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A Bantustan (also known as Bantu homeland, black homeland, black state or simply homeland; Afrikaans: Bantoestan) was a territory that the National Party administration of South Africa set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia), as part of its policy of apartheid. By extension, outside South Africa the term refers to regions that lack any real legitimacy, consisting often of several unconnected enclaves, or which have emerged from national or international gerrymandering.
The term, first used in the late 1940s, was coined from Bantu (meaning "people" in some of the Bantu languages) and -stan (a suffix meaning "land" in the Persian language and some Persian-influenced languages of western, central, and southern Asia). It subsequently came to be regarded as a disparaging term by some critics of the apartheid-era government's homelands. The Pretoria government established ten Bantustans in South Africa, and ten in neighbouring South West Africa (then under South African administration), for the purpose of concentrating the members of designated ethnic groups, thus making each of those territories ethnically homogeneous as the basis for creating autonomous nation states for South Africa's different black ethnic groups. Under the Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act of 1970, the government stripped black South Africans of their South African citizenship, depriving them of their few remaining political and civil rights in South Africa, and declared them to be citizens of these homelands.
The government of South Africa declared as independent four of the South African Bantustans—Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda, and Ciskei (the so-called "TBVC States"), but this declaration was never recognised by anti-apartheid forces in South Africa or by any international government. Other Bantustans (like KwaZulu, Lebowa, and QwaQwa) were assigned "autonomy" but never granted "independence". In South West Africa, Ovamboland, Kavangoland, and East Caprivi were declared to be self-governing, with a handful of other ostensible homelands never being given autonomy. A new constitution effectively abolished the Bantustans with the end of apartheid in South Africa in 1994.
Beginning in 1913, successive white-minority South African governments established "reserves" for the black population in order to racially segregate them from the white population. The Natives Land Act, 1913, limited blacks to seven percent of the land in the country. In 1936 the government planned to raise this to 13.6 percent of the land, but it was slow to purchase land and this plan was not fully implemented.
When the National Party came to power in 1948, Minister for Native Affairs (and later Prime Minister of South Africa) Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd built on this, introducing a series of "grand apartheid" measures such as the Group Areas Acts and the Natives Resettlement Act, 1954 that reshaped South African society such that whites would be the demographic majority. The creation of the homelands or Bantustans was a central element of this strategy, as the long-term goal was to make the Bantustans independent. As a result, blacks would lose their South African citizenship and voting rights, allowing whites to remain in control of South Africa.
The term "Bantustan" for the Bantu homelands was intended to draw a parallel with the creation of Pakistan and India ("Hindustan"), which had taken place just a few months before at the end of 1947, and was coined by supporters of the policy. However, it quickly became a pejorative term, with the National Party preferring the term "homelands". As Nelson Mandela explained in a 1959 article:
The newspapers have christened the Nationalists' plan as one for "Bantustans". The hybrid word is, in many ways, extremely misleading. It relates to the partitioning of India, after the reluctant departure of the British, and as a condition thereof, into two separate States, Hindustan and Pakistan. There is no real parallel with the Nationalists' proposals, for (a) India and Pakistan constitute two completely separate and politically independent States, (b) Muslims enjoy equal rights in India; Hindus enjoy equal rights in Pakistan, (c) Partition was submitted to and approved by both parties, or at any rate fairly widespread and Influential sections of each. The Government's plans do not envisage the partitioning of this country into separate, self-governing States. They do not envisage equal rights, or any rights at all, for Africans outside the reserves. Partition has never been approved of by Africans and never will be. For that matter it has never been really submitted to or approved of by the Whites. The term "Bantustan" is therefore a complete misnomer, and merely tends to help the Nationalists perpetrate a fraud.
"While apartheid was an ideology born of the will to survive or, put differently, the fear of extinction, Afrikaner leaders differed on how best to implement it. While some were satisfied with segregationist policies placing them at the top of a social and economic hierarchy, others truly believed in the concept of 'separate but equal'. For the latter, the ideological justification for the classification, segregation, and denial of political rights was the plan to set aside special land reserves for black South Africans, later called 'bantustans' or 'homelands'. Each ethnic group would have its own state with its own political system and economy, and each would rely on its own labour force. These independent states would then coexist alongside white South Africa in a spirit of friendship and collaboration. In their own areas, black citizens would enjoy full rights."
Verwoerd argued that the Bantustans were the "original homes" of the black peoples of South Africa. In 1951, the government of Daniel François Malan introduced the Bantu Authorities Act to establish "homelands" allocated to the country's black ethnic groups. These amounted to 13% of the country's land, the remainder being reserved for the white population. The homelands were run by cooperative tribal leaders, while uncooperative chiefs were forcibly deposed. Over time, a ruling black elite emerged with a personal and financial interest in the preservation of the homelands. While this aided the homelands' political stability to an extent, their position was still entirely dependent on South African support.
The role of the homelands was expanded in 1959 with the passage of the Bantu Self-Government Act, which set out a plan called "Separate Development". This enabled the homelands to establish themselves in the long term as self-governing territories and ultimately as nominally fully "independent" states.
This process was to be achieved in a series of four major steps for each homeland:
- The unification of the reserves set aside for the various "tribes" (officially called "nations" since 1959) under a single "Territorial Authority"
- The establishment of a legislative assembly for each homeland with limited powers of self-rule
- The establishment of the homeland as a "self-governing territory"
- The granting of full nominal independence to the homeland
This general framework was not in each case followed in a clear-cut way, but often with a number of intermediate and overlapping steps.
The homeland of Transkei served in many regards as a "testing ground" for apartheid policies; its institutional development started already before the 1959 act, and its attainment of self-government and independence were therefore implemented earlier than for the other homelands.
