Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hindi and Urdu pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-hns}}, {{IPA-hi}}, {{IPA-ur}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Hindustani phonology, Devanagari, and Urdu alphabet for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Hindi-Urdu.

Consonants
IPA Examples English Approximation
Hindi Urdu ISO 15919
b बीस بیس bīs butter
भालू بھالو bhālū abhor
d दाल دال dāl duck[1]
धूप دھوپ dhūp wide hearted
जान جان jān jug
dʒʱ झड़ना جھڑنا jhaṛnā hedgehog
ɖ डालना ڈالنا ālnā garden[1]

(Rhotic dialects)

ɖʱ ढक्कन ڈھکّن ḍhakkan hard headed

(Rhotic dialects)

f ख़िलाफ़ خلاف k͟hilāf fuss
ɡ गोल گول gōl gut
ɡʱ घर گھر ghar big headed
ɣ[2] बाग़ باغ ġ similar to a French r
ɦ हम ہم ham ahead
j याद یاد yād yuck
k कमज़ोर کمزور kamzōr scab
खाल کھال khāl cab
l लब لب lab leaf
m मगर مگر magar much
n नहीं نہیں nahī̃ not
ɳ[3] चरण چرݨ cara burn
ŋ रङ्ग رن٘گ rag bang
p पल پل pal spot
फल پھل phal pot
q[2] क़रीब قریب qarīb somewhat like caught
r रस رس ras Trilled R[4]
ज़र्रा ذرّہ zarra
ɾ ज़रा ذرا zarā American butter[4]
ɽ लड़ना لڑنا la garter (Rhotic dialects)
ɽʱ पढ़ाई پڑھائی paṛhāī no English equivalent
s सब سب sab sun
ʂ[3] नष्ट نشؕٹ na shrew
ʃ काश کاش ś shoe
t तालाब تالاب tālāb stub[1]
थैला تھیلا thailā tub[1]
चोर چور cōr catch
tʃʰ छोड़ना چھوڑنا chōṛnā choose
ʈ टमाटर ٹماٹر amāar carts[1]
ʈʰ ठंड ٹھنڈ ṭhanḍ trip[1]
ʋ वर्ज़िश ورزش varziś vat[5]
w पकवान پكوان pakvān well[5]
x[2] ख़राब خراب k͟harāb Scottish Loch
z काग़ज़ کاغذ kāġaz zoo
ʒ अझ़दहा اژدہا aždahā pleasure
Vowels
IPA Examples English Approximation
Hindi Urdu ISO 15919
काम کام kām father
जेब جیب jēb say
ɛ रहना رہنا rêhnā pen[6]
ɛː कैसा کیسا kai fairy
ə कल کَل kal about
ɪ जितना جِتنا jitnā sit
जीतना جیتنا jītnā seat
बोलो بولو bōlō border
ɔː कौन کَون kaun horse
ʊ उन اُن un book
ऊन اُون ūn moon
◌̃ हँस ہن٘س has nasal vowel faun
([ãː, õː], etc.)
मैं مَیں mai
Suprasegmentals
IPA Example Notes
ˈ◌ [ˈbaːɦər] stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
◌ː [ˈʊtːəɾ pɾəˈdeːʃ] doubled consonant
(placed after doubled consonant)

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Hindi and Urdu contrast dental [t] and [d] with apical postalveolar [ʈ] and [ɖ] (as well as aspirated variants). Both sets sound like /t/ and /d/ to most English speakers.
  2. ^ a b c Mainly phonemes of Urdu. Some Hindi speakers may replace [ɣ], [q] and [x] with [gʱ], [k] and [kʰ] respectively.
  3. ^ a b Mainly phonemes of Hindi. Urdu speakers usually replace [ɳ] and [ʂ] with [n] and [ʃ] respectively.
  4. ^ a b /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r] in word-initial and syllable-final positions. Geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill.
  5. ^ a b Janet Pierrehumbert, Rami Nair (1996), Implications of Hindi Prosodic Structure (Current Trends in Phonology: Models and Methods), European Studies Research Institute, University of Salford Press, 1996, ISBN 978-1-901471-02-1, ... showed extremely regular patterns. As is not uncommon in a study of subphonemic detail, the objective data patterned much more cleanly than intuitive judgments ... [w] occurs when / و/ is in onglide position ... [v] occurs otherwise ...
  6. ^ [ɛ] also occurs as an allophone of /ə/ near an /ɦ/ that is surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa becomes silent, which results in an [ɛ] preceding an /ɦ/.