known as General Hospital. A public teaching hospital and Level I trauma center, the HCMC safety net counted 596,397 clinic visits and 109,876 emergency and urgent care visits in 2015. In prior years responsible for about 18% of Minnesota's uncompensated care, HCMC provided much less uncompensated care in 2014 because, after the Affordable Care Act came into effect, its charity care declined more than bad debt went up.
Funded in part by assessments on commercial properties, in 2009 Ambassadors of the Minneapolis Downtown Improvement District (DID) began working on 120 blocks of downtown to improve its cleanliness, friendliness and acceptability of behavior. They are employees of Block by Block, a company in Nashville, Tennessee that serves 46 U.S. cities.
Utility providers are regulated monopolies: Xcel Energy supplies electricity, CenterPoint Energy supplies gas, CenturyLink provides landline telephone service, and Comcast provides cable service. In 2007 citywide wireless internet coverage began, provided for 10 years by US Internet of Minnetonka to residents for about $20 per month and to businesses for $30. The Minneapolis Wi-Fi network earns $1.2 million annual profit and as of 2010 has about 20,000 customers. The city treats and distributes water and requires payment of a monthly solid waste fee for trash removal, recycling, and drop off for large items. Residents who recycle receive a credit. Hazardous waste is handled by Hennepin County drop off sites. After each significant snowfall, called a snow emergency, the Minneapolis Public Works Street Division plows over 1,000 miles (1,609 km) of streets and 400 miles (643.7 km) of alleys—counting both sides, the distance between Minneapolis and Seattle and back. Ordinances govern parking on the plowing routes during these emergencies as well as snow shoveling throughout the city.
- Bosaso (Somalia) since 2014
- Najaf (Iraq) since 2009
- Cuernavaca (Mexico) since 2008
- Uppsala (Sweden) since 2000
- Eldoret (Kenya) since 2000
- Harbin (China) since 1992
- Tours (France) since 1991
- Novosibirsk (Russia) since 1988
- Ibaraki (Japan) since 1980
- Kuopio (Finland) since 1972
- Santiago (Chile) since 1961
The city also has an informal connection with:
- Hiroshima, Japan
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official records for Minneapolis/St. Paul were kept by the St. Paul Signal Service in that city from January 1871 to December 1890, the Minneapolis Weather Bureau from January 1891 to 8 April 1938, and at KMSP since 9 April 1938.
- "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016" (CSV). 2016 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 2016. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
- "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. May 19, 2016. Archived from the original on May 18, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016". U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. May 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "NACo County Explorer". National Association of Counties. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- Gullickson, Ryan. "U.S. Metro Economies" (PDF). IHS Global Insight. IHS Global Insight. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2015. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
- "Minneapolis". Emporis Buildings (emporis.com). Archived from the original on April 23, 2007. Retrieved March 18, 2007.
- "Cities". Fortune 500. CNN Money. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
- "The World According to GaWC". Loughborough University Department of Geography. 2012. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
- "Minneapolis Named Gayest U.S. City". CBS Broadcasting Inc. January 13, 2011. and Advocate.com Editors (2017). "Queerest Cities in America: 22. Minneapolis". Advocate. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
- Rushin, Steve (4 May 2016). "Why Minneapolis Loved Prince, and He Loved His Hometown". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
- Bright, William (2004). Native American Placenames of the United States. University of Oklahoma Press via Google Books. p. 286. ISBN 978-0-8061-3598-4.
- Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. X Part 1. Minnesota Historical Society. 1905. p. 262.
- Kappler, Charles J., ed. (1904). Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. II (Treaties, 1778–1883). Washington: Government Printing Office: Oklahoma State University Library.. and "Treaty with the Sioux". September 29, 1837. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. and "Treaty with the Sioux—Sisseton and Wahpeton Bands". July 23, 1851. Archived from the original on June 16, 2008. and "Treaty With the Sioux—Mdewakanton and Wapahkoota Bands". August 5, 1851. Archived from the original on July 11, 2007. Retrieved June 26, 2007.
- "A History of Minneapolis: Mdewakanton Band of the Dakota Nation, Parts I and II". Hennepin County Library. 2001. Archived from the original on 2012-04-09. and "A History of Minneapolis: Minneapolis Becomes Part of the United States". Archived from the original on 2012-04-21., and "A History of Minneapolis: Governance and Infrastructure". Archived from the original on 2012-04-22. and "A History of Minneapolis: Railways". Archived from the original on 2012-04-21. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- Frame, Robert M. III, Jeffrey Hess (January 1990). "West Side Milling District, Historic American Engineering Record MN-16". U.S. National Park Service (via U.S. Library of Congress). p. 2. Archived from the original on July 2, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
- Hart, Joseph (June 11, 1997). "Lost City". City Pages. Village Voice Media. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- "History of Technology". HistoryWorld (historyworld.net). Retrieved April 4, 2007.
- Anfinson, Scott F. (1989). "Part 2: Archaeological Explorations and Interpretive Potentials: Chapter 4 Interpretive Potentials". The Minnesota Archaeologist. The Institute for Minnesota Archaeology. 49. Retrieved April 3, 2007.
- Watts, Alison (Summer 2000). "The technology that launched a city: scientific and technological innovations in flour milling during the 1870s in Minneapolis" (PDF). Minnesota History. Minnesota Historical Society: 86–97.