This plan was stepped up under Verwoerd's successor as prime minister, John Vorster, as part of his "enlightened" approach to apartheid. However, the true intention of this policy was to fulfill Verwoerd's original plan to make South Africa's blacks nationals of the homelands rather than of South Africa—thus removing the few rights they still had as citizens. The homelands were encouraged to opt for independence, as this would greatly reduce the number of black citizens of South Africa. The process of creating the legal framework for this plan was completed by the Black Homelands Citizenship Act of 1970, which formally designated all black South Africans as citizens of the homelands, even if they lived in "white South Africa", and cancelled their South African citizenship, and the Bantu Homelands Constitution Act of 1971, which provided a general blueprint for the stages of constitutional development of all homelands (except Transkei) from the establishment of Territorial Authorities up to full independence.
The following table shows the time-frame of the institutional and legal development of the ten South African Bantustans in light of the above-mentioned four major steps:
|Transkei||Xhosa||1956||1963||1963||1976||A forerunner of the Territorial Authority and the Legislative Assembly existed since 1931 under the name "United Transkeian Territories General Council".|
|Bophuthatswana||Tswana||1961||1971||1972||1977||The Territorial Authority established in 1961 was reorganised in 1968.|
|Venda||Venda||1962||1971||1973||1979||The Territorial Authority established in 1962 was reorganised in 1969.|
|Ciskei||Xhosa||1961||1971||1972||1981||A forerunner of the Territorial Authority and the Legislative Assembly previously existed from 1934 to 1955 under the name "Ciskeian General Council".|
The Territorial Authority established in 1961 was reorganised in 1968.
|Lebowa||Northern Sotho (Pedi)||1962||1971||1972||—||The Territorial Authority established in 1962 was reorganised in 1969.|
|Gazankulu||Tsonga (Shangaan)||1962||1971||1973||—||The Territorial Authority established in 1962 was reorganised in 1969.|
|KaNgwane||Swazi||1976||1977||1984||—||The homeland status was temporarily suspended between June and December 1982.|
In parallel with the creation of the homelands, South Africa's black population was subjected to a massive programme of forced relocation. It has been estimated that 3.5 million people were forced from their homes from the 1960s through the 1980s, many being resettled in the Bantustans.
The government made clear that its ultimate aim was the total removal of the black population from South Africa. Connie Mulder, the Minister of Plural Relations and Development, told the House of Assembly on 7 February 1978:
If our policy is taken to its logical conclusion as far as the black people are concerned, there will be not one black man with South African citizenship ... Every black man in South Africa will eventually be accommodated in some independent new state in this honourable way and there will no longer be an obligation on this Parliament to accommodate these people politically.
But this goal was not achieved. Only a minority (about 39% in 1986) of South Africa's black population lived in the Bantustans; the remainder lived in South Africa proper, many in townships, shanty-towns and slums on the outskirts of South African cities.
Bantustans within the borders of South Africa were classified as "self-governing" or "independent". In theory, self-governing Bantustans had control over many aspects of their internal functioning but were not yet sovereign nations. Independent Bantustans (Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei; also known as the TBVC states) were intended to be fully sovereign. These areas received little attention from the colonial and later South African governments however, and were still very undeveloped. This greatly decreased these states' ability to govern and made them very reliant on the South African government.
Throughout the existence of the independent Bantustans, South Africa remained the only country to recognise their independence. The South African government lobbied for their recognition. In 1976, leading up to a United States House of Representatives resolution urging the President not to recognise Transkei, the South African government intensely lobbied lawmakers to oppose the bill. Arbitrary and unrecognized amateur radio call signs were created for the independent states and QSL cards were sent by operators using them, but the International Telecommunication Union never accepted these stations as legitimate. Each TBVC state extended recognition to the other independent Bantustans while South Africa showed its commitment to the notion of TBVC sovereignty by building embassies in the TBVC capitals.
Life in the BantustansEdit
The Bantustans were generally poor, with few local employment opportunities. However, some opportunities did exist for advancement for blacks and some advances in education and infrastructure were made. The four Bantustans which attained nominal independence (Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei), repealed all Apartheid legislation upon independence.
Laws in the Bantustans differed from those in South Africa proper. The South African elite often took advantage of these differences, for example by constructing large casinos, such as Sun City in the homeland of Bophuthatswana.
However, the homelands were only kept afloat by massive subsidies from the South African government; for instance, by 1985 in Transkei, 85% of the homeland's income came from direct transfer payments from Pretoria. The Bantustans' governments were invariably corrupt and little wealth trickled down to the local populations, who were forced to seek employment as "guest workers" in South Africa proper. Millions of people had to work in often appalling conditions, away from their homes for months at a time. On the other hand, only 40% of Bophuthatswana's population worked outside the 'homeland' because the homeland was able to create industrial sites like Zone 15 and Babelegi.
The homelands were extremely unpopular among the urban black population, many of whom lived in squalor in slum housing. Their working conditions were often equally poor, as they were denied any significant rights or protections in South Africa proper. The allocation of individuals to specific homelands was often quite arbitrary. Many individuals assigned to homelands did not live in or originate from the homelands to which they were assigned, and the division into designated ethnic groups often took place on an arbitrary basis, particularly in the case of people of mixed ethnic ancestry.
Bantustan leaders were widely perceived as collaborators with the apartheid system, although some were successful in acquiring a following. Most homeland leaders had an ambivalent stance regarding the independence of their homelands: a majority was sceptical, remained cautious and avoided a definite decision, some outright rejected it due to their rejection of "separate development" and a professed commitment to "opposing apartheid from within the system", whilst others believed that nominal independence could serve to consolidate their power bases (to an even higher degree than the, in fact, already quite powerful status they enjoyed as rulers of self-governing homelands) and presented an opportunity to build a society relatively free from racial discrimination. In general, the leaders of the Bantustans, despite their overall collaboration and often collusion with the apartheid regime, did not shy away from occasionally attacking the South African government's racial policies and calling for the repeal or softening of apartheid laws (most of which were repealed in nominally independent states). Various plans for a federal solution were at times mooted, both by the Bantustan governments and by opposition parties in South Africa as well as circles inside the white ruling National Party.
