List of sovereign states in the 1970s

This is a list of sovereign states in the 1970s, giving an overview of states around the world during the period between 1 January 1970 and 31 December 1979. It contains 191 entries, arranged alphabetically, with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty. It includes 166 widely-recognized sovereign states (including 4 associated states that gained full independence, 4 states which were initially unrecognized but then gained full recognition later in the decade, and 1 state which was initially widely-recognized but then lost full recognition later in the decade), 2 constituent republics of another sovereign state that were UN members on their own right, 12 entities which claim an effective sovereignty but are considered de facto dependencies of other powers by the general international community, 4 associated states, and 7 transitional states.

Sovereign statesEdit

Name and capital city Information on status and recognition of sovereignty

AEdit


  Abu Dhabi – Emirate of Abu Dhabi (from 1 December 1971 to 2 December 1971)[a]
Capital: Abu Dhabi
Transitional independent state.

      Afghanistan
Capital: Kabul
Widely-recognized UN member state; Afghanistan was occupied by the Soviet Union from 27 December 1979.

  Ajman – State of Ajman (from 1 December 1971 to 2 December 1971)[a]
Capital: Ajman
Transitional independent state.

  Albania
Capital: Tirana
  • People's Republic of Albania (to 28 December 1976)[d]
  • People's Socialist Republic of Albania (from 28 December 1976)[d]
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
Capital: Algiers
Widely-recognized UN member state.

   Andorra – Principality of Andorra
Capital: Andorra la Vella
Widely-recognized independent state; the President of France and Bishop of Urgell were ex officio Co-Princes of Andorra. The defense of Andorra was the responsibility of foreign states, in this case France and Spain.

  Angola – People's Republic of Angola (from 11 November 1975)[e]
Capital: Luanda
Widely-recognized independent state; UN member state from 1 December 1976.

  Antigua
Capital: St. John's
Associated state of the United Kingdom. Antigua had two dependencies, Barbuda (from 23 December 1976) and Redonda.

  Argentina – Argentine Republic[f]
Capital: Buenos Aires
Widely-recognized UN member state. Argentina was a federation of 22 provinces and two federal territories.[6] It had a claim over Argentine Antarctica, which was suspended under the Antarctic Treaty. It also claimed the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, both of which were British overseas territories.

  Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
Capital: Canberra
Widely-recognized UN member state; Commonwealth realm. Australia was a federation of six states and three territories.[7] It had sovereignty over the following external territories:

Australia administered one United Nations Trust Territory:


  Austria – Republic of Austria
Capital: Vienna
Widely-recognized UN member state. Austria was a federation of nine states.[8]

BEdit


  The Bahamas – Commonwealth of the Bahamas (from 10 July 1973)[g]
Capital: Nassau
Widely-recognized independent state; UN member state from 18 September 1973. Commonwealth realm.

   Bahrain – State of Bahrain (from 15 August 1971)[h]
Capital: Manama
Widely-recognized independent state; UN member state from 21 September 1971.

   Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh (from 26 March 1971)[i]
Capital: Dhaka
De facto independent state. Claimed by Pakistan (to 22 February 1974). Permanent observer at the UN (from 1973 to 17 September 1974). Widely-recognized state (from 1973).

  Barbados
Capital: Bridgetown
Widely-recognized UN member state; Commonwealth realm.

  Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium
Capital: Brussels
Widely-recognized UN member state; EEC member.

Benin   Dahomey

  Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan
Capital: Thimphu
Widely-recognized independent state. Permanent observer at the UN (to 21 September 1971). UN member state (from 21 September 1971). Bhutan was officially guided by India in its foreign affairs, but effectively pursued an independent foreign policy starting in the 1970s.

  Biafra – Republic of Biafra (to 12 January 1970)[j]
Capital: Enugu
Partially recognized de facto independent state;[k] claimed by Nigeria.

  Bolivia – Republic of Bolivia
Capital: Sucre (official), La Paz (administrative)
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Bophuthatswana – Republic of Bophuthatswana (from 6 December 1977)[l]
Capital: Mmabatho
Nominally independent South African bantustan.[m]

  Botswana – Republic of Botswana
Capital: Gaborone
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil
Capital: Brasília
Widely-recognized UN member state. Brazil was a federation of 22 states, four territories, and one federal district.[n]

   Bulgaria – People's Republic of Bulgaria
Capital: Sofia
Widely-recognized UN member state.

   Burma
Capital: Rangoon
  • Union of Burma (to 3 January 1974)[o]
  • Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma (from 3 January 1974)[o]
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Burundi – Republic of Burundi
Capital: Bujumbura
Widely-recognized UN member state.

CEdit


  Cabinda – Republic of Cabinda (from 1 August 1975 to 11 November 1975)[p]
Capital: Cabinda
De facto independent state. Claimed by Portugal (to 11 November 1975) and Angola (on 11 November 1975).

     Cambodia / Khmer Republic / Kampuchea, Democratic
Capital: Phnom Penh
  • Kingdom of Cambodia (to 9 October 1970)
  • Khmer Republic (from 9 October 1970 to 17 April 1975)
  • Kampuchea (Kingdom of Cambodia) (from 17 April 1975 to 5 January 1976)
  • Democratic Kampuchea (from 5 January 1976 to 10 January 1979)[q]
Widely-recognized UN member state.[r] Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Kampuchea, despite being in exile from 10 January 1979.

   Cameroon
Capital: Yaoundé
  • Federal Republic of Cameroon (to 2 June 1972)[s]
  • United Republic of Cameroon (from 2 June 1972)[s]
Widely-recognized UN member state. Until 2 June 1972, Cameroon was a federation of two regions.[17]

  Canada – Dominion of Canada
Capital: Ottawa
Widely-recognized UN member state; Commonwealth realm. Canada was a federation of ten provinces and two territories.[18]

  Cape Verde – Republic of Cape Verde (from 5 July 1975)[t]
Capital: Praia
Widely-recognized independent state. UN member state (from 16 September 1975).

  Central African Republic / Central African Empire
Capital: Bangui
  • Central African Republic (to 4 December 1976)[u]
  • Central African Empire (from 4 December 1976 to 20 September 1979)[u][v]
  • Central African Republic (from 20 September 1979)[v]
Widely-recognized UN member state.

   Ceylon / Sri Lanka
Capital: Colombo (to 1978), Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte (from 1978)
  • Dominion of Ceylon (to 22 May 1972)[w]
  • Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka (from 22 May 1972 to 7 September 1978)[w][x]
  • Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (from 7 September 1978)[x]
Widely-recognized UN member state; Commonwealth realm (to 22 May 1972).

