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White South Africans are South Africans descended from any of the white racial or ethnic groups of Europe and parts of the Middle East.[4][5] In linguistic, cultural and historical terms, they are generally divided into the Afrikaans-speaking descendants of the Dutch East India Company's original settlers, known as Afrikaners, and the Anglophone descendants of predominantly British colonists. In 2016, 57.9% were native Afrikaans speakers, 40.2% were native English speakers, and 1.9% spoke another language as their mother tongue,[6][2] such as Portuguese or German. White South Africans are by far the largest European-descended population group in Africa.

White South Africans
South African farmer in Georgia.jpg
Afrikaner farmer in Georgia
Total population
2018 estimate: Decrease 4,520,100 (7.8% of South Africa's population)[1]

2011 Census: Increase 4,586,838 (8.9%)[2]

2001 Census: Decrease 4,293,640 (9.6%)[3]
Regions with significant populations
Throughout South Africa, but mostly concentrated in urban areas
Western Cape980,000
Eastern Cape300,000
Free State270,000
North West240,000
Northern Cape110,000
Afrikaans (57.9%), English (40.2%), other (1.9%)
Christianity (85.6%), Irreligious (8.9%), Judaism (0.9%), Other (4.6%)
Related ethnic groups
White Namibians, White Zimbabweans, Afrikaners, British diaspora in Africa, Coloureds, South African diaspora

White South Africans differ significantly from other White African groups, because they have a sense of separate cultural identity, as in the case of the Afrikaners, who established a distinct language, culture and faith.



The history of White settlement in South Africa started in 1652 with the settlement of the Cape of Good Hope by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) under Jan van Riebeeck.[7] Despite the preponderance of officials and colonists from the Netherlands, there were also a number of French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution at home and German soldiers or sailors returning from service in Asia.[8] The colony remained under Dutch rule for two more centuries, after which it was annexed by Great Britain around 1806.[9] At that time, South Africa was home to about 26,000 people of European descent, a relative majority of whom were still of Dutch origin.[9] However, beginning in 1818 thousands of British immigrants arrived in the growing Cape Colony, looking to join the local workforce or settle directly on the frontier.[9] About a fifth of the Cape's original Dutch-speaking white population migrated eastwards during the Great Trek in the 1830s and established their own autonomous Boer republics further inland.[10] Nevertheless, the population of European origin continued increasing in the Cape as a result of immigration, and by 1865 had reached 181,592 people.[11] Between 1880 and 1910, there was an influx of immigrants arriving from Eastern Europe, including many Lithuanian Jews.[12] Similarly, an influx of Arabs, particularly Lebanese, began arriving to South Africa in the late 19th century.[13]

Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War

The first nationwide census in South Africa was held in 1911 and indicated a white population of 1,276,242. By 1936, there were an estimated 2,003,857 white South Africans, and by 1946 the number had reached 2,372,690.[12] The country began receiving tens of thousands of European immigrants, namely from Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Greece, and the territories of the Portuguese Empire during the mid to late twentieth century.[14] South Africa's white population increased to over 3,408,000 by 1965, reached 4,050,000 in 1973, and peaked at 5,044,000 in 1990.[15]

The number of white South Africans resident in their home country began gradually declining between 1990 and the mid-2000s as a result of increased emigration.[15]

Today, white South Africans are also considered to be the last major white population group of European ancestry on the African continent, due in part to the mass exodus of colonialists from most other African states during regional decolonisation. Whites continue to play a role in the South African economy and across the political spectrum. The current number of white South Africans is not exactly known, as no recent census has been measured, although the overall percentage of up to 9% of the population represents a decline, both numerically and proportionately, since the country's first non-racial elections in 1994. Just under a million white South Africans are also living as expatriate workers abroad, which forms the majority of South Africa's brain drain.

Apartheid eraEdit

Under the Population Registration Act of 1950, each inhabitant of South Africa was classified into one of several different race groups, of which White was one. The Office for Race Classification defined a white person as one who "in appearance is obviously a white person who is generally not accepted as a coloured person; or is generally accepted as a white person and is not in appearance obviously a white person." Many criteria, both physical (e.g. examination of head and body hair) and social (e.g. eating and drinking habits, familiarity with Afrikaans or a European language) were used when the board decided to classify someone as white or coloured.[4][16] This was virtually extended to all those considered the children of two White persons, regardless of appearance. The Act was repealed on 17 June 1991.

Post-apartheid eraEdit

In Employment Equity Act of 1994, legislation propagates employment of black (black being classified as: African, Indian, Chinese, and Coloured population groups, as well as disabled people) South Africans. Black Economic Empowerment legislation further empowerers blacks as the government considers ownership, employment, training and social responsibility initiatives, which empower black South Africans, as important criteria when awarding tenders. However, private enterprises adheres to this legislation voluntarily.[17] Some reports indicate a growing number of whites suffering from poverty compared to the pre-apartheid years and attribute this to such laws — over 350,000 Afrikaners may be classified as poor, with some research claiming that up to 150,000 are struggling for survival.[18][19] This, combined with a wave of violent crime, has led to vast numbers of Afrikaners and English-speaking South Africans leaving the country.