In January 1985, State President P. W. Botha declared that blacks in South Africa proper would no longer be deprived of South African citizenship in favour of Bantustan citizenship and that black citizens within the independent Bantustans could reapply for South African citizenship; F. W. de Klerk stated on behalf of the National Party during the 1987 general election that "every effort to turn the tide [of black workers] streaming into the urban areas failed. It does not help to bluff ourselves about this. The economy demands the permanent presence of the majority of blacks in urban areas ... They cannot stay in South Africa year after year without political representation." In March 1990, de Klerk, who succeeded Botha as State President in 1989, announced that his government would not grant independence to any more Bantustans.
These remarks were however by no means meant as a rejection of the Bantustan system in general: the goal of the apartheid regime during the second half of the 1980s was to "modernize" the organisational framework of apartheid while leaving its fundamental principles (including the homelands) unchanged.
The government was forced to accept the permanent presence of blacks in urban areas as well as the practical unfeasibility of the hitherto very strict forms of "influx control" (replacing it by "softer" means of control), not to mention the impossibility of a total removal of all blacks to the homelands even in the long run. It was hoping to "pacify" the black urban population by developing various plans to confer upon them limited rights at the local level (but not the upper levels of government). Furthermore, the urban (and rural) residential areas remained segregated based on race in accordance with the Group Areas Act.
"Separate development" as a principle remained in force, and the apartheid regime went on to rely on the Bantustans as one of the main pillars of its policy in dealing with the black population. Until 1990, attempts continued to urge self-governing homelands to opt for independence (e.g. Lebowa, Gazankulu and KwaZulu) and on occasion the governments of self-governing homelands (e.g. KwaNdebele) themselves expressed interest in obtaining eventual independence.
It was also contemplated in circles of the ruling National Party to create additional nominally independent entities in the urban areas in the form of "independent" black "city states".
The long-term vision during this time was the creation of some form of a multi-racial "confederation of South African states" with a common citizenship, but separated into racially defined areas. Plans were made (of which only very few were realised) for the development of different "joint" institutions charged with mutual consultation, deliberation and a number of executive functions in relation to "general affairs" common to all population groups, insofar as these institutions would pose no threat to apartheid and the preservation of overall white rule. This "confederation" would include the so-called "common area"—meaning the bulk of South African territory outside of the homelands—under continued white-minority rule and limited power-sharing arrangements with the segregated Coloured and Indian/Asian population groups, the independent and self-governing homelands as well as possible additional black entities in urban areas.
From 1990 to 1994, these "confederational" ideas were in principle still entertained by large parts of the National Party (and in various forms also by certain parties and groups of the white liberal opposition), but their overtly race-based foundations gradually became less pronounced in the course of the negotiations to end apartheid, and the focus shifted to securing "minority rights" (having in mind primarily the white population in particular) after an expected handover of power to the black majority. Federalist plans also met with support from some homeland governments and parties, most importantly the Inkatha Freedom Party, which was the ruling party of KwaZulu. But since especially the African National Congress made it clear that the principles of "one man - one vote" and a unitary state were non-negotiable, (con-)federal schemes were eventually dropped. Because of this, the Inkatha Freedom Party threatened to boycott the April 1994 elections that ended apartheid and decided only in the last minute to participate in them after concessions had been made to them and as well as to the still-ruling National Party and several white opposition groups.
In the period leading up to the elections in 1994, several leaders in the independent and self-governing homelands (e.g. in Boputhatswana), who did not wish to relinquish their power, vehemently opposed the dismantling of the Bantustans and, in doing so, received support from white far-right parties, sections of the apartheid state apparatus and radical pro-apartheid groups like the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging.
With the demise of the apartheid regime in South Africa in 1994, all Bantustans (both nominally independent and self-governing) were dismantled and their territories reincorporated into the Republic of South Africa with effect from 27 April 1994 (the day on which the Interim Constitution, which formally ended apartheid, came into force and the first democratic elections began) in terms of section 1(2) and Schedule 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1993 ("Interim Constitution").
The drive to achieve this was spearheaded by the African National Congress (ANC) as a central element of its programme of reform. Reincorporation was mostly achieved peacefully, although there was some resistance from the local elites, who stood to lose out on the opportunities for wealth and political power provided by the homelands. The dismantling of the homelands of Bophuthatswana and Ciskei was particularly difficult. In Ciskei, South African security forces had to intervene in March 1994 to defuse a political crisis.
From 1994, most parts of the country were constitutionally redivided into new provinces.
Nevertheless, many leaders of former Bantustans or Homelands have had a role in South African politics since their abolition. Some had entered their own parties into the first non-racial election while others joined the ANC. Mangosuthu Buthelezi was chief minister of his KwaZulu homeland from 1976 until 1994. In post-apartheid South Africa he has served as president of the Inkatha Freedom Party and Minister of Home Affairs. Bantubonke Holomisa, who was a general in the homeland of Transkei from 1987, has served as the president of the United Democratic Movement since 1997. General Constand Viljoen, an Afrikaner who served as chief of the South African Defence Force, sent 1,500 of his militiamen to protect Lucas Mangope and to contest the termination of Bophuthatswana as a homeland in 1994. He founded the Freedom Front in 1994. Lucas Mangope, former chief of the Motsweda Ba hurutshe-Boo-Manyane tribe of the Tswana and head of Bophuthatswana is president of the United Christian Democratic Party, effectively a continuation of the ruling party of the homeland. Oupa Gqozo, the last ruler of Ciskei, entered his African Democratic Movement in the 1994 elections but was unsuccessful. The Dikwankwetla Party, which ruled Qwaqwa, remains a force in the Maluti a Phofung council where it is the largest opposition party. The Ximoko Party, which ruled Gazankulu, has a presence in local government in Giyani. Similarly, the former KwaNdebele chief minister George Mahlangu and others formed the Sindawonye Progressive Party which is one of the major opposition parties in Thembisile Hani Local Municipality and Dr JS Moroka Local Municipality (encompassing the territory of the former homeland).