  Chad – Republic of Chad
Capital: N'Djamena
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Chile – Republic of Chile
Capital: Santiago
Widely-recognized UN member state. It had a claim over Chilean Antarctic Territory, which is suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

  China, People's Republic of
Capital: Beijing
Partially recognized de facto independent state (to 25 October 1971). Widely-recognized UN member state (from 25 October 1971).[y] The People's Republic of China had five autonomous regions: Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet. The People's Republic of China claimed Taiwan, Kinmen, the Matsu Islands, Pratas Island and the Vereker Banks, and Itu Aba, all of which were governed by the Republic of China. It also claimed the Paracel Islands (disputed by the Republic of China and Vietnam), the Spratly Islands (disputed by the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines and Malaysia), and South Tibet (controlled by India). The People's Republic of China administered Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract, which were within the disputed region of Kashmir.

  China, Republic of
Capital: Taipei (seat of government), Nanjing (claimed)
Widely-recognized UN member state to 25 October 1971 under the name "China". Partially recognized de facto independent state from 25 October 1971.[y] Taiwan claimed to be the sole legitimate government of China, but only administered Taiwan, Kinmen, the Matsu Islands, Pratas Island and Itu Aba. The Republic of China had territorial claims over Mongolia; the Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic; the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River (administered by the Soviet Union); The majority of Gorno-Badakhshan (administered by the Soviet Union); The eastern tip of the Wakhan Corridor (administered by Afghanistan); a small portion of Gilgit-Baltistan (administered by Pakistan and part of the disputed Kashmir region); Aksai Chin (administered by the People's Republic of China and part of the disputed Kashmir region); eastern Bhutan; South Tibet (controlled by India); and Kachin State (administered by Burma).

  Colombia – Republic of Colombia
Capital: Bogotá
Widely-recognized UN member state. Colombia claimed Quita Sueño Bank, Roncador Bank, and Serrana Bank (disputed by the United States); Bajo Nuevo Bank (disputed by Jamaica, Nicaragua and the United States); and Serranilla Bank (disputed by Nicaragua and the United States).

    Comoros
Capital: Moroni
  • State of the Comoros (from 6 July 1975 to 1 October 1978)[z][aa]
  • Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros (from 1 October 1978)[aa]
De facto independent state. Claimed by France to 31 December 1975. Widely-recognized UN member state from 12 November 1975. After 24 May 1978, the Comoros was a federation of three islands.
3 Islands: Anjouan, Grande Comore, Mohéli.</ref> Comoros claimed sovereignty over the French overseas territories of Mayotte and the Glorioso Islands. It also claimed Banc du Geyser (disputed by Madagascar and France).

   Congo, Democratic Republic of the / Zaire
Capital: Kinshasa
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (to 27 October 1971)[ab]
  • Republic of Zaire (from 27 October 1971)[ab]
Widely-recognized UN member state.

   Congo, Republic of the / Congo
Capital: Brazzaville
  • Republic of the Congo (to 3 January 1970)[ac]
  • People's Republic of the Congo (from 3 January 1970)[ac]
Widely-recognized UN member state.

    Cook Islands
Capital: Avarua
A state in free association with New Zealand; it shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.

  Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica
Capital: San José
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Cuba – Republic of Cuba
Capital: Havana
Widely-recognized UN member state; the Cuban area of Guantánamo Bay was under the control of the United States.

  Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus
Capital: Nicosia
Widely-recognized UN member state.[ad] Cyprus included one self-declared state which, although it did not claim independence, was de facto self-governing:

  Czechoslovakia – Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Capital: Prague
Widely-recognized UN member state.[ae] Czechoslovakia was a federation of two republics.[27]

DEdit


   Dahomey / Benin
Capital: Porto-Novo (official), Cotonou (seat of government)
  • Republic of Dahomey (to 30 November 1975)[af]
  • People's Republic of Benin (from 30 November 1975)[af]
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark
Capital: Copenhagen
Widely-recognized UN member state; EEC member from 1 January 1973. The Danish Realm also included two of its constituent countries:

  Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti (from 27 June 1977)[ag]
Capital: Djibouti
Widely-recognized independent state; UN member state from 20 September 1977.

   Dominica
Capital: Roseau
  • Dominica (to 2 November 1978)
  • Commonwealth of Dominica (from 3 November 1978)[ah]
Associated state of the United Kingdom (to 2 November 1978).

Widely-recognized independent state from 3 November 1978; UN member state from 18 December 1978.


  Dominican Republic
Capital: Santo Domingo
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Dubai – State of Dubai (from 1 December 1971 to 2 December 1971)[a]
Capital: Dubai
Transitional independent state.

EEdit


  East Timor – Democratic Republic of East Timor (from 28 November 1975 to 7 December 1975)[ai]
Capital: Dili
De facto independent state from 28 November 1975 to 7 December 1975; claimed by Portugal and Indonesia from 29 November 1975.

  Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador
Capital: Quito
Widely-recognized UN member state.

Egypt   United Arab Republic

  El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador
Capital: San Salvador
Widely-recognized UN member state.

    Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea
Capital: Malabo
Widely-recognized UN member state.

   Ethiopia
Capital: Addis Ababa
  • Ethiopian Empire (to 12 September 1974) [aj]
  • Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia (Derg) (from 12 September 1974)[aj]
Widely-recognized UN member state.

FEdit


  Fiji – Dominion of Fiji (from 10 October 1970)[ak]
Capital: Suva
Widely-recognized independent state; UN member state from 13 October 1970. Commonwealth realm. Fiji had an autonomous dependency, Rotuma.

  Finland – Republic of Finland
Capital: Helsinki
Widely-recognized UN member state. Finland had a neutral and demilitarized region:

   France – French Republic
Capital: Paris
Widely-recognized UN member state; EEC member. France included five overseas departments: French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Réunion, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon (from 19 July 1976). It also had sovereignty over the following overseas territories:

It also co-administered one condominium:

France also claimed Banc du Geyser (disputed by Madagascar and the Comoros).


  Fujairah – State of Fujairah (from 1 December 1971 to 2 December 1971)[a]
Capital: Fujairah
Transitional independent state.

GEdit


  Gabon – Gabonese Republic
Capital: Libreville
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  The Gambia
Capital: Banjul
Widely-recognized UN member state; Commonwealth realm (to 24 April 1970).

  Germany, East – German Democratic Republic
Capital: East Berlin (disputed)
Widely-recognized independent state. Permanent observer at the UN (from 1972 to 18 September 1973). UN member state (from 18 September 1973).

