European route E39

European route E39 is the designation of a 1,330-kilometre-long (830 mi) north–south road in Norway and Denmark, running from Klett just south of Trondheim to Aalborg, via Bergen, Stavanger and Kristiansand. In total there are nine ferries, the highest number of ferries for a single road in Europe.

E39 shield
E39
Route information
Length1,330 km (830 mi)
Major junctions
North endKlett, Norway
South endAalborg, Denmark
Location
Countries Norway
 Denmark
Highway system
International E-road network

In Trondheim, there are connections to E6 and E14. In Ålesund, to E136, in Bergen to E16, in Haugesund, to E134, in Kristiansand to E18, and in Aalborg to E45.

Norwegian partEdit

 
Route of E39 shown on map of Western/Southern Norway

In Norway, E39 is part of Norwegian national road system, and is as such developed and maintained by the public roads administration.[1] E39 is mostly a two-lane undivided road, only relatively short sections near Stavanger, Trondheim and Bergen are motorways or semi-motorways.

Trøndelag countyEdit

Trondheim
Melhus
Skaun
Orkland
Heim
  •   ferry from Halsa to Kanestraum in Tingvoll (20 minutes, fee)

Møre og Romsdal countyEdit

 
Halsa ferry dock
Tingvoll
Gjemnes
 
Gjemnessund Bridge
Molde
Vestnes
  •   E 136 at Skorgenes, jointly with E39 until Spjelkavika
Ålesund
 
Roundabout in Ålesund
Sula
  •   ferry from Solavågen to Festøya in Ørsta (20 minutes, fee)
Ørsta
Volda

Vestland countyEdit

 
E39 bend at Anda near Sandane Airport
Stad
Gloppen
  •   Ferry from Lote to Anda (10 min, 1–2 departures per hour, fee)
 
Nordfjord and E39 ferry Lote-Anda
Sunnfjord
Høyanger
Gulen
Masfjorden
Alver
 
Hagelsund Bridge
 
Nordhordlandsbrua pontoon bridge at Bergen
Bergen
Bjørnafjorden
  •   Ferry from Halhjem to Sandvikvåg (40 min, 2 departures per hour, fee)
Fitjar
Stord
Sveio

Rogaland countyEdit

Tysvær
Bokn
  •   Ferry from Arsvågen to Mortavika
Stavanger
Randaberg
Stavanger
Sandnes
Gjesdal
Bjerkreim
Eigersund
Lund

Agder CountyEdit

 
Vesterveien in Kristiansand
Flekkefjord
Kvinesdal
  •   Fedafjorden Bridge
  •   Vatlandtunnelen (3184 m)
Lyngdal
  •   Toll Handeland in Lyngdal
Lindesnes
  •   Kirkeheitunnelen (835 m)
Kristiansand

Domestic ferriesEdit

The E39 ferries are operated by Fjord1 except the Volda-Folkestad and Festøya-Solavågen ferry, which are operated by Norled.

 
Fjord1 ferry at Arsvågen dock.

Domestic car ferries on the E39 are regarded as an integral part of national highways. Ferries operate according to a published timetable and standard prices for vehicles and passengers.[1] [2] The E39 includes the following ferry routes from North to South (approximate crossing time in minutes):[2][3]

  • Halsa–Kanestraum 20 min.
  • Molde–Vestnes 35 min.
  • Solavågen–Festøya 20 min.
  • Anda–Lote 10 min.
  • Lavik–Oppedal 20 min.
  • Halhjem–Sandvikvåg 45 min.
  • Arsvågen–Mortavika 25 min.

The Norwegian government plans to replace all the ferries on E39 in Norway with bridges and tunnels.[4] This involves some of the longest proposed bridge spans.

