Prime Minister of Indonesia
The position of Prime Minister of Indonesia (Indonesian: Perdana Menteri Republik Indonesia) existed from 1945 until 1967. During this period, the prime minister was in charge of the Cabinet of Indonesia, one of the three branches of government along with the People's Representative Council and the President. Following his 1959 decree, President Sukarno assumed the role and powers of prime minister until his resignation in 1966.
|Prime Minister of Indonesia|
|Formation||14 November 1945|
|First holder||Sutan Sjahrir|
|Final holder||Raden Djuanda Kartawidjaja (official)|
|Abolished||9 July 1959 (Constitutional basis revoked)|
25 July 1966 (Resignation of Sukarno)
Indonesian National RevolutionEdit
On 18 August 1945, a day after the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, Sukarno was appointed president and the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia came into force, which stated that Indonesia was built around a presidential system; as such, there were no constitutional provisions for a prime minister, and the cabinet was directly responsible to the president. However following Vice-Presidential Edict No.X, on 11 November the cabinet was made responsible to the provisional legislature, the Central Indonesian National Committee (Indonesian: Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat (KNIP)), effectively suspending the constitution. The cabinet was dismissed, and Sutan Sjahrir was asked to become the first prime minister. He agreed to do so on the condition he was allowed to select his own cabinet. The new cabinet was announced on 14 November with the understanding that although the prime minister was responsible to the Working Committee of the KNIP, he had to consult the president before making any major decisions. If the prime minister came into conflict with the KNIP or the president, another could be chosen.
Internal political disputes prompted Sjahrir to resign on 28 March, but he was asked to form the next cabinet. This fell in October, but yet again, Sjahrir agreed to continue as prime minister in the new cabinet. He finally resigned on 27 June, after being fatally weakened by concessions he had made to the Dutch following the signing of the Linggadjati Agreement. He was replaced by Amir Sjarifuddin, and Sjahrir became Indonesian representative at the United Nations. Sjariffuddin in turn resigned in turn following withdrawal of political support in the aftermath of the Renville Agreement. Sukarno then appointed vice-president Mohammad Hatta, asking him to form an emergency cabinet answerable to him rather than to the KNIP.
United States of IndonesiaEdit
On 27 December 1949, the Netherlands transferred sovereignty to a federal United States of Indonesia (RUSI), of which the Republic of Indonesia was one state. The Federal Constitution provided for a prime minister, and Hatta became the only prime minister of the RUSI. As this caused a vacuum of power in the Republican administration, Susanto Tirtoprodjo, justice minister in the previous cabinet, was appointed acting prime minister at the head of a transitional cabinet. On 22 January 1950, the new prime minister minister, announced his cabinet. The terms of both Hatta and Halim ended when the RUSI was dissolved and Indonesia became a unitary state on 17 August 1950 .
Liberal and Guided Democracy erasEdit
Under the constitution of the unitary state, the cabinet was once again responsible to parliament, with the prime minister appointed by the president. Due to the instability of the coalition cabinets, prime ministers often faced votes of no confidence. Every major policy change had a chance to be opposed, either by the government or opposition. As such, some cabinets lasted only a few months.
On 5 July 1959, Sukarno issued a Presidential Decree declaring that, due to the inability of the Constitutional Assembly of Indonesia to decide on a new constitution, the 1945 Constitution would be reinstated. This removed the constitutional foundation for the office of Prime Minister. However, on 9 July of that same year, Sukarno took on the title of prime minister in addition to the presidency; later using the phrase "I am president and prime minister" as a dominant message in his speeches. After the abortive coup against the government in 1965 and the release of a document transferring all political power to Suharto, in 1967 Sukarno lost the title of prime minister together with the presidency.
List of Prime Ministers of IndonesiaEdit
|Term of Office||Political Party|
|Indonesian National Revolution (1945-1949)|
|14 November 1945||27 June 1947||Socialist Party|
|3 July 1947||29 January 1948||Socialist Party|
|29 January 1948||6 September 1950||Non-partisan|
|United States of Indonesia (1949-1950)|
(Prime Minister of the United States of Indonesia)
|29 January 1948||6 September 1950)
(Prime Minister of the Republic of Indonesia)
|29 January 1948||21 January 1950||Indonesian National Party|
(Prime Minister of the Republic of Indonesia)
|21 January 1950||15 August 1950||Non-partisan|
|Unitary Republic (from 1950)|
|6 September 1950||27 April 1951||Masyumi Party|
|27 April 1951||3 April 1952||Masyumi Party|
|3 April 1952||1 August 1953||Indonesian National Party|
|1 August 1953||12 August 1955||Indonesian National Party|
|12 August 1955||26 March 1956||Masyumi Party|
|26 March 1956||9 April 1957||Indonesian National Party|
|9 April 1957||9 July 1959||Non-partisan|
|9 July 1959||12 March 1967||Non-partisan|
- Abdullah 2009, pp. 129-130.
- Kahin 1952, pp. 168-169.
- Pringgodigdo 1957, pp. 8-9.
- Ricklefs 2009, pp. 342-345.
- Kahin 1952, pp. 176, 192.
- Kahin 1952, pp. 206-208.
- Ricklefs 2009, p. 362.
- Kahin 1952, pp. 231.
- Ricklefs 2009, p. 364.
- Ricklefs 2009, pp. 372-373.
- Simanjuntak 2003, p. 102-107.
- Kahin 1952, p. 463.
- Pringgodigdo 1957, p. 233.
- Abudllah 2009, p. 245.
- Ricklefs 2008, p. 417.
- Abdullah 2009, p. 347.
- Ricklefs 2001, pp. 453,460.
- Cribb & Kahin 2004, p. 419.
- Cribb & Kahin 2004, pp. 479-480.
- Dutch prisoner from 19 December 1948 to 13 July 1949
- President, self-appointed as Prime Minister
- Abdullah, Taufik (2009). Indonesia: Towards Democracy. Singapore: Institute of South-East Asian Studies. ISBN 981-230-365-0. OCLC 646982290. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- Kahin, George McTurnan (1952). Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9108-8.
- Cribb, Robert; Kahin, Audrey (2004). Historical Dictionary of Indonesia. Scarecrow Press Inc. ISBN 978-0-8108-4935-8.
- Pringgodigdo, Abdul Karim (1957). The office of President in Indonesia as defined in the three constitutions, in theory and practice. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University.
- Ricklefs, M.C. (2008) . A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300 (4th ed.). London: MacMillan. ISBN 978-0-230-54685-1.
- Simanjuntak, P. N. H. (2003), Kabinet-Kabinet Republik Indonesia: Dari Awal Kemerdekaan Sampai Reformasi [Cabinets of the Republic of Indonesia: From the Beginning of Independence to the Reform Era] (in Indonesian ), Jakarta: Djambatan, ISBN 979-428-499-8CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
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