  Germany, West – Federal Republic of Germany
Capital: Bonn
Widely-recognized independent state; Permanent observer at the UN to 18 September 1973. UN member state from 18 September 1973; EEC member. West Germany was a federation of ten states.[35]

  Ghana – Republic of Ghana
Capital: Accra
Widely-recognized UN member state.

     Greece
Capital: Athens
Widely-recognized UN member state. Greece had sovereignty over Mount Athos, an autonomous monastic state that was jointly governed by the multi-national "Holy Community" on the mountain and the Civil Governor appointed by the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and spiritually came under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

   Grenada[ao]
Capital: St. George's
Associated state of the United Kingdom (to 6 February 1974).

Widely-recognized independent state from 7 February 1974; UN member state from 17 September 1974. Commonwealth realm. Grenada had one autonomous dependency, Carriacou and Petite Martinique.


  Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala
Capital: Guatemala City
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Guinea – Republic of Guinea
Capital: Conakry
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau (from 24 September 1973)[aq]
Capital: Madina do Boe (to 10 September 1974), Bissau (from 10 September 1974)
De facto independent state; claimed by Portugal to 10 September 1974. Widely-recognized from 10 September 1974; UN member state from 17 September 1974.

  Guyana
Capital: Georgetown
  • Guyana (to 23 February 1970)[ar]
  • Co-operative Republic of Guyana (from 23 February 1970)[ar]
Widely-recognized UN member state.

HEdit


  Haiti – Republic of Haiti
Capital: Port-au-Prince
Widely-recognized UN member state; Haiti claimed the uninhabited United States possession of Navassa Island.

Holy See   Vatican City

  Honduras – Republic of Honduras
Capital: Tegucigalpa
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Hungary – People's Republic of Hungary
Capital: Budapest
Widely-recognized UN member state.

IEdit


  Iceland – Republic of Iceland
Capital: Reykjavík
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  India – Republic of India
Capital: New Delhi
Widely-recognized UN member state. India was a federation of 22 states and 11 union territories.[40] India had sovereignty over one protectorate:

Indian sovereignty over South Tibet, administered as part of North-East Frontier Agency and then Arunachal Pradesh from 1972 was disputed by the People's Republic of China. India administered part of the disputed region of Kashmir as the state of Jammu and Kashmir.


  Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia
Capital: Djakarta (renamed Jakarta in 1972)
Widely-recognized UN member state. Indonesia's sovereignty over Timor Timur from 17 July 1976 was disputed and not widely recognized.

  Iran
Capital: Tehran
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Iraq – Iraqi Republic
Capital: Baghdad
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Ireland[at]
Capital: Dublin
Widely-recognized UN member state; EEC member from 1 January 1973.

  Israel – State of Israel
Capital: Jerusalem
Widely-recognized UN member state.[au] Israel occupied the Gaza Strip the Golan Heights, the Sinai Peninsula, and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. These areas were not recognized as being part of Israel.

  Italy – Italian Republic
Capital: Rome
Widely-recognized UN member state; EEC member. Italy had 5 autonomous regions: Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily, and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.

  Ivory Coast – Republic of Ivory Coast
Capital: Abidjan
Widely-recognized UN member state.

JEdit


  Jamaica
Capital: Kingston
Widely-recognized UN member state; Commonwealth realm.

  Japan
Capital: Tokyo
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Capital: Amman
Widely-recognized UN member state. Jordan claimed the Israeli-occupied territories of West Bank, including East Jerusalem.

KEdit


Kampuchea, Democratic   Cambodia

  Kampuchea, People's Republic of (from 10 January 1979)[av]
Capital: Phnom Penh
Partially recognized de facto independent state.[r] Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Kampuchea; the People's Republic of Kampuchea was occupied by Vietnam from December 1978.

  Kenya – Republic of Kenya
Capital: Nairobi
Widely-recognized UN member state.

Khmer Republic   Cambodia

  Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati (from 12 July 1979)[aw]
Capital: South Tarawa
Widely-recognized independent state.

  Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Capital: Seoul (de jure to 1972), Pyongyang (de facto to 1972, de jure from 1972)
Widely-recognized independent state.[ax] Permanent observer at the UN from 1973; claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.

  Korea, South – Republic of Korea
Capital: Seoul
Widely-recognized independent state.[ay] Permanent observer at the UN; claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.

  Kuwait – State of Kuwait
Capital: Kuwait City
Widely-recognized UN member state.

LEdit


   Laos
Capital: Vientiane
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Lebanon – Lebanese Republic
Capital: Beirut
Widely-recognized UN member state; Lebanon was occupied by Syria from 2 November 1975.

  Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
Capital: Maseru
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Liberia – Republic of Liberia
Capital: Monrovia
Widely-recognized UN member state.

    Libya
Capital: Tripoli
Widely-recognized UN member state; Federation of Arab Republics member from 17 April 1971 to November 1977.

  Liechtenstein
Capital: Vaduz
Widely-recognized independent state.[ae] The defense of Liechtenstein was the responsibility of Switzerland.

  Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Capital: Luxembourg
Widely-recognized UN member state; EEC member.

MEdit


  Malagasy Republic / Madagascar
Capital: Antananarivo
  • Malagasy Republic (to 30 December 1975)[bb]
  • Democratic Republic of Madagascar (from 30 December 1975)[bb]
Widely-recognized UN member state. Madagascar claimed the French possessions of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands and Juan de Nova Island. It also claimed Banc du Geyser, which was disputed by Comoros and France.

  Malawi – Republic of Malawi
Capital: Lilongwe
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Malaysia
Capital: Kuala Lumpur
Widely-recognized UN member state. Malaysia was a federation of thirteen states and one federal territory.[47]

  Maldives – Republic of Maldives
Capital: Malé
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Mali – Republic of Mali
Capital: Bamako
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Malta
Capital: Valletta
Widely-recognized UN member state; Commonwealth realm (to 13 December 1974).

  Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Capital: Nouakchott
Widely-recognized UN member state. From 26 February 1976 to 11 August 1979, Mauritania claimed sovereignty over and controlled a portion of the disputed Western Sahara. The territory was home to the de facto independent Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic from 27 February 1976.

  Mauritius
Capital: Port Louis
Widely-recognized UN member state; Commonwealth realm. Mauritius had three dependencies: Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos and Rodrigues. It claimed the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French territory of Tromelin Island.

  Mexico – United Mexican States
Capital: Mexico City
Widely-recognized UN member state. Mexico was a federation of 31 states, two territories, and one federal district.[49]

  Monaco – Principality of Monaco
Capital: Monaco
Widely-recognized independent state. Permanent observer at the UN. The defense of Monaco was the responsibility of France.