List of BantustansEdit
Bantustans in South AfricaEdit
The homelands are listed below with the ethnic group for which each homeland was designated. Four were nominally independent (the so-called TBVC states of the Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and the Ciskei). The other six had limited self-government:
Nominally independent statesEdit
|Nominal independence |
Seshego (provisionally, until 1974)
|Northern Sotho (Pedi)||1972–1994|
|QwaQwa||Phuthaditjhaba (until 1974 called Witsieshoek)||Southern Sotho||1974–1994|
Nongoma (provisionally, until 1980)
Siyabuswa (provisionally, until 1986)
Schoemansdal (provisionally, until the mid-1980s)
The first Bantustan was the Transkei, under the leadership of Chief Kaizer Daliwonga Matanzima in the Cape Province for the Xhosa nation. KwaZulu, for the Zulu nation in Natal Province, was headed by a member of the Zulu royal family chief Mangosuthu ("Gatsha") Buthelezi in the name of the Zulu king.
Lesotho and Eswatini (formerly known as Swaziland) were not Bantustans; they have been independent countries and former British protectorates. These countries are mostly or entirely surrounded by South African territory and are almost totally dependent on South Africa. They have never had any formal political dependence on South Africa and were recognised as sovereign states by the international community from the time they were granted their independence by the UK in the 1960s.
Bantustans in South West AfricaEdit
In the 1960s South Africa, which was administering South West Africa under a League of Nations mandate, came under increased international pressure regarding its minority White rule over the majority of Blacks. The solution envisaged by South Africa—the Odendaal Plan—was to separate the white and the non-white population, grant self-government to the isolated black territories, and thus make Whites the majority population in the vast remainder of the country. Moreover, it was envisaged that by separating each ethnic group and confining people by law to their restricted areas, discrimination by race would automatically disappear. The inspiration for the Odendaal Plan came, in part, from South African anthropologists.
The demarcated territories were called the bantustans, and the remainder of the land was called the Police Zone. Forthwith, all non-white people employed in the Police Zone became migrant workers, and pass laws were established to police movement in and out of the bantustans.
The combined territory of all bantustans was roughly equal in size to the Police Zone. However, all bantustans were predominantly rural and excluded major towns. All harbours, most of the railway network and the tarred road infrastructure, all larger airports, the profitable diamond areas and the national parks were situated in the Police Zone.
Beginning in 1968, following the 1964 recommendations of the commission headed by Fox Odendaal, ten homelands similar to those in South Africa were established in South West Africa (present-day Namibia). The term "Bantustan" is somewhat inappropriate in this context, since some of the peoples involved were Khoisan not Bantu, and the Rehoboth Basters are a complex case. Of these ten South West African homelands, only three were granted self-government (comparable to the Bantustans in South Africa) between 1973 and 1976.
In July 1980 the system was changed to one of separate governments ("representative authorities") as second-tier administrative units (responsible for a number of affairs like land tenure, agriculture, education up to the level of primary school teachers' training, health services, and social welfare and pensions) on the basis of ethnicity only and no longer based on geographically defined areas. Building upon institutions that had already been in existence since 1925 and 1962 respectively, representative authorities were also instituted for the White and Coloured population groups. No such representative authorities were established for the Himba and San peoples (mainly occupying their former homelands of Kaokoland and Bushmanland).
These ethnic second-tier governments were de facto suspended in May 1989, at the start of the transition to independence, and de jure abolished on 21 March 1990 (the day Namibia became independent) in accordance with Schedule 8 of the Constitution of Namibia. The Basters lobbied unsuccessfully to maintain the autonomous status of Rehoboth, which had previously been autonomous under German rule. In the former Bantustan of East Caprivi, Lozi nationalists launched an unsuccessful insurgency in an attempt to gain independence from Namibia which lasted until 1999.
Homelands (until 1980) / Representative Authorities (1980–1989/1990)Edit
|Bantustan||Capital||Most represented tribe||Legislative Council established||Self-government||Representative Authority years|
|East Caprivi||Katima Mulilo||Lozi||1972||1976||1980–1989 (1990)|
Usage in non-South African contextsEdit
In the Middle East, the Palestinian enclaves in the West Bank, as well as the Gaza Strip, are often described as bantustans by critics of Israel's policies in the Palestinian territories. The term is used to refer to either the proposed areas in the West Bank designated for Palestinians under a variety of US and Israeli-led proposals to end the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, or the existing 165 "islands" which first took official form as Areas A and B under the 1995 Oslo II Accord. The Israeli-US peace plans, including the Allon Plan, the Drobles World Zionist Organization plan, Menachem Begin's plan, Benjamin Netanyahu's "Allon Plus" plan, the 2000 Camp David Summit, and Sharon's vision of a Palestinian state have proposed an enclave-type territory, as has the more recent Trump peace plan. This has been criticized as the "Bantustan option".
In Indian subcontinent, the Sinhalese government of Sri Lanka has been accused of turning Tamil areas into "bantustans". The term has also been used to refer to the living conditions of Dalits in India.