Genocide Watch has theorised that farm attacks constitute early warning signs of genocide against White South African and has criticised the South African government for its inaction on the issue, pointing out that the murder rate for "ethno-European farmers," as stated in their report (which also included non-Afrikaner farmers of European descent,) is four times that of the general South African population.[20] There are 40,000 white farmers in South Africa[citation needed]. Since 1994, close to three thousand farmers have been murdered in thousands of farm attacks,[21] with many being brutally tortured and/or raped. Some victims have been burned with smoothing irons or had boiling water poured down their throats.[22]

Diaspora and emigrationEdit

Since 1994, there has been significant emigration of white people from South Africa. There are thus currently large Afrikaner and English-speaking South African communities in the United Kingdom and other developed countries. Between 1995 and 2005, more than one million South Africans emigrated, citing violent and racially motivated black on white crime as the main reason, as well as the lack of employment opportunities for whites.[23]

The land reform program introduced at the end of apartheid intended that, within 20 years, 30 percent of white-owned commercial farm land should be transferred to black owners. This target was not close to being met by the 2014 deadline.[24] Thus, in 2011, the farmers' association Agri South Africa coordinated efforts to resettle farmers throughout the African continent. The initiative was offered millions of hectares from 22 African countries that hoped to spur development of efficient commercial farming.[25] At the end of apartheid in 1994, 85 percent of South Africa's arable land was owned by whites; by 2016, Agri S.A. found that this had decreased to 73 percent.[26]

In February 2018, South Africa's parliament voted 241-83 to begin amending the "property clause" in the constitution to expropriate land without compensation.[27] Western Cape ANC secretary Faiez Jacobs referred to the property clause amendment as a "stick" to force dialogue about the transfer of land ownership, with the hope of accomplishing the transfer "in a way that is orderly and doesn’t create a ‘them’ and ‘us’ [situation]."[28]

Current trendsEdit

In recent decades, there has been a steady proportional decline in South Africa's white community, due to higher birthrates among other South African ethnic groups, as well as a high rate of emigration. In 1977, there were 4.3 million whites, constituting 16.4% of the population at the time. As of 2016, it is estimated that at least 800,000 white South Africans have emigrated since 1995.[29]

Like many other communities strongly affiliated with the West and Europe's colonial legacy in Africa, white South Africans were in the past often economically better off than their black African neighbors and have surrendered political dominance to majority rule. There were also some white Africans in South Africa who lived in poverty—especially during the 1930s and increasingly since the end of minority rule. Current estimates of white poverty in South Africa run as high as 12%, though fact-checking website Africa Check described these figures as "grossly inflated", and suggested that a more accurate estimate was that "only a tiny fraction of the white population – as little as 7,754 households – are affected".[30]

Lara Logan is a television and radio journalist and war correspondent.

The new phenomenon of white poverty is often blamed on the government's affirmative action employment legislation, which reserves 80% of new jobs for black people[31] and favours companies owned by black people (see Black Economic Empowerment). In 2010, Reuters stated that 450,000 whites live below the poverty line according to Solidarity and civil organisations,[32] with some research saying that up to 150,000 are struggling for survival.[33]

A further concern has been crime. Some white South Africans living in affluent white suburbs, such as Sandton, have been affected by the 2008 13.5% rise in house robberies and associated crime.[34] In a study, Dr. Johan Burger, senior researcher at the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), said that criminals were specifically targeting wealthier suburbs. Burger explained that several affluent suburbs are surrounded by poorer residential areas and that inhabitants in the latter often target inhabitants in the former. Burger alleged an entitlement complex among criminals: "They feel they are entitled, for their own sakes, to take from those who have a lot". The report also found that residents in wealthy suburbs in Gauteng were not only at more risk of being targeted but also faced an inflated chance of being murdered during the robbery.[35]

The global financial crisis slowed down the high rates of white people emigrating overseas and has led to increasing numbers of white emigrants returning to live in South Africa. Charles Luyckx, CEO of Elliot International and a board member of the Professional Movers Association said that in the past six months leading to December (2008), emigration numbers had dropped by 10%. Meanwhile, he revealed that "people imports" had increased by 50%. These figures may be grossly unreliable due to legislation which does not allow South Africans to hold dual citizenships so many who emigrate let their citizenship remain dormant or lapsed while changing citizenship and no reporting method exists.[36]

As of May 2014, Homecoming Revolution has estimated that around 340,000 white South Africans have returned in the last decade.[37]

Furthermore, immigration from Europe has also supplemented the white population. The 2011 census found that 63,479 white people living in South Africa were born in Europe; of these, 28,653 had moved to South Africa since 2001.[38]