  Mongolia – Mongolian People's Republic
Capital: Ulaanbaatar
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco
Capital: Rabat
Widely-recognized UN member state. After 26 February 1976, Morocco claimed sovereignty over and controlled most of the disputed Western Sahara. The territory was home to the de facto independent Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic from 27 February 1976. Morocco disputed the Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla, and Peñón de Alhucemas.

  Mozambique – People's Republic of Mozambique (from 25 June 1975)[bd]
Capital: Maputo
Widely-recognized independent state; UN member state from 16 September 1975.

   Muscat and Oman / Oman
Capital: Muscat, Oman
  • Sultanate of Muscat and Oman (to 9 August 1970)
  • Sultanate of Oman (from 9 August 1970)
Widely-recognized independent state. UN member state (from 7 October 1971). Under the informal protection of the United Kingdom until 1971.

NEdit


  Nauru – Republic of Nauru
Capital: Yaren (unofficial)
Widely-recognized independent state; the defense of Nauru was the responsibility of Australia.

  Nepal – Kingdom of Nepal
Capital: Kathmandu
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
Capital: Amsterdam (official), The Hague (seat of government)
Widely-recognized UN member state. The Kingdom of the Netherlands consisted of three autonomous countries:

The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole was a member of the EEC.


  New Zealand – Dominion of New Zealand
Capital: Wellington
Widely-recognized UN member state; Commonwealth realm. New Zealand had responsibilities for the two free associated states of:

It also had sovereignty over three dependent territories:

The government of Tokelau Islands(Tokelau) claimed Swains Island, part of American Samoa (a US dependency).


   Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua
Capital: Managua
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Niger – Republic of Niger
Capital: Niamey
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
Capital: Lagos
Widely-recognized UN member state. Nigeria was a federation of 23 states and one federal territory.[51]

  Niue (from 19 October 1974)
Capital: Alofi
A state in free association with New Zealand; Niue was a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity and it had shared citizenship with New Zealand.

  North Solomons – Republic of the North Solomons (from 1 September 1975 to 7 August 1976)[be]
Capital: Kieta
De facto independent state. Claimed by Australia (to 16 September 1975) and Papua New Guinea (from 16 September 1975).

  Norway – Kingdom of Norway
Capital: Oslo
Widely-recognized UN member state. Norway had two integral overseas areas: Jan Mayen and Svalbard. The latter of area had a special status due to the Spitsbergen Treaty. Norway had sovereignty over the following dependencies:

OEdit


Oman   Muscat and Oman

PEdit


  Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Capital: Islamabad
Widely-recognized UN member state. Pakistan was a federation of six provinces and three territories. It administered part of the disputed region of Kashmir as the territories of Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas.[56]

  Panama – Republic of Panama
Capital: Panama City
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea (from 16 September 1975)[bf]
Capital: Port Moresby
Widely-recognized independent state; UN member state from 10 October 1975. Commonwealth realm.

  Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay
Capital: Asunción
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Peru – Peruvian Republic
Capital: Lima
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
Capital: Quezon City (official, to 24 June 1976) Manila (official, from 24 June 1976), Baguio (summer, to 24 June 1976)
Widely-recognized UN member state. The Philippines administered Scarborough Shoal, which was disputed by China and Taiwan. It also claimed sovereignty over the Spratly Islands (disputed by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Malaysia) and the Malaysian territory of Sabah.

  Poland – Polish People's Republic
Capital: Warsaw
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Portugal – Portuguese Republic
Capital: Lisbon
Widely-recognized UN member state. Portugal had two autnonomous regions: the Azores (from 27 August 1976) and Madeira (from 27 August 1976). Portugal had sovereignty over the following overseas provinces:

It had one autonomous republic:

It also had one Chinese territory which it administered as a dependency:

  • Macau (from 17 February 1976)

Portugal continued to claim sovereignty over Portuguese Timor after its unilateral declaration of independence on 28 November 1975 and its occupation by Indonesia on 7 December 1975. It claimed the former overseas province of Portuguese India, which had been annexed by India, until 31 December 1974. It also claimed the Spanish municipalities of Olivenza and Táliga.


QEdit


  Qatar – State of Qatar (from 3 September 1971)[bg]
Capital: Doha
Widely-recognized independent state; UN member state from 21 September 1971.

REdit


  Ras al-Khaimah – State of Ras al-Khaimah (from 1 December 1971 to 11 February 1972)[bh]
Capital: Ras al-Khaimah
Transitional independent state.

   Rhodesia / Zimbabwe Rhodesia
Capital: Salisbury
  • Rhodesia (to 2 March 1970)[bi]
  • Republic of Rhodesia (from 2 March 1970 to 1 June 1979)[bi][bj]
  • Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia (from 1 June 1979 to 12 December 1979)[bj][bk]
De facto independent state; not recognized by any other state. Claimed by the United Kingdom.

  Romania – Socialist Republic of Romania
Capital: Bucharest
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Rwanda – Rwandese Republic[bl]
Capital: Kigali
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Rwenzururu – Kingdom of Rwenzururu
Capital: Kasese
De facto independent state; not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Uganda.

SEdit


  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (from 27 February 1976)[bm]
Capital: Bir Lehlou (official), Rabouni (seat of government-in-exile), El Aaiún (claimed)
Partially recognized de facto independent state. The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claimed the disputed territory of Western Sahara, most of which was under control of Morocco and (to 11 August 1979) Mauritania. The territory under its control, the so-called Free Zone, was claimed by Morocco and Mauritania. Its government resided in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.

  Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
Capital: Basseterre
Associated state of the United Kingdom.

   Saint Lucia[bn]
Capital: Castries
Associated state of the United Kingdom (to 21 February 1979).

Widely-recognized independent state from 22 February 1979; UN member state from 18 September 1979. Commonwealth realm.


   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Capital: Kingstown
  • Saint Vincent (to 26 October 1979)
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (from 27 October 1979)[bo]
Associated state of the United Kingdom to 26 October 1979. Widely-recognized independent state from 27 October 1979; Commonwealth realm.

  San Marino – Republic of San Marino
Capital: San Marino
Widely-recognized independent state.

  São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (from 12 July 1975)[bp]
Capital: São Tomé
Widely-recognized independent state. UN member state (from 16 September 1975).

   Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Capital: Riyadh
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Senegal – Republic of Senegal
Capital: Dakar
Widely-recognized UN member state.

   Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles (from 29 June 1976)[bq]
Capital: Victoria
Widely-recognized independent state. UN member state (from 21 September 1976). The Seychelles claimed the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French territories of Tromelin Island and the Glorioso Islands.

  Sharjah – State of Sharjah (from 1 December 1971 to 2 December 1971)[a]
Capital: Sharjah
Transitional independent state.

  Sierra Leone
Capital: Freetown
Widely-recognized UN member state; Commonwealth realm (to 19 April 1971).

  Singapore – Republic of Singapore
Capital: Singapore
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Solomon Islands (from 7 July 1978)[bs]
Capital: Honiara
Widely-recognized independent state. UN member state (from 19 September 1978). Commonwealth realm.

  Somalia – Somali Democratic Republic
Capital: Mogadishu
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  South Africa – Republic of South Africa
Capital: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), Bloemfontein (judicial)
Widely-recognized UN member state. South Africa had eight autonomous bantustans: Bophuthatswana (from 1 June 1972 to 6 December 1977), Ciskei (from 1 August 1972) Gazankulu (from 1 February 1973), KwaZulu (from 1 February 1977), Lebowa (from 2 October 1972), Transkei (to 26 October 1976), QwaQwa (from 1 November 1974), and Venda (from 1 February 1973 to 13 September 1979). There were also three bantustans which were nominally independent: Bophuthatswana (from 6 December 1977), Transkei (from 26 October 1976), and Venda (from 13 September 1979). South Africa administered one League of Nations mandate:

  Soviet Union – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Capital: Moscow
Widely-recognized UN member state. The Soviet Union was a federation of 15 republics, two of which (Byelorussia and Ukraine) were UN members in their own right.[75]

   Spain
Capital: Madrid
Widely-recognized UN member state. Spain included two autonomous communities. Spain had sovereignty over one overseas province:

Its sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla, and Peñón de Alhucemas was disputed by Morocco. Its sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga was disputed by Portugal; it claimed the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.


Sri Lanka   Ceylon

   Sudan – Democratic Republic of the Sudan
Capital: Khartoum
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Suriname – Republic of Suriname (from 25 November 1975)[bu]
Capital: Paramaribo
Widely-recognized independent state; UN member state from 4 December 1975.

  Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
Capital: Mbabane (administrative), Lobamba (royal and legislative)
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden
Capital: Stockholm
Widely-recognized UN member state.

   Switzerland – Swiss Confederation
Capital: Bern
Widely-recognized independent state; permanent observer at the UN. Switzerland was a federation of 26 cantons.[78]

   Syria – Syrian Arab Republic
Capital: Damascus
Widely-recognized UN member state; Federation of Arab Republics member from 17 April 1971 to November 1977. Syria included the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights and disputed Turkey's sovereignty over Hatay Province.

TEdit


  Tanna – Tanna Nation (from 24 March 1974 to 29 June 1974)[bv]
Capital: Lénakel
De facto independent state; claimed by the Anglo-French New Hebrides Condominium.

  Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
Capital: Dar es Salaam
Widely-recognized UN member state. Tanzania had one autonomous region: Zanzibar.

  Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand
Capital: Bangkok
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Togo – Togolese Republic
Capital: Lomé
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga (from 4 June 1970)[bw]
Capital: Nukuʻalofa
Widely-recognized independent state.

  Transkei – Republic of Transkei (from 26 October 1976)[bx]
Capital: Umtata
Nominally independent South African bantustan.[m]

  Trinidad and Tobago
Capital: Port of Spain
Widely-recognized UN member state; Commonwealth realm (to 1 August 1976).

  Tunisia – Tunisian Republic
Capital: Tunis
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Turkey – Republic of Turkey
Capital: Ankara
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Tuvalu (from 1 October 1978)[bz]
Capital: Funafuti
Widely-recognized independent state; Commonwealth realm.

UEdit


  Uganda – Republic of Uganda
Capital: Kampala
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Umm al-Quwain – State of Umm al-Quwain (from 1 December 1971 to 2 December 1971)[a]
Capital: Umm al-Quwain
Transitional independent state.

  United Arab Emirates (from 2 December 1971)[a]
Capital: Abu Dhabi
Widely-recognized independent state; UN member state from 9 December 1971. The United Arab Emirates was a federation of seven emirates.[84]

   United Arab Republic / Egypt
Capital: Cairo
  • United Arab Republic (to 2 September 1971)[85]
  • Arab Republic of Egypt (from 2 September 1971)[85]
Widely-recognized UN member state; Federation of Arab Republics member from 17 April 1971 to November 1977. to The United Arab Republic consisted of one state: Egypt. It included the Sinai Peninsula, which was occupied by Israel.

  United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Capital: London
Widely-recognized UN member state; EEC member from 1 January 1973. The United Kingdom was composed of four constituent countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom had responsibilities for the following self-governing free associated states:

The United Kingdom administered the foreign affairs of the following protected states:

The United Kingdom co-administered the following condominiums:

It also had sovereignty over the following crown colonies and protectorates:

In addition, the British Monarch had direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:


  United States – United States of America
Capital: Washington, D.C.
Widely-recognized UN member state. The United States was a federation of 50 states, one federal district, and one incorporated territory. It asserted sovereignty over the following inhabited unincorporated territories:[86]

The United States co-administered the following condominium:

The United States administered one territory under the residual sovereignty of Japan:

In addition, the United States administered one United Nations Trust Territory:


  Upper Volta – Republic of Upper Volta
Capital: Ouagadougou
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Uruguay – Eastern Republic of Uruguay
Capital: Montevideo
Widely-recognized UN member state.

VEdit


   Vatican City – Vatican City State
Capital: Vatican City
Widely-recognized independent state. Vatican City was administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity recognized by a large number of countries and a Permanent observer at the United Nations. The Holy See also administered a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy; the Pope was the ex officio head of state of Vatican City.

  Venda – Republic of Venda (from 13 September 1979)[cb]
Capital: Thohoyandou
Nominally independent South African bantustan.[m]

  Venezuela – Republic of Venezuela
Capital: Caracas
Widely-recognized UN member state. Venezuela was a federation of 20 states, two territories, one federal dependency, and one federal district.[88]

  Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 2 July 1976)[cc]
Capital: Hanoi
Widely-recognized independent state. Permanent observer at the UN (from 2 July 1976 to 20 September 1977). UN member state (from 20 September 1977). Vietnam claimed sovereignty over the Paracel Islands (disputed by China and Taiwan) and Spratly Islands (disputed by China, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Malaysia).