- Macmillan Dictionary, Bantustan Archived 15 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, "1. one of the areas in South Africa where black people lived during the apartheid system; 2. SHOWING DISAPPROVAL any area where people are forced to live without full civil and political rights."
- "Bantustan". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.) "1949 [...] A great Bantu State or group of States to which at least one ingenious thinker has affixed the term 'Bantustan'."
- "Bantustan | Definition, History, Map, & Facts". Archived from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
- Clark, Nancy L.; William H. Worger (2016). South Africa : the rise and fall of apartheid (Third ed.). Abingdon, Oxon. ISBN 978-1-138-12444-8. OCLC 883649263.
- Susan Mathieson and David Atwell, "Between Ethnicity and Nationhood: Shaka Day and the Struggle over Zuluness in post-Apartheid South Africa" in Multicultural States: Rethinking Difference and Identity edited by David Bennett ISBN 0-415-12159-0 (Routledge UK, 1998) p. 122: "The term 'Bantustan' was used by apartheid's apologists in reference to the partition of India in 1947. However, it quickly became pejorative in left and anti-apartheid usage, where it remained, while being abandoned by the National Party in favour of 'homelands'."
- Nelson Mandela (1973). "Verwoerd's Grim Plot". No Easy Walk to Freedom. Heinemann. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-435-90782-2. Archived from the original on 30 April 2022. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
- Norman, Kajsa. Into the laager. Afrikaners living on the edge. Jonathan Ball Publishers. 2016. ISBN 978-1-86842-736-9. Page 106.
- The Transkeian Territorial Authority was established to replace the United Transkeian Territories General Council, by Proclamation No. R.180 in SA Government Gazette No. 5736 of 31 August 1956 with effect from 1 September 1956.
- The Transkei was granted self-government by the Transkei Constitution Act 48 of 1963. This Act established the Transkei Legislative Assembly and the government departments with effect from 30 May 1963.
- The Transkei was granted "independence" by the Status of Transkei Act 100 of 1976 with effect from 26 October 1976.
- The Transkeian Territories General Council and the Pondoland General Council were amalgamated to become the United Transkeian Territories General Council, with effect from 1 January 1931, by Proclamation No. 279 in SA Government Gazette No. 1911 of 28 November 1930.
- The Tswana Territorial Authority was established in terms of the Bantu Authorities Act No. 68 of 1951 by Government Notice No. 585 in SA Government Gazette No. 6666 of 21 April 1961 with effect from 1 May 1961.
- The Tswana Legislative Assembly was established with effect from 1 May 1971, in terms of the Bantu Homelands Constitution Act No. 21 of 1971 (Act 21 of 1971), by Proclamation No. R.87 in SA Government Gazette No. 3083 of 30 April 1971.
- The Tswana Territorial Authority was declared a self-governing territory within the Republic, under the new name Bophuthatswana, in accordance with the provisions of the Bantu Homelands Constitution Act No. 21 of 1971, by Proclamation No. R.131 of 26 May 1972, with effect from 1 June 1972. Called the Bophuthatswana Constitution Proclamation, 1972. The Bophuthatswana Legislative Assembly was established by the same proclamation.
- The Status of Bophuthatswana Act 89 of 1977 granted Bophuthatswana "independence" with effect from 6 December 1977.
- Government departments established by Proclamation No. R.141 in SA Government Gazette No. 2091 of 12 June 1968.
- The Thoho-ya-Ndou Territorial Authority was established, in terms of the Bantu Homelands Constitution Act 21 of 1971, by Government Notice No. R.1864 in SA Government Gazette No. 370 of 9 November 1962 with effect from 1 December 1962.
- The Venda Legislative Assembly was established by Proclamation No. R.119 in SA Government Gazette 3110 of 21 May 1971 with effect from 1 June 1971.
- Venda was declared a self-governing territory within the Republic of South Africa with effect from 1 February 1973 in accordance with the provisions of the Bantu Homelands Constitution Act 21 of 1971, by Proclamation No. R.12 in SA Government Gazette No. 3769 of 26 January 1973.
- Venda was granted "independence" by the Status of Venda Act 107 of 1979 with effect from 13 September 1979.
- The name of the Territorial Authority was changed to the Venda Territorial Authority by Government Notice No. R.837 in SA Government Gazette No. 2406 of 23 May 1969. The government departments of the Venda Territorial Authority were established by Proclamation No. R.168 in SA Government Gazette No. 2440 of 20 June 1969.
- The Ciskeian Territorial Authority was established in terms of the Bantu Authorities Act 68 of 1951, by Government Notice No. R.496 in SA Government Gazette No. 6656 of 24 March 1961 with effect from 1 April 1961.
- The Ciskeian Legislative Assembly was established with effect from 1 June 1971 by Proclamation No. R.118 in SA Government Gazette No. 3110 of 21 May 1971.
- Ciskei became a self-governing territory within the Republic with effect from 1 August 1972 in accordance with the provisions of the Bantu Homelands Constitution Act 21 of 1971 by Proclamation No. R.187 in SA Government Gazette No. 2622 of 28 July 1972. Called the Ciskei Constitution Proclamation, 1972.
- The Status of Ciskei Act 110 of 1981 granted Ciskei "independence" with effect from 4 December 1981.
- The Ciskeian General Council was established with effect from 1 April 1934, in terms of the Native Affairs Act 23 of 1920 and the Native Administration Act 38 of 1927, by Proclamation No. 34 in SA Government Gazette No. 2177 of 9 March 1934.
- The Ciskeian General Council was disestablished with effect from 1 January 1956, by Proclamation No. 279 in SA Government Gazette No. 5600 of 23 December 1955.