- Danbom, David B. (2003). "Flour power: the significance of flour milling at the falls" (PDF). Minnesota History. Minnesota Historical Society. 58 (5–6): 270–285. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
- "Crown Roller Mill: HAER No. MN-12" (PDF). Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record. U.S. Library of Congress. p. 10. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
- Nestle, Marion; Nesheim, Malden C. (2010). Feed Your Pet Right. Free Press (Simon & Schuster). pp. 322–323. ISBN 978-1-4391-6642-0.
- "History". Mill City Museum (via Internet Archive). Archived from the original on May 13, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- Gray, James (1954). Business without Boundary: The Story of General Mills. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 33–34, 41. LCCN 54-10286.
- Nathanson, Iric (2010). Minneapolis In the Twentieth Century: The Growth of an American City. Minnesota Historical Society Press. pp. 41–47. ISBN 0-87351-725-3.
- Nathanson, Iric (2010). Minneapolis In the Twentieth Century: The Growth of an American City. Minnesota Historical Society Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-87351-725-3.
- Atwater, Isaac (1893). History of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Munsell (via Google Books). pp. 257–262. Retrieved April 23, 2007.
- "1934 Truckers' Strike (Minneapolis)". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved May 5, 2007.
- Reichard, Gary W. (Summer 1998). "Mayor Hubert H. Humphrey". Minnesota History. Minnesota Historical Society. 56 (2): 50–67. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2007.
- "Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For Large Cities And Other Urban Places In The United States". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- Harry Davis (February 21, 2003). Almanac. Twin Cities Public Television. and "American Indian Movement". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- Weber, Laura E. (Spring 1991). "Gentiles Preferred" (PDF). Minnesota History. Minnesota Historical Society: 167, 172, 182. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "A History of Minneapolis: Medicine". Hennepin County Library. 2001. Archived from the original on April 21, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- Weber, Laura. "Mount Sinai Hospital and Foundation, Minneapolis". MNopedia. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
- Hart, Joseph (May 6, 1998). "Room at the Bottom". City Pages. Village Voice Media. 19 (909). Archived from the original on April 1, 2010. Retrieved April 1, 2007.
- "Lake Calhoun signs updated to include the lake's Dakota name, Bde Maka Ska". MPR News. October 3, 2015. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- "Water Resources Report" (PDF). Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board. 2013. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- "Mississippi: River Facts". U.S. National Park Service via Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- "Minneapolis". Encarta. 1993–2007. Archived from the original on April 17, 2007.
- "State of the City: Physical Environment" (PDF). Minneapolis Planning Division via Internet Archive. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 8, 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- "The 45th Parallel". Wurlington Bros. Press. Archived from the original on November 25, 2006. Retrieved January 19, 2007.
- "Minnesota Preservation Planner IX (2)" (PDF). Minnesota Historical Society. Spring 1998. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2007. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
- Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (October 2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 11 (5): 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007.
- Normals, Means, and Extremes for Minneapolis/Saint Paul (1971–2000) Archived July 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.: Mean of Extreme Mins for January
- Pioneer Press staff (January 24, 2012). "USDA: Milder winters mean some changes in plant hardiness zones". St. Paul Pioneer Press. Archived from the original on July 21, 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- "Ranking of Cities Based on % Annual Possible Sunshine". NOAA: National Climatic Data Center. 2004. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- Fisk, Charles (February 11, 2011). "Graphical Climatology of Minneapolis-Saint Paul Area Temperatures, Precipitation, and Snowfall". Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- "Twin Cities Area total monthly and seasonal snowfall in inches [1883-2016]". Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR). Applied Climate Information System (ACIS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Retrieved 9 September 2016.
- "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2016-04-12.
- "Station Name: MN MINNEAPOLIS/ST PAUL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-25.
- "WMO climate normals for Minneapolis/INT'L ARPT, MN 1961−1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- "Monthly Averages for Minneapolis, MN". The Weather Channel. Retrieved August 8, 2016.
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- "Minneapolis (city), Minnesota". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 20, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
- "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
- From 15% sample
- "Race for the Population 18 Years and Over". U.S. Census Bureau: American FactFinder. 2010. Retrieved March 20, 2011.
- "American FactFinder". Factfinder2.census.gov. October 5, 2010. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved September 4, 2011.
- "Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino By Race for the Population 18 Years and Over". U.S. Census Bureau: American FactFinder. 2010. Retrieved March 20, 2011.
- GR Anderson Jr (October 1, 2003). "Living in America". City Pages. Archived from the original on April 7, 2008. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
- Nathanson, Iric. "Jews in Minnesota" (PDF). Jewish Community Relations Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 28, 2006. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
- "A History of Minneapolis: 20th Century Growth and Diversity". Hennepin County Library. 2001. Archived from the original on 2012-04-21. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Minneapolis/Saint Paul in Focus: A Profile from Census 2000". Metropolitan Policy Program, The Brookings Institution. November 2003. Archived from the original on July 8, 2008. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
- "12.9% in Seattle are gay or bisexual, second only to S.F., study says". The Seattle Times. 2006. Retrieved March 20, 2009.
- Gates, Gary J. (October 2006). "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey" (PDF). Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law, University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved February 26, 2008.