  Vietnam, North – Democratic Republic of Vietnam (to 2 July 1976)[cc]
Capital: Hanoi
Widely-recognized independent state; permanent observer at the UN from 30 April 1975 to 2 July 1976.

   Vietnam, South
Capital: Saigon
Widely-recognized independent state to 30 April 1975; permanent observer at the UN to 30 April 1975. South Vietnam claimed sovereignty over the Paracel Islands (disputed by China and Taiwan) and Spratly Islands (disputed by China, Taiwan, and the Philippines).

WEdit


  Western Samoa – Independent State of Western Samoa
Capital: Apia
Widely-recognized independent state; UN member state from 15 December 1976.

YEdit


  Yemen, North – Yemen Arab Republic
Capital: Sana'a
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Yemen, South
Capital: Aden
  • People's Republic of South Yemen (to 1 December 1970)[ce]
  • People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (from 1 December 1970)[ce]
Widely-recognized UN member state.

  Yugoslavia – Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Capital: Belgrade
Widely-recognized UN member state; Yugoslavia was a federation of six republics.[91]

ZEdit


Zaire   Congo, Democratic Republic of

  Zambia – Republic of Zambia
Capital: Lusaka
Widely-recognized UN member state.

Zimbabwe Rhodesia   Rhodesia

Other entitiesEdit

Excluded from the list above are the following noteworthy entities which either were not fully sovereign or did not claim to be independent:

