Asia ( (listen)) is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres (17,212,000 sq mi), about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but also dense and large settlements, as well as vast barely populated regions. Its 4.5 billion people () constitute roughly 60% of the world's population.
In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, and on the north by the Arctic Ocean. The border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural, linguistic, and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The most commonly accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa; and to the east of the Turkish Straits, the Ural Mountains and Ural River, and to the south of the Caucasus Mountains and the Caspian and Black Seas, separating it from Europe.
China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, and for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attracting European commerce, exploration and colonialism. The accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a route to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism (particularly East Asia) as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Jainism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Christianity, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.
was a Chinese astronomer, mathematician, inventor, geographer, cartographer
, artist, poet, statesman, and literary scholar from Nanyang
. He lived during the Eastern Han Dynasty
(25–220 CE) of China
. He was educated in the capital cities of Luoyang
, and began his career as a minor civil servant in Nanyang. Eventually, he became Chief Astronomer, Prefect of the Majors for Official Carriages, and then Palace Attendant at the imperial court. His uncompromising stances on certain historical and calendrical issues led to Zhang being considered a controversial figure, which prevented him from becoming an official court historian. His political rivalry with the palace eunuchs
during the reign of Emperor Shun
(r. 125–144) led to his decision to retire from the central court to serve as an administrator of Hejian, in Hebei
. He returned home to Nanyang for a short time, before being recalled to serve in the capital once more in 138. He died there a year later, in 139.Zhang applied his extensive knowledge of mechanics and gears in several of his inventions. He invented the world's first water-powered armillary sphere
, to represent astronomical observation; improved the inflow water clock
by adding another tank; and invented the world's first seismometer
, which discerned the cardinal direction
of an earthquake
500 km (310 mi) away. Furthermore, he improved previous Chinese calculations of the formula for pi
. In addition to documenting about 2,500 stars in his extensive star catalogue
, Zhang also posited theories about the Moon
and its relationship to the Sun
; specifically, he discussed the Moon's sphericity, its illumination by reflecting sunlight on one side and remaining dark on the other, and the nature of solar
and lunar eclipses
. His fu
(rhapsody) and shi
poetry were renowned and commented on by later Chinese writers. Zhang received many posthumous honors for his scholarship and ingenuity, and is considered a polymath
by some scholars. Some modern scholars have also compared his work in astronomy to that of Ptolemy
The Xá Lợi Pagoda raids
were a series of synchronized attacks on various Buddhist pagodas
in the major cities of South Vietnam
shortly after midnight on 21 August 1963. The raids were executed by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces
under Colonel Lê Quang Tung
, and combat police, both of which took their orders directly from Ngô Đình Nhu
, younger brother of the Roman Catholic
President Ngô Đình Diệm
. Xá Lợi
, the largest in the South Vietnamese capital, Saigon
, was the most prominent of the raided temples. Over 1,400 Buddhists were arrested, and estimates of the death toll and missing
ranged up to the hundreds. In response to the Huế Phật Đản shootings
and a ban on the Buddhist flag
in early May, South Vietnam's Buddhist majority rose in widespread civil disobedience and protest against the religious bias and discrimination of the Catholic-dominated Diệm government. Buddhist temples in major cities, most prominently the Xá Lợi pagoda, became focal points for protesters and assembly points for Buddhist monks
from rural areas.In August, several Army of the Republic of Vietnam
(ARVN) generals proposed the imposition of martial law, ostensibly to break up the demonstrations, but in reality to prepare for a military coup. However, Nhu, already looking to arrest Buddhist leaders and crush the protest movement, used the opportunity to preempt the generals and embarrass them. He disguised Tung's Special Forces in army uniforms and used them to attack the Buddhists, thereby causing the general public and South Vietnam's U.S. allies to blame the army, diminishing the generals' reputations and ability to act as future national leaders.
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