- Breen, Matthew (January 9, 2012). "Gayest Cities in America". The Advocate. Here Media. Archived from the original on 2012-01-11. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- Kimball, Joe (November 19, 2013). "LGBT support: Minneapolis and St. Paul rank high in national assessment". MinnPost. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
- "Minneapolis—Saint Paul, MN—WI: Summary Profile". Harvard University. 2007. Archived from the original on September 24, 2007. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
- "Key Facts — Trouble at the Core Update". Metropolitan Council. November 7, 2007. Archived from the original on February 20, 2008. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
- Millett, Larry (2007). "AIA Guide to the Twin Cities: The Essential Source on the Architecture of Minneapolis and St. Paul". Minnesota Historical Society Press via Amazon Look Inside. pp. 9, 154. Retrieved December 3, 2011.
- "A History of Minneapolis: Religion". Hennepin County Library via Internet Archive. Archived from the original on April 23, 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
- "Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church". Yahoo! Travel. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
- FitzGerald, Thomas E. (1998). The Orthodox Church. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-275-96438-2. and "About St. Mary's". St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral. 2006. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- Millet, Larry. AIA Guide to the Twin Cities: The Essential Source on the Architecture of Minneapolis and St. Paul. Minnesota Historical Society. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-87351-540-5.
- "Billy Graham and the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association — Historical Background". Billy Graham Center. November 11, 2004. Archived from the original on February 27, 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- Camhi, Leslie (July 23, 2000). "FILM; The Fabulousness Of Tammy Faye". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
- Austin, Charles M. (August 2013). "20 Largest ELCA congregations in 2012". The Lutheran. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
- "Eliel Saarinen". Encyclopædia Britannica. and "Koulun sijainti / School location". Finnish Language School of Minnesota. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
- "About Us". Masjid An-Nur. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
- Wiese, Gloria J. "History of North Minneapolis". Youth Resources. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
- Barlow, Philip & Silk, Mark (2004). Religion and public life in the midwest: America's common denominator?. Rowman Altamira. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-7591-0631-4.
- Chadwick, David (1997). "Crooked Cucumber: Interview With Tomoe Katagiri". Crooked Cucumber Archives.
And also many teachers are not interested in Minnesota because of the climate. So he said if I can go, I want to go to the place where nobody wants to go.and "Dainin Katagiri Lineage". Sweeping Zen. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
- "United States Dharma Centers: Minnesota: Minneapolis". DharmaNet. Archived from the original on November 30, 2012. and "Directory of Religious Centers". President and Fellows of Harvard College and Diana Eck. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
- "Welcome to the Hub of Atheism!". AFHR (Atheists for Human Rights). Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Leaping Laughter Lodge". Leaping Laughter Oasis. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research Center
- "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.
- "Minneapolis: The contemporary city". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2007.
- Shutter, D.D., Rev. Marion Daniel, ed. (1923). History of Minneapolis, Gateway to the Northwest. I. The S J Clarke Publishing Co via The USGenWeb Project.
- "Fortune 500: Minnesota". Fortune. 2012. Retrieved September 2, 2012.
- Sarah McKenzie (February 2, 2016). "Downtown's population nears 40,000". The Journal. Minnesota Premier Publications. Archived from the original on February 5, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
- St. Anthony, Neal (November 17, 2016). "Minneapolis-based Bellisio Foods sells for $1.08 billion to Thailand company". Star Tribune. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- "Saint Paul — Governor Tim Pawlenty announced today that Coloplast will move its North American corporate headquarters to Minnesota beginning this fall" (Press release). Coloplast Group. July 5, 2006. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
- "Our Company". RBC Wealth Management. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
- Black, Sam (April 7, 2014). "ING rebrands Minneapolis unit as Voya Financial". Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal. American City Business Journals. Retrieved July 5, 2014.
- "All Locations". and "Corporate Fact Sheet". and "Corporate Overview". Target. Retrieved September 18, 2013.
- Pacella, Rena Marie (2005). "Top Tech City: Minneapolis, MN". Popular Science. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
- Jane Bennett Clark (October 2005). "Seven Cool Cities". Kiplinger's Personal Finance. The Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc via Internet Archive. Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
- Donaldson, Ali & Lu, Wei (November 5, 2015). "These Are the 20 Richest Cities in America". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- "Gross Metropolitan Product". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- "The Role of Metro Areas in the U.S. Economy" (PDF). Global Insight. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 30, 2006. Retrieved February 12, 2007. and "Personal Income and Per Capita Personal Income by Metropolitan Area, 2003–2005". Bureau of Economic Analysis. September 6, 2006. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
- Levy, David (December 1992). "Interview with Paul Volcker". The Region via Internet Archive. Archived from the original on October 20, 2012.
- "Buyers & Processors". North Dakota Wheat Commission. Retrieved April 2, 2007.
- DeRusha, Jason (January 19, 2011). "Good Question: Why Did Somalis Locate Here?". CBS Local. CBS Radio. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- Nocera, Joe (December 22, 2007). "The capital of corporate philanthropy". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on May 8, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2008. and "A History of Minneapolis: Social Services". Hennepin County Library via Internet Archive. 2001. Archived from the original on April 22, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Minneapolis Sculpture Garden". Archived from the original on February 5, 2007. Retrieved March 18, 2007.
- Joubert, Claire (May 2006). "Boom Town" (PDF). Mpls.St.Paul (via Meet Minneapolis). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2007. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
- Kerr, Euan (October 2, 2011). "Weisman celebrates reopening with its designer in attendance". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- "History: TMORA".