  • Antarctica as a whole had no government and no permanent population. Seven states claimed portions of Antarctica and five of these had reciprocally recognised one another's claims.[92] These claims, which were regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, were neither recognised nor disputed by any other signatory state.[93]
  •   Estonia was occupied and administered by the Soviet Union, but the legality of the annexation was not widely-recognized. The Baltic diplomatic services in the West continued to be recognised as representing the de jure state.
  •   Latvia was occupied and administered by the Soviet Union, but the legality of the annexation was not widely-recognized. The Baltic diplomatic services in the West continued to be recognised as representing the de jure state.
  •   Lithuania was occupied and administered by the Soviet Union, but the legality of the annexation was not widely-recognized. The Baltic diplomatic services in the West continued to be recognised as representing the de jure state.
  • The Saudi–Iraqi neutral zone was a strip of neutral territory between Iraq and Saudi Arabia.
  •   The Sovereign Military Order of Malta was an entity claiming sovereignty. The order had bi-lateral diplomatic relations with a large number of states, but had no territory other than extraterritorial areas within Rome.[94] The order's Constitution stated: "The Order is a subject of international law and exercises sovereign functions."[95] Although the order frequently asserted its sovereignty, it did not claim to be a sovereign state. It lacked a defined territory. Since all its members were citizens of other states, almost all of them lived in their native countries, and those who resided in the order's extraterritorial properties in Rome did so only in connection with their official duties, the order lacked the characteristic of having a permanent population.
  •   West Berlin was a political enclave that was closely aligned with, but not actually a part of, West Germany. It consisted of three occupied sectors administered by the United States, the United Kingdom, and France.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Quwain, and Fujairah became fully independent states when the British protectorate over the Trucial States came to an end on 1 December 1971. The next day, they united to form the United Arab Emirates.[1]
  2. ^ a b Mohammed Daoud Khan overthrew Mohammed Zahir Shah on 17 July 1973 and proclaimed a new state known as the "Republic of Afghanistan".[2]
  3. ^ a b Following a coup d'etat on 27 April 1978, the Revolutionary Council of Afghanistan declared a new state called the "Democratic Republic of Afghanistan" with Nur Muhammad Taraki as its president.[3]
  4. ^ a b Albania adopted a new constitution on 28 December 1976.[4]
  5. ^ Angola gained independence from Portugal on 11 November 1975.[5]
  6. ^ The name "Argentine Nation" was also used for the purposes of legislation.
  7. ^ The Bahamas gained independence from the United Kingdom on 10 July 1973.[9]
  8. ^ The British Protectorate over Bahrain came to an end on 15 August 1971.[10]
  9. ^ Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan on 26 March 1971.[11]
  10. ^ Biafra surrendered to Nigeria on 12 January 1970.[12]
  11. ^ Recognized by Gabon, Ivory Coast, Tanzania, and Zambia.
  12. ^ Bophuthatswana was declared independent on 6 December 1977.[13]
  13. ^ a b c The nominally independent bantustans of Bophuthatswana, Transkei, and Venda were only recognized by South Africa and by each other. The rest of the world regarded them as part of South Africa.
  14. ^ 22 states: Acre, Alagoas, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Guanabara (to 15 March 1975), Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul (from 11 October 1977), Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Sergipe. 4 territories: Amapá, Fernando de Noronha, Rondônia, Roraima). 1 federal district: Federal District.
  15. ^ a b Burma adopted a new constitution on 3 January 1974.[14]
  16. ^ Cabinda declared independence from the Portuguese overseas province Angola on 1 August 1975. It was annexed by the independent state of Angola on 11 November 1975.[15]
  17. ^ The constitution of Democratic Kampuchea was adopted on 5 January 1976.
  18. ^ a b Although the People's Republic of Kampuchea had near total control over the territory of Cambodia from 10 January 1979 on, the majority of the states in the world recognized the former government of Democratic Kampuchea, which retained Cambodia's UN membership. The People's Republic of Kampuchea was mainly recognized by Vietnam and states within the Soviet sphere of influence.
  19. ^ a b Cameroon adopted its constitution on 2 June 1972.[16]
  20. ^ Cape Verde attained independence from Portugal on 5 July 1975.[19]
  21. ^ a b The Central African Empire was declared on 4 December 1976.[20]
  22. ^ a b The Central African Republic was restored on 20 September 1979.[20]
  23. ^ a b Ceylon was declared a republic on 22 May 1972.[21]
  24. ^ a b A new constitution for Sri Lanka came into effect on 7 September 1978.[22]
  25. ^ a b The People's Republic of China and the Republic of China did not recognize each other, as both states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of China. The following states recognized the PRC instead of the ROC: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina (from 19 February 1972), Australia (from 21 December 1972), Austria (from 28 May 1971), Bangladesh (from 4 October 1975), Barbados (from 30 May 1977), Belgium (from 25 October 1971), Botswana (from 6 January 1975), Brazil (from 15 August 1974), Bulgaria, Burma, Burundi (from 13 October 1971), Cambodia, Canada (from 13 October 1970), Cape Verde (from 25 April 1976), Central African Republic, Chad (from 28 November 1972), Chile (from 15 December 1970), Comoros (from 13 November 1975), Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Cuba, Cyprus (from 14 December 1972), Czechoslovakia, Dahomey (from 29 December 1972), Denmark, Djibouti (from 8 January 1979), Egypt, Equatorial Guinea (from 15 October 1970), Ethiopia (from 24 November 1970), Fiji (from 5 November 1975), Finland, France, Gabon (from 20 April 1974), the Gambia (from 14 December 1974), East Germany, West Germany (from 11 October 1972), Ghana, Greece (from 5 June 1972), Guinea, Guinea-Bissau (from 15 March 1974), Guyana (from 27 June 1972), Hungary, Iceland (from 8 December 1971), India, Indonesia, Iran (from 16 August 1971), Iraq, Ireland (from 22 June 1979), Italy (from 6 November 1970), Jamaica (from 21 November 1972), Japan (from 29 September 1972), Jordan (from 7 April 1977), Kenya, North Korea, Kuwait (from 22 March 1971), Laos, Lebanon (from 9 November 1971), Liberia (from 17 February 1977), Libya (from 9 August 1978), Liechtenstein, Luxembourg (from 16 November 1972), Madagascar (from 6 November 1972), Malaysia (from 31 May 1974), Maldives (from 14 October 1972), Mali, Malta (from 31 January 1972), Mauritania, Mauritius (from 15 April 1972), Mexico (from 14 February 1972), Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique (from 25 June 1975), Nepal, Netherlands (recognition accepted on 18 March 1972), New Zealand (from 22 December 1972), Niger (from 20 July 1974), Nigeria (from 10 February 1970), Norway, Oman (from 25 May 1978), Pakistan, Papua New Guinea (from 12 October 1976), Peru (from 2 November 1971), Philippines (from 9 June 1975), Poland, Portugal (from 8 February 1979), Romania, Rwanda (from 12 November 1971), Samoa (from 6 November 1975), San Marino (from 6 May 1971), São Tomé and Príncipe (from 21 July 1975), Senegal (from 7 December 1971), Seychelles (from 30 June 1976), Sierra Leone (from 29 July 1971), Somalia, the Soviet Union, Spain (from 9 March 1973), Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname (from 28 May 1976), Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand (from 1 July 1975), Togo (from 19 September 1972), Trinidad and Tobago (from 20 June 1974), Tunisia, Turkey (from 4 August 1971) Uganda, the United Kingdom (recognition accepted on 13 March 1972), the United States (from 1 January 1979), Upper Volta (from 15 September 1973), Venezuela (from 28 June 1974), North Vietnam, North Yemen, South Yemen, Yugoslavia, and Zambia.
  26. ^ The Comoros became independent from France on 6 July 1975.[23]
  27. ^ a b The Comoros enacted a new constitution on 1 October 1978.[24]
  28. ^ a b The Democratic Republic of the Congo was renamed Zaire on 27 October 1961.[25]
  29. ^ a b Congo became a "People's Republic" on 3 January 1970.[26]
  30. ^ Cyprus was not recognized by Turkey.
  31. ^ a b Owing to a dispute over lands seized during World War II, Liechtenstein and Czechoslovakia did not recognize each other.
  32. ^ a b Dahomey was renamed Benin on 30 November 1975.[28]
  33. ^ The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas gained independence as Djibouti on 27 June 1977.[29]
  34. ^ Dominica gained independence from the United Kingdom on 3 November 1978.[30]
  35. ^ East Timor declared independence from Portugal on 28 November 1975. It was invaded and occupied by Indonesia on 7 December 1975 and annexed outright on 17 July 1976, though the legality of the annexation was not widely-recognized afterwards.[31]
  36. ^ a b Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia was deposed by the Derg on 12 September 1974.[32]
  37. ^ Fiji gained independence from the United Kingdom on 10 October 1970.[33]
  38. ^ a b Comoros declared independence on 6 July 1975 and was recognized by France on 31 December 1975, but the island of Mayotte remained under French administration. A separate administration for Mayotte was not formally established until 24 December 1976.
  39. ^ a b The Gambia became a republic on 24 April 1970.[34]
  40. ^ a b King Constantine II of Greece was deposed by the Regime of the Colonels on 1 June 1973.[36] The end of the monarchy was confirmed by plebiscite on 8 December 1974 and a new Republican constitution was enacted on 11 June 1975.