- The Government departments of the Ciskeian Territorial Authority were established by Proclamation No. R.143 in SA Government Gazette No. 2092 of 12 June 1968.
- The Lebowa Territorial Authority was established by Government Notice No. R.1274 in SA Government Gazette No. 310 of 10 August 1962 with effect from 1 September 1962.
- The Lebowa Legislative Assembly was established with effect from 1 July 1971, by Proclamation No. R.156 in SA Government Gazette No. 3177 of 30 June 1971.
- Lebowa was declared a self-governing territory within the Republic with effect from 2 October 1972 in accordance with the provisions of the Bantu Homelands Constitution Act, 1971 (Act 21 of 1971), by Proclamation No. R.225 in SA Government Gazette No. 3666 of 29 September 1972.
- Lebowa Government departments were established by Proclamation No. R.115 in SA Government Gazette No. 2377 of 2 May 1969.
- The Matshangana Territorial Authority was established in terms of the Bantu Authorities Act 68 of 1951, by Government Notice No. R.1863 in SA Government Gazette No. 370 of 9 November 1962 with effect from 1 December 1962.
- The Machangana Legislative Assembly was established with effect from 1 July 1971, by Proclamation No. R.148 in SA Government Gazette No. 3163 of 25 June 1971.
- The name "Machangana" was substituted for "Matshangana" by Proclamation No. R.113 in SA Government Gazette No. 3098 of 14 May 1971.
- The Machanga Territorial Authority was declared, under the new name Gazankulu, to be a self-governing territory within the Republic of South Africa with effect from 1 February 1973 in accordance with the provisions of the Bantu Homelands Constitution Act No. 21 of 1971, by Proclamation No. R.15 in SA Government Gazette No. 3772 of 26 January 1973. Called the Gazankulu Constitution Proclamation, 1973.
- The Government departments of the Matshangana Territorial Authority were established by Proclamation No. R.95 in SA Government Gazette No. 2362 of 25 April 1969.
- At the beginning of 1969, plans were published to unite the existing Southern Sotho tribal authorities into a homeland under the name of KwaKwa. Shortly thereafter, the name of this soon-to-be Territorial Authority was changed to Basotho ba Borwa.
- The Basotho by Borwa Territorial Authority was established with effect from 1 April 1969, by Proclamations No. R.59 and R.60 in SA Government Gazette.
- The Basotho-QwaQwa Legislative Assembly was established by Proclamation No. R.225 of 1 October 1971 with immediate effect. At the same date, the government departments of Basotho-QwaQwa were established.
- QwaQwa was established as a self-governing territory within the Republic in accordance with the provisions of the Bantu Homelands Constitution Act 21 of 1971 by Proclamation No. R.203 of 1974, with effect from 1 November 1974. The reorganised QwaQwa Legislative Assembly was established by the same Proclamation.
- The Zulu Territorial Authority was established with effect from 1 June 1970 by Government Notice No. R.762 of 22 May 1970 in SA Government Gazette No. 2713.
- The KwaZulu Legislative Assembly was established with effect from 1 April 1972 by Proclamation No. R.70, 1972 in SA Government Gazette No. 3436 of 30 March 1972. Called the KwaZulu Constitution Proclamation, 1972. The KwaZulu Government departments were established by Proclamation No. R.73, 1972 in SA Government Gazette No. 3436 of 30 March 1972.
- The Territory was proclaimed a self-governing territory within the Republic, under the name of KwaZulu, in accordance with the provisions of the Bantu Homelands Constitution Act, 1971 (Act 21 of 1971), by Proclamation No. R.11, 1977, in SA Government Gazette No. 5387 of 28 January 1977, with effect from 1 February 1977.
- The Ndebele Territorial Authority was established by Government Notice No. R.2021 in SA Government Gazette No. 5766 of 7 October 1977 with immediate effect.
- The KwaNdebele Legislative Assembly was established with effect from 1 October 1979, by Proclamation No. R.205 of 1979 in SA Government Gazette No. 6661 of 14 September 1979. Called the KwaNdebele Constitution Proclamation, 1979. KwaNdebele Government departments were established by Proclamation No. R.206 of 1979 in SA Government Gazette No. 6661 of 14 September 1979.
- KwaNdebele was established as a self-governing territory within the Republic with effect from 1 April 1981 in accordance with the provisions of the National States Constitution Act, 1971 (Act 21 of 1971), by Proclamation No. R.60 in SA Government Gazette No. 7499 of 20 March 1981.
- The Swazi Territorial Authority was established with effect from 1 January 1976 in terms of the Bantu Authorities Act 68 of 1951, by Government Notice No. R.2249 in SA Government Gazette No. 4913 of 28 November 1975. The Territorial Authority was inaugurated on 23 April 1976.
- The KaNgwane Legislative Assembly was established with effect from 1 October 1977 by Proclamation No. R. 214 in SA Government Gazette No. 5742 of 16 September 1977. Called the KaNgwane Constitution Proclamation, 1977. The KaNgwane Government departments were established by Proclamation No. R.215 in SA Government Gazette No. 5742 of 16 September 1977.
- KaNgwane was established as a self-governing territory within the Republic in accordance with the provisions of the National States Constitution Act 21 of 1971, by Proclamation No. R.148 in SA Government Gazette No. 9408 of 31 August 1984 with immediate effect.
- A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1982. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1983. pp. 375–379.
- Söderbaum, F. (29 October 2004). The Political Economy of Regionalism: The Case of Southern Africa. Springer. ISBN 9780230513716. Archived from the original on 30 April 2022. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
- "Demographic Characteristics of South Africa in the late 1980s - The O'Malley Archives". www.nelsonmandela.org. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
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- Kraft, Scott (18 September 1992). "Apartheid's 'Sovereign' Offspring: 'Independent' black homelands have become a battleground in the struggle for power in South Africa. The dispute could threaten the nation's future". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 November 2022.