- Bolton, Aaron (March 31, 2015). "NE Mpls celebrates country's No. 1 arts district title". The Journal. Minnesota Premier Publications. Archived from the original on April 12, 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
- "Northeast Minneapolis Named Best Art District". USA TODAY 10Best. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
- Don B. Wilmeth; Tice L. Miller (13 June 1996). The Cambridge Guide to American Theatre. Cambridge University Press. pp. 260–. ISBN 978-0-521-56444-1.
- Theodore Christian Blegen (1975). Minnesota: A History of the State. U of Minnesota Press. pp. 505–. ISBN 978-0-8166-0754-9.
- "Newspapers: Star Tribune". The McClatchy Company. Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. Retrieved February 11, 2007.
- Horwich, Jeff (April 6, 2005). "Council moves closer to theater deal, but concerns remain". Minnesota Public Radio. Archived from the original on January 16, 2007. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
- "Guthrie Theatre". Minnesota Historical Society. Archived from the original on March 9, 2007. and "Theater History". Guthrie Theater. Archived from the original on April 23, 2007. Retrieved April 23, 2007.
- "Theatre History". Hennepin Theatre Trust. Retrieved March 17, 2007.
- Preston, Rohan (September 8, 2011). "Cowles Center: Big leap for Twin Cities arts". Star Tribune. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
- LeFevre, Camille (June 30, 2010). "Shubert renamed Cowles Center for Dance and Performing Arts". MinnPost. Retrieved August 21, 2010.
- "Minnesota Fringe Festival" (PDF). Minnesota Fringe Festival. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 22, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2008.
- Palmer, Caroline (April 26, 2000). "Footsteps". City Pages. Village Voice Media. 21 (1012). Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. and Minneapolis Arts Commission; et al. (June 2005). "The Minneapolis Plan for Arts & Culture" (PDF). City of Minneapolis. Retrieved June 29, 2007.
- Thompson, Ahmir (March 24, 2004). "100 Greatest Artists". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
- Matos, Michaelangelo in Brackett, Nathan (November 2, 2004). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide (4 ed.). Fireside. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-7432-0169-8. Archived from the original on April 20, 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
- "The Twin/Tone catalog". Twin/Tone Records. 1978–1998. Retrieved January 15, 2007.
- "First Avenue & 7th Street Entry Band Files". Minnesota Historical Society. 1999–2004. Archived from the original on February 10, 2007. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
- Azerrad, Michael (2002). Our Band Could Be Your Life. Back Bay Books. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-316-78753-6.
- Oestreich, James R. (December 17, 2006). "MUSIC; A Most Audacious Dare Reverberates". The New York Times. Retrieved April 6, 2008.
- Ross, Alex (March 22, 2010). "Battle of the Bands". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on March 22, 2010. Retrieved March 27, 2010.
- Espeland, Pamela (December 7, 2012). "Five Grammy nominations have Minneapolis ties; more holiday shows". MinnPost. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- Bream, Jon (January 27, 2014). "Minnesota Orchestra and Osmo Vänskä score a Grammy". Star Tribune. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- Royce, Graydon (October 3, 2013). "Osmo Vänskä's departure shakes Minnesota Orchestra". Star Tribune. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- Royce, Graydon (January 15, 2014). "Jan. 15: Three-year Minnesota Orchestra deal ends 15-month lockout". Star Tribune. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- Mack, Linda (January 10, 2008). "MacPhail: a new note for the Minneapolis riverfront". MinnPost. Retrieved January 10, 2008.
- "Minnesota Spoken Word Association". Archived from the original on December 21, 2006. Retrieved March 18, 2007.
- Atmosphere (January 4, 2005). "I Wish Those Cats @ Fobia Would Give Me Some Free Shoes" and "Sep Seven Game Show Them" and "7th St. Entry" on Headshots: SE7EN remastered Rhymesayers, ASIN: B0006SSRXS [Explicit lyrics].
- Spencer, Jack (December 12, 2014). "The Best Minnesota Rap Albums of 2014". City Pages. Star Tribune Media. Retrieved August 20, 2015.
- Peloquin, Jahna (January 27, 2014). "Local DJs Recall Playing Daft Punk's 1st U.S. Show in SPIN Article". Vita.MN. StarTribune. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Welch, Chris (November 10, 2009). "They're rapping for a hip hop diploma". CNN.com. CNN. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Rietmulder, Michael (April 18, 2013). "Twin Cities DJ DVS1 gets most of his club dates in Europe". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
- Blain, Terry (10 February 2017). "Skylark Opera is back in business with a dark, dramatic take on Bizet's 'Carmen'". Star Tribune. and Tanigawa, Noe (6 January 2016). "Hawai'i's Fledgling Fringe Circuit". Hawaii Public Radio. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
- "America's Most Literate Cities". Central Connecticut State University. 2013. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "A History of Minneapolis: Printing and Publishing". Hennepin County Library. 2001. Archived from the original on April 22, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- Chamberlain, Lisa (April 30, 2008). "With Books as a Catalyst, Minneapolis Neighborhood Revives". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- "A History of Minneapolis: Social Services". Hennepin County Library. 2001. Archived from the original on April 22, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- Ohlemacher, Stephen (July 9, 2007). "Detroit area has volunteer spirit". Detroit Free Press. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2007.