  41. ^ Grenada became independent from the United Kingdom on 7 February 1974.[37]
  42. ^ The New Jewel Movement proclaimed the socialist republic on 13 March 1979.
  43. ^ Guinea-Bissau unilaterally declared independence from Portugal on 24 September 1973.[38]
  44. ^ a b Guyana became a republic on 23 February 1970.[39]
  45. ^ a b c The Monarchy of Iran was abolished on 11 February 1979. The Islamic Republic was proclaimed on 1 April 1979.[41]
  46. ^ Ireland also had the legal description of "Republic of Ireland", although this was not its constitutional name.
  47. ^ Israel was not recognized by Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Chad, Cuba, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, North Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
  48. ^ The People's Republic of Kampuchea was declared on 10 January 1979.[42]
  49. ^ Kiribati gained independence from the United Kingdom on 12 July 1979.[43]
  50. ^ North Korea was not recognized by Estonia, France, Japan, or South Korea.
  51. ^ South Korea was not recognized by the Soviet Union, China, Romania or North Korea.
  52. ^ a b Savang Vatthana abdicated his throne on 2 December 1975.[44]
  53. ^ a b The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya was declared on 2 March 1977.[45]
  54. ^ a b Madagascar adopted a new constitution on 30 December 1975.[46]
  55. ^ a b Malta became a republic on 13 December 1974.[48]
  56. ^ Mozambique declared independence from Portugal on 25 June 1975.[50]
  57. ^ The Republic of the North Solomons declared independence from the Australian-administered Trust Territory of Papua and New Guinea on 1 September 1975.[52][53] The North Solomons gave up their claim of independence on 7 August 1976.[54][55]
  58. ^ Papua New Guinea gained independence from an Australian-administered UN Trusteeship on 16 September 1975.[57]
  59. ^ Qatar gained independence from the United Kingdom on 3 September 1971.[58]
  60. ^ Ras al-Khaimah became fully independent when the British Protectorate over the Trucial States came to an end on 1 December 1971. On 11 February 1972 it joined the United Arab Emirates.[59]
  61. ^ a b Rhodesia became a republic on 2 March 1970.[60]
  62. ^ a b The interim state of Zimbabwe Rhodesia was established on 1 June 1979.[61]
  63. ^ Zimbabwe Rhodesia reverted to the UK's rule on 12 December 1979.[62]
  64. ^ Rwanda's official French name was "République rwandaise".[63][64] It could be translated into English as "Rwandese Republic",[65] "Rwandan Republic",[66] or "Republic of Rwanda"[67]
  65. ^ The date the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic declared its independence on.[68]
  66. ^ Saint Lucia gained independence from the United Kingdom on 22 February 1979.[69]
  67. ^ Saint Vincent and the Grenadines gained independence from the United Kingdom on 27 October 1979.[70]
  68. ^ São Tomé and Príncipe gained independence from Portugal on 12 July 1975.[71]
  69. ^ The Seychelles gained independence from the United Kingdom on 29 June 1976.[72]
  70. ^ a b Sierra Leone became a republic on 19 April 1971.[73]
  71. ^ The Solomon Islands gained independence from the United Kingdom on 7 July 1978.[74]
  72. ^ a b Spain enacted a new constitution on 29 December 1978.[76]
  73. ^ Suriname gained independence from the Netherlands on 25 November 1975.[77]
  74. ^ Tanna declared independence from the New Hebrides on 24 March 1974. The rebellion was put down on 29 June 1974.[79]
  75. ^ Tonga gained independence from the United Kingdom on 4 June 1970.[80]
  76. ^ The South African bantustan of Transkei was declared independent on 26 October 1976.[81]
  77. ^ a b Trinidad and Tobago became a republic on 1 March 1976.[82]
  78. ^ Tuvalu became independent from the United Kingdom on 1 October 1978.[83]
  79. ^ a b The United Kingdom considered the Canton and Enderbury Islands to be part of its Gilbert Islands colony from 1 January 1975. The United States continued to claim the islands until 20 September 1979.
  80. ^ Venda gained nominal independence on 13 September 1979.[87]
  81. ^ a b c North Vietnam and South Vietnam united to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on 2 July 1976.[89]
  82. ^ a b Saigon fell to the North Vietnamese on 30 April 1975, leading to the establishment of the Republic of South Vietnam.[89]
  83. ^ a b South Yemen was renamed on 1 December 1970.[90]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs (February 2002). "Background Note: United Arab Emirates". Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs. United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 2002-06-06. Retrieved 6 June 2002.
  2. ^ "Afghanistan: History Of 1973 Coup Sheds Light On Relations With Pakistan". www.globalsecurity.org.
  3. ^ "Afghanistan Country Study". Archived from the original on 2009-06-04. Retrieved 2009-06-04.
  4. ^ "The Albanian Constitution of 1976". bjoerna.dk.
  5. ^ "Africa :: Angola — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. 6 June 2022.
  6. ^ 23 Provinces: Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquén, Río Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán. 2 Territories: Buenos Aires, Tierra del Fuego.
  7. ^ 6 States: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia. 3 Territories: Australian Capital Territory, Jervis Bay Territory, Northern Territory.
  8. ^ 9 States: Burgenland, Carinthia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria, Vorarlberg, Vienna.
  9. ^ "Central America :: Bahamas, The". The World Factbook. Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. 7 June 2022.
  10. ^ "Middle East :: Bahrain — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. 7 June 2022.
  11. ^ "Bangladesh (07/02)". 8 August 2002. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019.
  12. ^ "Effiong Announces Surrender of Biafra". 17 August 2001. Archived from the original on 17 August 2001.
  13. ^ "1977 - The O'Malley Archives". omalley.nelsonmandela.org.
  14. ^ "CONSTITUTION OF MYANMAR". www.thailawforum.com.
  15. ^ "MAR | Data | Chronology for Cabinda in Angola". Archived from the original on 2010-06-01. Retrieved 2010-06-01.
  16. ^ (PDF). 16 October 2005 https://web.archive.org/web/20051016070830/http://democratie.francophonie.org/IMG/pdf/Cameroun.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2005. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. ^ 2 regions: East Cameroun and West Cameroun.
  18. ^ 10 Provinces: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan. 2 Territories: Northwest Territories, Yukon.
  19. ^ "Africa :: Cabo Verde — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. 6 June 2022.
  20. ^ a b "Kingdoms of Africa - Central Africa". www.historyfiles.co.uk.
  21. ^ "The Constitution of Sri Lanka: Reforms". 3 February 2003. Archived from the original on 3 February 2003.
  22. ^ "Sri Lanka - THE 1978 CONSTITUTION". countrystudies.us.
  23. ^ "Africa :: Comoros — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. 6 June 2022.
  24. ^ "Background Notes: Comoros". 6 March 2012. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012.
  25. ^ "Zaire - POSTINDEPENDENCE POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT". www.country-data.com.
  26. ^ "Congo (Brazzaville)". 10 June 2011. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011.
  27. ^ 2 Republics: Czech Socialist Republic, Slovak Socialist Republic.
  28. ^ "Constitution of the People's Republic of Benin". Refworld. UNHCR. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  29. ^ "Africa :: Djibouti — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. 6 June 2022.
  30. ^ "Central America :: Dominica — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. 6 June 2022.
  31. ^ Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (September 2004). "Background Note: East Timor". Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 2019-05-25. Retrieved 2 September 2004.
  32. ^ "Ethiopian Revolution". www.globalsecurity.org.
  33. ^ "Australia - Oceania :: Fiji — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. 6 June 2022.
  34. ^ Bureau of African Affairs (January 2002). "Background Note: Gambia, The". Bureau of African Affairs. United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 2019-05-25. Retrieved 6 June 2002.
  35. ^ 10 States: Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Bremen, Hamburg, Hesse, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Schleswig-Holstein.
  36. ^ "Danish Royal Family". 18 November 2006. Archived from the original on 18 November 2006.
  37. ^ "Central America :: Grenada — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. 7 June 2022.
  38. ^ "Guinea-Bissau (01/02)". 4 April 2002. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019.
  39. ^ (PDF). 6 August 2009 https://web.archive.org/web/20090806050751/http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1970/pdf/ukpga_19700018_en.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2009. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  40. ^ 22 States: Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh (from 25 January 1971), Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur (from 21 January 1972), Meghalaya (from 21 January 1972), Mysore (renamed Karnataka 1 November 1973), Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim (from 16 May 1975), Tamil Nadu, Tripura (from 21 January 1972), Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal. 11 Union Territories: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, National Capital Territory of Delhi, Goa, Daman and Diu, Himachal Pradesh (to 25 January 1971), Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands, Manipur (to 21 January 1972), Pondicherry, Tripura (to 21 January 1972).
  41. ^ "1979: Shah of Iran flees into exile". 16 January 1979 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  42. ^ "Cambodia - Cambodia in Turmoil". www.country-data.com.
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