- South Africa: Time Running Out. January 1981. ISBN 9780520045477. Archived from the original on 30 April 2022. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
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- Gardner, John. Politicians and Apartheid: Trailing in the People's Wake. Pretoria: Human Sciences Research Council. 1997. pp. 71–72.
- Bertil Egerö. South Africa's Bantustans: From Dumping Grounds to Battlefronts Archived 18 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Sweden: Motala Grafiska. 1991. p. 6.
- The most important concessions to Zulu separatist as well as white government and opposition forces were the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Amendment Act, No. 2 of 1994 and the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Second Amendment Act, No. 3 of 1994, which amended the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1993 (the "Interim Constitution" that ended apartheid) already before this constitution came into force on 27 April 1994 (the first day of the first democratic elections). The first amendment (promulgated on 3 March 1994) contained, inter alia, the renaming of the Province of Natal to KwaZulu/Natal (nowadays written with a hyphen instead of a slash), an extension of the powers of the provinces vis-à-vis the national government and also intended to satisfy the demands of segments of the white (especially Afrikaans-speaking) population by establishing a 20-member "Volkstaat Council" to look into the possibility of creating a "Volkstaat" as an autonomous territory for Afrikaans speakers. The second amendment (promulgated on 26 April 1994, only hours before the constitution abolishing apartheid came into force and the elections began) was part of the deal arranged at the last minute to ensure the participation of the Inkatha Freedom Party in the elections; it modified the future constitution to ensure a special status for the Zulu Monarch in KwaZulu-Natal province and, in general, provided for the institution, role, authority and status of traditional monarchs in provincial constitutions.
- Act to introduce a new Constitution for the Republic of South Africa and to provide for matters incidental thereto (Act No. 200 of 1993), as amended before coming into force by the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Amendment Act, No. 2 of 1994 and the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Second Amendment Act, No. 3 of 1994, text available online at Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1993 as of 27 April 1994
- All Bantustans (both nominally independent and self-governing) were dismantled and their territories reincorporated into South Africa with effect from 27 April 1994, in terms of section 1(2) and Schedule 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1993, the so-called "Interim Constitution" which abolished apartheid in South Africa. The text of this Interim Constitution, which came into force on 27 April 1994, coinciding with the beginning of the first democratic elections, is available online at Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1993 as of 27 April 1994.
- D'Amato, Anthony A (October 1966). "The Bantustan Proposals for South-West Africa". The Journal of Modern African Studies. Cambridge University Press. 4 (2): 177–192. doi:10.1017/S0022278X00013239. JSTOR 158943. S2CID 154050355.
- Gordon, R. (2018). "How Good People Become Absurd: J.P. van S. Bruwer, the Making of Namibian Grand Apartheid and the Decline of Volkekunde". Journal of Southern African Studies. 44 (1): 97–113. doi:10.1080/03057070.2018.1403266. S2CID 148593350. Archived from the original on 30 April 2022. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
- A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1968. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1969. pp. 307–308.
- The legal framework between 1968 and 1980 of "separate development" (from the establishment of territorial authorities, legislative assemblies, to the granting of self-government and eventual "independence") for the homelands in South West Africa, closely following the model in South Africa proper, was laid down in the Development of Self-Government for Native Nations in South-West Africa Act, 1968 (Act No. 54 of 1968) and the Development of Self-Government for Native Nations in South-West Africa Amendment Act, 1973 (Act No. 20 of 1973).
- A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1973. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1974. p. 384.
- A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1973. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1974. p. 392.
- A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1976. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1977. p. 466.
- "Namibian Homelands". World Statesmen. 23 November 2019. Archived from the original on 3 August 2019. Retrieved 23 November 2019., "Namibian Homelands". Rulers. 23 November 2019. Archived from the original on 5 November 2019. Retrieved 23 November 2019. The information given on the websites World Statesmen and Rulers is partially inaccurate.
- Representative Authorities Proclamation, 1980 (Proclamation AG. 8 of 1980)
- Representative Authority of the Whites Proclamation, 1980 (Proclamation AG. 12 of 1980)
- Representative Authority of the Coloureds Proclamation, 1980 (Proclamation AG. 14 of 1980)
- A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1980. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1981. pp. 648–649.
- "Constitution of Namibia – Schedules". Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
- "South-West Africa, Proposed Homelands. in: The Bantustan Proposals for South-West Africa, p 179" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1968. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1969. pp. 309–310.
- Representative Authority of the Ovambos Proclamation, 1980 (Proclamation AG. 23 of 1980)
- A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1970. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1971. p. 285.
- Representative Authority of the Kavangos Proclamation, 1980 (Proclamation AG. 26 of 1980)
- Renamed "Lozi" in 1975. A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1974. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1975. p. 419.
- A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1972. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1973. pp. 446.
- Representative Authority of the Caprivians Proclamation, 1980 (Proclamation AG. 29 of 1980)
- A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1976. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1977. p. 465.
- Representative Authority of the Namas Proclamation, 1980 (Proclamation AG. 35 of 1980)
- An elected Advisory Council for the Rehoboth Basters had already existed since 1928: A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1976. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1977. p. 463.
- Rehoboth Self-Government Act, 1976 (Act No. 56 of 1976)
- A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1976. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1977. pp. 463–465., A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1977. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1978. pp. 601–602.
- Self-government in terms of the pre-1980 homelands system was provided for in the Rehoboth Self-Government Act, 1976 (Act No. 56 of 1976), but was only partially implemented before 1980. A "Kaptein's Council" as the executive and a Legislative Council were established in 1977.