- "Catholic Charities of Saint Paul & Minneapolis". Charity Navigator. 2006. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
- "American Refugee Committee International". Charity Navigator. 2015. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
- "Corporate Responsibility Magazine's "100 Best Corporate Citizens List"" (PDF). CR. CRO Corp. 2011. Retrieved April 16, 2011.
- "The Minneapolis Foundation". Charity Navigator. 2006. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
- Cohen, Burt (May 2006). "The Spirit of Giving" (PDF). Mpls.St.Paul (via Meet Minneapolis). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2007. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
- Galarza, Daniela (January 28, 2015). "U.S. Takes Home Silver Medal in Bocuse d'Or 2015". Eater. Vox Media. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
- Jenkins, Kathie (May 6, 2009). "La Belle Vie founder Tim McKee wins coveted 'Best Chef' award". Pioneer Press. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- Svitak Dean, Lee (May 4, 2010). "Alex Roberts named top chef in Midwest". Star Tribune. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- Nelson, Rick (May 11, 2011). "Best chef in Midwest: Isaac Becker". Star Tribune. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- Reilly, Mark (May 3, 2016). "James Beard Awards picks Bachelor Farmer Chef Paul Berglund as Best Chef — Midwest". Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
- JBF Editors (February 19, 2014). "The 2014 Restaurant and Chef Award Semifinalists". James Beard Foundation. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- Cassel, Emily (October 27, 2017). "Minneapolis named a 'top 10 place to visit' in 2018... in the entire WORLD". City Pages. Star Tribune. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
- Moskin, Julia (July 30, 2012). "A Return to Nordic Roots". The New York Times. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Van Buren, Alex (September 28, 2012). "The BA Weekender Guide". Bon Appétit. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
- Krader, Katy (August 2012). "America's Best and Best-Priced New Food City". Food & Wine.
- Reilly, Mark (June 1, 2015). "Saveur's 'Next Great American Food City' is …". Minneapolis / St. Paul Business Journal. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Galarza, Daniela (June 4, 2015). "Food & Wine Announces 2015 Restaurants of the Year". Eater. Vox Media. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- Rosenberg, Meredith (19 August 2017). "Camel burgers and beyond: Minneapolis' Somali food scene". The Philadelphia Tribune. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
- "Bon Appétit's List Of Best New Restaurants Has 3 From Minnesota". CBS Local. August 4, 2015. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
- Davis, Angela (March 24, 2015). "'DeRusha Eats,' Spoon And Stable Nominated For James Beard Awards". CBS Local. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
- "Best Local Food Scene". USA Today. 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
- Nelson, Rick (January 9, 2016). "Goodbye, spaetzle with rabbit: Brasserie Zentral to close". Star Tribune. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
- Fleming, Jess (November 16, 2016). "Saffron the latest Minneapolis fine-dining casualty". Pioneer Press. Digital First. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
- Motamed, Nilou. "2016 Restaurants of the Year: Brewer's Table at Surly Brewing". Food & Wine. Time Inc. Affluent Media. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
- "Best Cocktail Bars in the U.S". Food & Wine. Time Inc. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
- Martin, Brett (May 2017). "GQ's Best New Restaurants in America 2017". GQ. Condé Nast. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
- Addison, Bill (July 26, 2017). "The 12 Best New Restaurants in America". Eater. Vox Media. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
- "U.S. Bank Stadium Sold Out For 2016". Aug 25, 2016. Retrieved 2017-11-19.
- Kolur, Nihal (November 29, 2017). "Minnesota Lynx Star Maya Moore Wins Sports Illustrated's Performer of the Year Award". Time Inc. Sports Illustrated. and Deitsch, Richard (December 5, 2017). "Maya Moore Is the Greatest Winner in History of Women's Basketball—and Best May Be Yet to Come". Time Inc. Sports Illustrated Group. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
- James, Derek (September 17, 2017). "Lynx, Sparks look to cement legacies in WNBA Finals rematch". Summitt Hoops. FanSided. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- "NHL Cities — Ranked by Population — Stats Hockey". Statshockey.homestead.com. March 30, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- Olson, Jason (September 19, 2013). "United FC to move training away from Blaine". ABC Newspapers. ECM. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Greder, Andy (May 30, 2017). "Third try is a charm for state tax breaks to help build St. Paul soccer stadium". Pioneer Press. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Quirk, Jim (1998). "The Minneapolis Marines: Minnesota's Forgotten NFL Team" (PDF). Coffin Corner. Professional Football Researchers Association. 20 (1): 1–3. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 18, 2010.
- "A History of Minneapolis: Amateur Sports". Archived from the original on April 21, 2012. and "A History of Minneapolis: Professional Sports". Hennepin County Library. 2001. Archived from the original on April 21, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "About The AWA". AWA Wrestling Entertainment. 2006. Archived from the original on March 2, 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2007.
- Nelson, Tim (July 22, 2016). "Colossus of 'whoas': Vikings open U.S. Bank Stadium". MPR News. Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
- Ojeda-Zapata, Julio (July 31, 2016). "U.S. Bank Stadium: Tech experience designed to entice fans". Pioneer Press. Digital First Media. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
- Best, Eric (August 23, 2016). "Vikings plan bar, game-day activities outside U.S. Bank Stadium". The Journal. Minnesota Premier Publications. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
- "Ticket Waitlist". Minnesota Vikings Football. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
- "History of the Metrodome". Metropolitan Sports Facilities Commission. 2006. Archived from the original on January 28, 2012.