HistoryEdit

In 1786, a royal decision was made to establish a postal route between Bergen and Trondheim. From the establishment of mail in Norway in 1647 until then, all mail between those cities went over to Oslo. To begin with, the route was for large parts usable for walking and horse riding only, but in the following decades it was rebuilt to allow horse carriages. Several parts required boat. The route was BergenÅsaneHordvik–(boat over Salhusfjorden)–IsdalHundvinGulenRutledal–(boat over Sognefjorden)–Leirvik (Hyllestad)–FlekkeDaleBygstadFørdeJølsterGloppen-(boat over Nordfjord)–Faleide (Stryn)–HornindalHellesyltStranda–(boat along Storfjorden)–SjøholtVestnes-(boat over Romsdalsfjorden)–MoldeAngvik–(boat over Tingvollfjorden)–Tingvoll–(boat over Halsafjord)–StangvikSkeiRindalOrkangerTrondheim. The 1786 decision also included a mail route between Stavanger and Bergen. In 1858, mail was rerouted to newly established steam ships Bergen–Vadheim, and the mail route changed to VadheimSandeFørde, in parts precisely along today's route.[5]

Since 1990, a number of long bridges and tunnels have replaced four of the ferries. The bridges and tunnels are:

Other large road projects include:

The route Trondheim–Ålesund–Bergen–Stavanger–Kristiansand was named E39 in 2000. Kristiansund–Stavanger was earlier riksveg 1 (national highway 1, "coastal through-road") from 1992 and riksveg 14 before 1992. Stavanger–Kristiansand was part of E18, and Trondheim – Kristiansund was riksveg 65 and riksveg 71.

FutureEdit

  • A 15-kilometre-long (9.3 mi) motorway south of Bergen is under construction and expected to be finished in 2022.
  • The world's deepest and longest underwater road tunnel, the 27-kilometre-long (17 mi) and 392-metre-deep (1,286 ft) Rogfast, was started (first blasting) in 2018 and is expected to be opened in 2028–29.
  • The entire route from Stavanger to Kristiansand is planned to be rebuilt into 4 lane motorway before 2030, in total 144 kilometres (89 mi) remaining (as of 2021) to be built.
  • There are plans to replace every ferry link with a fixed connection. There are seven, but each presents a costly technical challenge as the fjords are wide and very deep, so the plans are controversial and uncertain (except Rogfast).[6]
    Apart from Rogfast, two projects have a time plan, although delayed:
    • Hordfast (south of Bergen) is prioritised because having the highest number of ferry ships, five in operation, and second-most amount of vehicle traffic after Rogfast. It is prioritised despite being probably the most technically challenging of all these crossings. A five kilometre long floating bridge over Bjørnafjorden is planned, new world record, in a stormy area, with clearing for ship traffic below. And a suspension bridge over Langenuen with 1,700-metre-long (5,600 ft) span, one of the longest in the world. Construction start is planned for around 2030. The total cost for Hordfast is estimated to 37 billion NOK ($US 4.2 billion) in part paid by road tolls of around 400 NOK.
    • A crossing of Romsdalsfjorden (Ålesund–Molde), having a 16-kilometre-long (9.9 mi) undersea tunnel and a 2000 meter long suspension bridge with 1,650 meters (5,410 ft) long span. Construction start is planned for around 2030.
  • The remaining four fjord crossings are more unsure, but are being investigated.

Norway–Denmark ferryEdit

International car ferry operated by Color Line:[7] and Fjord Line (Seasonal).[8]

Kristiansand – Hirtshals 3 hours 15 minutes

Danish partEdit

 
E39 in Denmark, exit 3

From Norway E39 goes with ferry from Kristiansand to Hirtshals in north Denmark. Ferries are run by Colorline and Fjordline. In Denmark E39 is a motorway from the south of Hirtshals to the north of Aalborg. The exits are:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ National Public Roads Administration of Norway, website
  2. ^ "Fjord1 website". Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2009.
  3. ^ Can Norway win the global race to build a 'floating tunnel'? CNN 29 January 2019
  4. ^ 3D-animation the Sognefjord
  5. ^ Historiske kart 22D 12; 23C 9; 28B 4; 28B 8; 29A 1; 29A 5: Hordaland / Sogn og Fjordane
  6. ^ "The E39 Coastal Highway Route". Statens vegvesen. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  7. ^ Color Line
  8. ^ Fjord Line

External linksEdit