- The institutional framework established according to the Rehoboth Self-Government Act, 1976 (Act No. 56 of 1976)—a "Kaptein's Council" as the executive and a Legislative Council—remained in force as amended in 1980 and served as the basis of the Rehoboth Representative Authority
- On 20 March 1990, one day before Namibia finally became independent on 21 March, Rehoboth unilaterally declared its independence from Namibia: "Declaration of Independence 1990. Rehoboth Basters, 20 March 1990". Rehoboth Basters. 24 November 2019. Archived from the original on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
- An Advisory Council had been in existence since 1970: A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1970. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1971. p. 286.
- The Damara council established in 1977 was the first institution to receive the title "Representative Authority", already before this designation was introduced in 1980 under the new ethnic second-tier government system also for the other population groups: A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1977. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1978. p. 602.
- Representative Authority of the Damaras Proclamation, 1980 (Proclamation AG. 32 of 1980)
- Because of internal strife among different Herero groups, no unified institutions were established for the Herero people before 1980. Two districts of Hereroland (West and East) were formed in 1970. The chief of Hereroland West, Clemens Kapuuo, claimed to be the paramount chief of all Hereros since 1970, but this claim was not recognized by the other Herero groups: A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1972. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1973. pp. 449., A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1975. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1976. p. 340.
- Representative Authority of the Hereros Proclamation, 1980 (Proclamation AG. 50 of 1980)
- Representative Authority of the Tswanas Proclamation, 1980 (Proclamation AG. 47 of 1980)
- "The Bushmen were excluded because they had evinced no interest in having a governing authority." A Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1980. South African Institute of Race Relations. 1981. p. 648.
- Kaokoland was very scarcely populated and greatly affected by the struggle for independence of Namibia, and most specifically by the so-called "bush war" that was fought across the border with Angola. No unified institutions were established in Kaokoland either before or after 1980.
- *Jerome Slater (2020). Mythologies Without End: The US, Israel, and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1917-2020. Oxford University Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-19-045908-6. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
each segment of the "state" would be further subdivided into enclaves ("Bantustans", as they have been widely called) by the Israeli settlements, highways and military positions.
- Yambert, Karl (2012). The Contemporary Middle East: A Westview Reader. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-429-97253-9. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
Palestinians noted that Israel's proposal for the West Bank left Palestinians with three unconnected cantons (often referred to pejoratively as "Bantustans")
- Harker, Christopher (Associate Professor at the Institute for Global Prosperity at University College London) (2020). Spacing Debt: Obligations, Violence, and Endurance in Ramallah, Palestine. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-1-4780-1247-4. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
This checkpoint system enabled Israel to severely curtail Palestinians' freedom of movement within the Occupied Territories, particularly during the second intifida. Oslo thus transformed Palestinian cities into enclaves, which are often referred to as Bantustans to invoke explicit comparison with the Apartheid geography of South Africa
- Penny Green (Professor of Law and Globalisation at Queen Mary University of London) & Amelia Smith (author of The Arab Spring Five Years On). (2016). Evicting Palestine. State Crime Journal, 5(1), 81-108. doi:10.13169/statecrime.5.1.0081 "what are popularly described as "Bantustans", those Palestinian villages fragmented, encircled and isolated from the West Bank by the wall and its checkpoints"
- Makdisi, Saree (2012). Palestine Inside Out: An Everyday Occupation. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06996-9. Archived from the original on 18 May 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021. "Even the term "bantustan" that is frequently applied to Palestinian enclaves like Gaza is, after all, an explicit reference to the little "homelands" with which South Africa experimented at one point in order to artificially reduce its black population."
- Yambert, Karl (2012). The Contemporary Middle East: A Westview Reader. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-429-97253-9. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
- Cook & Hanieh 2006, pp. 346–347.
- Kamrava 2016, pp. 79–80.
- Srivastava 2020.
- UNHRC 2020.
- Adam & Moodley 2005, p. 104.
- Usher 1999, p. 35.
- Loewenstein & Moor 2013, p. 14.
- "The Tamil areas were on the one hand colonised, and on the other, by a policy of "benign neglect", turned into a backyard bantustan." Ponnambalam, Satchi. Sri Lanka: The National Question and the Tamil Liberation Struggle[permanent dead link], Chapter 8.3, Zed Books Ltd, London, 1983.
- "Gaurav Apartments came up 15 years ago as the realisation of the dream of Ram Din Rajvanshi to carve out secure, dignified residential space for dalit families that can afford to buy a two or three-bedroom flat rather than as a "bantustan" for low-caste people." Devraj, Ranjit. Dalits create space for themselves, Asia Times Online, 26 January 2005.
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- Adam, Heribert; Moodley, Kogila (2005). Seeking Mandela: Peacemaking Between Israelis and Palestinians. Psychology Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-84472-130-6.
- Cook, Catherine; Hanieh, Adam (2006). "35: Walling in People Walling out Sovereignty". In Beinin, Joel; Stein, Rebecca L. (eds.). The Struggle for Sovereignty: Palestine and Israel, 1993-2005. Stanford University Press. pp. 338–347. ISBN 978-0-8047-5365-4.
- Harris, Brice Jr (Summer 1984). "The South Africanization of Israel". Arab Studies Quarterly. 6 (3): 169–189. JSTOR 41857718.
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- Srivastava, Mehul (17 June 2020). "Israel's annexation plan: the 'existential threat' to Palestinian dreams". Financial Times.
- "Israeli annexation of parts of the Palestinian West Bank would break international law – UN experts call on the international community to ensure accountability". UNHRC. 16 June 2020.
- Usher, Graham (20 May 1999). Dispatches from Palestine: The Rise and Fall of the Oslo Peace Process. University of Alberta. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-7453-1337-5.