- George, Thomas (May 25, 1989). "Minneapolis Gets 1992 Super Bowl". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
- "1992 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament". HickokSports.com. April 17, 2008. Archived from the original on December 6, 2012. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
- Brodie, Rob (April 6, 1998). "Bourne, Kraatz saved Worlds". Ottawa Sun. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
- Volin, Ben (May 21, 2014). "Minneapolis buys itself a Super Bowl for 2018". The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Summary: National Collegiate/Division I Men's" (PDF). National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). June 13, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 5, 2009. and "Summary: National Collegiate/Division I Women's" (PDF). NCAA. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 27, 2010. Retrieved June 15, 2010.
- Graff, Chad (March 20, 2016). "Gophers women's hockey wins fourth NCAA championship in five years". Pioneer Press. Digital First Media. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
- "Gophers Win Seventh National Crown". CBS Interactive (gophersports.com). March 20, 2016. Retrieved March 21, 2016.
- Cairn, Rich; Cairn, Susan (2003). "History of Minnehaha Creek Watershed" (PDF). Minnehahacreek.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 18, 2011. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- "Minnehaha Park". Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board. Archived from the original on February 12, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- Garvin, Alexander (June 19, 2002). The American City : What Works, What Doesn't (2 ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-07-137367-8.
- Loring, Charles M. (November 11, 1912). History of the Parks and Public Grounds of Minneapolis. Minnesota Historical Society, University of Michigan (via Google Books). pp. 601–602. Retrieved April 11, 2007. and Nadenicek, Daniel J. and Neckar, Lance M. in Cleveland, H. W. S. (April 2002). Landscape Architecture, as Applied to the Wants of the West; with an Essay on Forest Planting on the Great Plains. University of Massachusetts Press, ASLA Centennial Reprint Series. xli. ISBN 978-1-55849-330-8.
- "Grand Rounds Scenic Byway". National Scenic Byways Online (byways.org). Archived from the original on April 5, 2007.
- "Theodore Wirth (1863–1949)". National Recreation and Park Association. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved April 24, 2007.
- Walsh, Paul (July 8, 2008). "Minneapolis, Saint Paul parks shine in national report". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved July 17, 2008.
- Magnusson, Jemilah (March–April 2005). "The Top 10 Green Cities in the U.S". The Green Guide. National Geographic Society (TheGreenGuide.com). 107. Archived from the original on March 29, 2007. and "Minneapolis Local Surface Water Management Plan" (PDF). Minneapolis Public Works & Engineering. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
- "City Profiles: Minneapolis". The Trust for Public Land. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Copeland, Larry (June 5, 2013). "Group Rates Minneapolis as Top US City Park System". USA Today. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- "Theodore Wirth Park, MN". National Scenic Byways Online (byways.org). Archived from the original on July 9, 2013. and "FAQs". Central Park Conservancy (centralparknyc.org). 2006. Archived from the original on March 14, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2007.
- "Henry Wadsworth Longfellow". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
- Adams, Lori; Gorin, Amy; Rennie, Doug; Rushlow, Amy; Sayago, Joanna. "The 25 Best Running Cities in America". Runner's World. Rodale. Archived from the original on August 18, 2007. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
- "Minneapolis Marathon, Half Marathon and 5K". Team Ortho. Archived from the original on June 11, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2010. Archived from the original Archived June 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. on June 11, 2008.
- Nelson, Tim (May 31, 2009). "More than 1,500 turn out for first Minneapolis Marathon". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- "Twin Cities Marathon". Twin Cities Marathon (mtcmarathon.org). Retrieved March 29, 2007.
- "The ACSM American Fitness Index". American Fitness Index. Retrieved August 6, 2016.
- "America's 100 Greatest Golf Courses/2007-08". Golf Digest. 2007.
- "Best Public Golf Course:Chaska Town Course". City Pages. Village Voice Media. 2011. Archived from the original on August 18, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- "Inventor of the Week Archive: Scott & Brennan Olson (spelling corrected per rowbike.com)". Lemelson-MIT, MIT School of Engineering. August 1997. Archived from the original on May 2, 2006. Retrieved February 25, 2007.
- Regan, Sheila, Coleman, Nick and Nelson, Kathryn G. (November 6, 2013). "Minneapolis Mayoral Election: Betsy Hodges Almost Claims Her Almost Victory; RCV Count Goes Slow". The Uptake. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- Feinstein, Mike (July 15, 2013). "Key advances in Minneapolis elections". Archived from the original on June 2, 2006. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
- Turck, Mary (November 6, 2013). "Election results updated: Hodges in as mayor; Cano, Yang, Palmisano win city council seats; St. Paul counts on Monday". TC Daily Planet. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- Helal, Liala (November 8, 2013). "Voters bring more racial, ethnic diversity to Minneapolis City Council". MPR News. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- "City Council". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on February 7, 2016. and "Board of Estimate and Taxation". City of Minneapolis. Retrieved June 27, 2007.
- "Minnesota's 5th Congressional District". OpenCongress: Participatory Politics Foundation. Archived from the original on May 15, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2013.
- Brucato, Cyndy (December 9, 2013). "Minnesota GOP headquarters moving from St. Paul to Minneapolis' Seward neighborhood". MinnPost. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
- "Minneapolis Neighborhoods: Keep Working on NRP and Stay Tuned" (Press release). Minneapolis Neighborhood Revitalization Program. December 29, 2010. Archived from the original on January 3, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
- "City of Minneapolis. Neighborhoods & Communities" (PDF). GIS Business Services, City of Minneapolis. 2006. and "City of Minneapolis Business Associations" (PDF). Minneapolis Community Planning and Economic Development (CPED) Department. November 17, 2005. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
- "Urban Environment Report, City Environment Data: Minneapolis, Minnesota". Earth Day Network. Archived from the original on October 7, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2007.
- "America's Top 50 Green Cities". Popular Science. Retrieved 2017-07-16.
- Moskowitz Grumdahl, Dara (October 11, 1995). "Minneapolis Confidential". City Pages. Village Voice Media. 16 (775). Archived from the original on April 1, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
- "Uniform Crime Reports". Minneapolis Police Department, CODEFOR Unit. Archived from the original on February 5, 2007. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
- Williams, Brandt (January 9, 2007). "Homicide problem awaits Minneapolis' new police chief". Minnesota Public Radio. and Scheck, Tom (August 25, 2005). "Sparks fly at Minneapolis mayoral debate". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
- "2013 Neighborhood Crime Statistics". & "1990 to 2000 Population Change by Neighborhood". City of Minneapolis. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- McKinney, Matt (April 25, 2012). "Minneapolis police chief to step down at year's end". Star Tribune. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- Martin, Adam (May 24, 2011). "America (With Some Exceptions) Is Safer". The Atlantic Wire. Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- "Minneapolis Crime Statistics: Minnesota (MN)". CityRating.com. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- Kurtzleben, Danielle (February 16, 2011). "The 11 Most Dangerous Cities". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on June 17, 2012. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- "Arradondo confirmed as Minneapolis police chief". MinnPost. August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- Madhani, Aamer (July 23, 2017). "Minneapolis mayor looks to new police chief amid firestorm over fatal shooting". USA Today. Gannett. Retrieved July 23, 2017.
- McKenzie, Sarah (March 20, 2015). "City Council passes fossil fuel divestment resolution". Southwest Journal. Minnesota Premier Publications. Archived from the original on April 18, 2015. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
- McKenzie, Sarah (March 27, 2015). "City joins international alliance committed to curbing greenhouse gas emissions". Southwest Journal. Minnesota Premier Publications. Archived from the original on April 17, 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
- "MPS Facts 2006–2007". Minneapolis Public Schools. Archived from the original on December 10, 2006. and "About MPS". and "Board of Education". Archived from the original on May 2, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2007.
- Diaz, Kevin (March 31, 2008). "Minneapolis schools get failing grade on dropouts". Star Tribune. Avista Capital Partners. Archived from the original on April 3, 2008. Retrieved April 3, 2008.
- "Open Enrollment". Minnesota Department of Education. Archived from the original on August 26, 2010. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
- "Alphabetical List of Nonpublic Schools". Minnesota Department of Education. 2005. Archived from the original on August 18, 2007. and "Charter Schools". 2005. Archived from the original on May 1, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2007.
- "Minnesota, University of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2007.
- "University of Minnesota Rankings". U.S. News and World Report via Regents of the University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on December 29, 2007. Retrieved February 4, 2008.
- "Enrollment of the 120 largest degree-granting college and university campuses, by selected characteristics and institution". Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Fall 2010. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
- "Post-Secondary Schools". Minnesota Department of Education. 2005. Archived from the original on May 1, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2007.
- "Guiding Principles for the Consolidation of Library Services in Hennepin County" (PDF). Hennepin County Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 3, 2007. Retrieved November 23, 2008.
- Atwater, Isaac (1893). History of the city of Minneapolis, Minnesota. 1. Munsell via Google Books. pp. 282–299.
- "Frequently Asked Questions: Library Board Decisions and Libraries Closing". Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us). October 26, 2006. Archived from the original on May 30, 2007. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
- "Arts at MPL: Cesar Pelli". February 2, 2007. Archived from the original on April 29, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2007.
- "Unique Collections". Minneapolis Public Library (mpls.lib.mn.us). March 15, 2007. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
- "MPL Annual Report" (PDF). 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 21, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2007.
- "A History of Minneapolis: Newspapers". Hennepin County Library. 2001. Archived from the original on June 22, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- Córdova, Cristina (February 19, 2008). "All the News That Fits—and Then Some". The Rake. Rake Publishing. Retrieved March 2, 2008.
- December, John (March 1, 2007). "Media — Radio — Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA". Archived from the original on April 27, 2007.
- "A History of Minneapolis: Radio and Television". Hennepin County Library. 2001. Archived from the original on April 22, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- Weeks, John (2003). "Minneapolis / Saint Paul: Minnesota Twin Cities Area: Digital TV & HDTV Cheat Sheet". Retrieved March 18, 2007.
- ""Heartbreak Kid" (1972)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- ""Ice Castles" (1978)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- ""Take This Job and Shove It" (1981)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- ""Purple Rain" (1984)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- ""That Was Then, This Is Now" (1985)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- ""The Mighty Ducks" (1992)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- ""Untamed Heart" (1993)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- ""Beautiful Girls" (1996)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- ""Jingle All the Way" (1996)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- ""Fargo" (1996)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- "Young Adult". Imdb.com (Amazon.com). Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ""Route 66: Where Are the Sounds of Celli Brahms?" (1963)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- ""Route 66: Kiss the Monster — Make Him Sleep" (1964)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
- "Awards for "Mary Tyler Moore" (1970)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Minneapolis/Saint Paul in Focus: A Profile from Census 2000" (PDF). Brookings Institution, Living Cities Census Series. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 16, 2007. Retrieved April 8, 2007.
- Cati Vanden Breul (September 28, 2005). "Downtown Minneapolis named one of 17 best commuting districts". The Minnesota Daily. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2007.
- "Guaranteed Ride Home". Metro Transit. Archived from the original on August 26, 2007. Retrieved June 26, 2007.
- "Amending ordinance relating to Taxicabs" (PDF). City of Minneapolis. 2006. Retrieved March 16, 2007.
- "Hiawatha Light Rail is now METRO Blue Line" (Press release). Metro Transit. May 17, 2013. Archived from the original on August 14, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2013.
- METRO Green Line
- "Southwest Corridor LRT Timeline". Metropolitan Council. Archived from the original on May 18, 2013. Retrieved August 22, 2011.
- "Updates on Proposed Blue Line Extension (Bottineau LRT)". City of Crystal, MN. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- "Central Corridor next steps and timeline". Metropolitan Council. April 2, 2007. Archived from the original on September 29, 2006. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
- "Ridership Report Archives". American Public Transportation Association. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
- Maciag, Mike (October 16, 2012). "New Data Shows Where Americans Bike to Work". Governing.com. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
- "Bicycling's Top 50". Bicycling Magazine. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
- "Where to Ride in Minneapolis". City of Minneapolis. 1997–2004. Archived from the original on January 28, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
- "Stone Arch Bridge". Minneapolis Park & Recreation Board. Archived from the original on November 4, 2006. Retrieved March 16, 2007.
- Malone, Robert (April 16, 2007). "Which Are The World's Cleanest Cities?". Forbes. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
- Lopez, Ricardo (July 2, 2010). "New Nice Ride bike-sharing program a hit – too big of one, local rental shops fear". Pioneer Press. MediaNews Group. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- Scott, Gregory J. "Rickshaw renaissance". The Journal. Minnesota Premier Publications. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
- "Nice Ride Minnesota in Minneapolis | PBSC". Retrieved 2016-09-16.
- Nelson, Tim. "Nice Ride MN gets an upgrade". Retrieved 2016-09-16.
- "2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- "Skyways". Meet Minneapolis. Archived from the original on March 6, 2007. Retrieved March 21, 2007. and Gill, N.S. "Skyways: Downtown Minneapolis and Saint Paul Skyways". About.com. About, Inc., The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on March 16, 2007. Retrieved March 15, 2007.
- "History and Mission". Metropolitan Airports Commission. Archived from the original on March 1, 2007. Retrieved June 27, 2007.
- "A History of Minneapolis: Air Transportation". Hennepin County Library. 2001. Archived from the original on April 21, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
- "Pilot Groups". Air Line Pilots Association. Archived from the original on July 9, 2007. Retrieved March 15, 2007.
- "Best Hospitals". U.S.News & World Report. U.S.News & World Report, L.P. Archived from the original on March 13, 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
- "Hospitals, Physicians and Organizations". Hennepin County Library. Archived from the original on June 18, 2007. and "Twin Cities Shriners Hospital". Shriners International. Archived from the original on May 29, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- "Rochester, Minnesota Campus". Mayo Foundation. Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved March 15, 2007.
- Jeffrey, Kirk (2001). Machines in Our Hearts: The Cardiac Pacemaker, the Implantable Defibrillator, and American Health Care. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 59–65. ISBN 978-0-8018-6579-4.
- "Verified Trauma Centers". American College of Surgeons. July 3, 2012.
- "2015 Year in Review" (PDF). Hennepin County Medical Center. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
- "HCMC Governance". Hennepin County Medical Center. Archived from the original on June 21, 2010. Retrieved October 18, 2016 – via Internet Archive.
- "Hospitals see significant drop in need for charity care in 2014" (Press release). Minnesota Department of Health. September 29, 2015. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
- "About the Minneapolis Downtown Improvement District". Minneapolis DID. and "Minneapolis Downtown Improvement District". SMS Holdings. and "Our Cities". SMS Holdings. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- "Utilities". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on February 5, 2007. Retrieved April 7, 2007.
- "Wireless Minneapolis Frequently Asked Questions". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on March 5, 2007. Retrieved April 7, 2007.
- Alexander, Steve & Brandt, Steve (December 5, 2010). "Minneapolis moves ahead with wireless". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on December 9, 2010. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
- "Snow and Ice Control". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on February 15, 2010.
- "International Connections (Sister Cities)". City of Minneapolis. January 31, 2014. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
- Baran, Madeleine (July 31, 2009). "City council approves Najaf, Iraq as Minneapolis' sister city". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- "Minneapolis City Council Approves New Sister City In Somalia". CBS. October 10, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- "2014 Membership Directory". Sister Cities International. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
- Thompson, Derek (February 16, 2015). "The Miracle of Minneapolis". The Atlantic. "No other place mixes affordability, opportunity, and wealth so well. What's its secret?"