According to a 2017 government audit, 72% of the nation's private farmland is owned by white people.[39] In February 2018, the Parliament of South Africa passed a motion to review the property ownership clause of the constitution, to allow for the expropriation of land, in the public interest, without compensation,[40] which was widely supported within South Africa's ruling ANC party on the grounds that the land was originally seized by whites without just compensation.[41] In August 2018, the South African government began the process of taking two white-owned farmlands.[42]


White South Africans by their native tongue[43]
Language Percent

The Statistics South Africa Census 2011 showed that there were about 4,586,838 white people in South Africa, amounting to 8.9% of the country's population.[44] This is a 6.8% increase since the 2001 census. According to the Census 2011, South African English is the first language of 36% of the white population group and Afrikaans is the first language of 61% of the white population group.[2] The majority of white South Africans identify themselves as primarily South African, regardless of their first language or ancestry.[45][46]


Religion among White South Africans
Religion Percent

Approximately 87% of white South Africans are Christian, 9% are irreligious, and 1% are Jewish. The largest Christian denomination is the Dutch Reformed Church (NGK), with 23% being members. Other significant denominations are the Methodist Church (8%), the Roman Catholic Church (7%), and the Anglican Church (6%).[47]


Many white Africans of European ancestry have migrated to South Africa from other parts of the continent due to political or economic turmoil in their respective homelands. Thousands of Portuguese settlers from Mozambique and Angola and white Zimbabweans emigrated to South Africa during the 1970s and 1980s. However, the overwhelming majority of European migration correlated with the historic colonization of the region (some migrating for the purpose of capitalizing on the exploitation of resources, minerals and other lucrative elements found in South Africa, others for better life and farming opportunities without many restrictions in newly colonised lands).

Meanwhile, many white South Africans also emigrated to Western countries over the past two decades, mainly to English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States, and with others settling in the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, France, Argentina, Mexico, Israel and Brazil. However, the financial crisis has slowed down the rate of emigration and as of May 2014, Homecoming Revolution has estimated that around 340,000 white South Africans have returned in the last decade.[37]


White South Africans as a proportion of the total population.
Density of the White South African population.

According to Statistics South Africa, white South Africans make up 8.9% (Census 2011) of the total population in South Africa. Their actual proportional share in municipalities is likely to be higher, given the undercount in the 2001 census.[48]

The following table shows the distribution of white people by province, according to the 2011 census:[2]

Province White pop. (2011) White pop. (2001) % province (2011) % province (2001) % change 2001-2011 % total whites (2011)
Eastern Cape 310,450 305,837 4.7 4.9 -0.2   6.8
Free State 239,026 238,789 8.7 8.8 -0.1   5.2
Gauteng 1,913,884 1,768,041 15.6 18.8 -3.2   41.7
KwaZulu-Natal 428,842 482,115 4.2 5.0 -0.8   9.3
Limpopo 139,359 132,420 2.6 2.7 -0.1   3.0
Mpumalanga 303,595 197,079 7.5 5.9 +1.6   6.6
North West 255,385 233,935 7.3 7.8 -0.5   5.6
Northern Cape 81,246 102,519 7.1 10.3 -3.2   1.8
Western Cape 915,053 832,902 15.7 18.4 -2.7   19.9
Total 4,586,838 4,293,640 8.9 9.6 -0.7   100.0


Romanticised painting of an account of the arrival of Jan van Riebeeck, founder of Cape Town.

White South Africans continue to participate in politics, having a presence across the whole political spectrum from left to right.

South African President Jacob Zuma commented in 2009 on Afrikaners being "the only white tribe in a black continent or outside of Europe which is truly African", and said that "of all the white groups that are in South Africa, it is only the Afrikaners that are truly South Africans in the true sense of the word."[49] These remarks have led to the Centre for Constitutional Rights (CCR) laying a complaint with the Human Rights Commission against Zuma.[50] In 2015, a complaint was investigated for hate speech against Jacob Zuma who said "You must remember that a man called Jan van Riebeeck arrived here on 6 April 1652, and that was the start of the trouble in this country," [51]

Former South African President Thabo Mbeki stated in one of his speeches to the nation that: "South Africa belongs to everyone who lives in it. Black and White."[52] The history of white people in South Africa dates back to the sixteenth century.

Prior to 1994, a white minority held complete political power under a system of racial segregation called apartheid. Some white people supported this policy, but some others opposed it. During apartheid, immigrants from Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan were considered honorary whites in the country, as the government had maintained diplomatic relations with these countries. These were granted the same privileges as white people, at least for purposes of residence.[53] Some African Americans such as Max Yergan were granted an 'honorary white' status as well.[54]


Historical populationEdit

Statistics for the white population in South Africa vary greatly. Most sources show that the white population peaked in the period between 1989 and 1995 at around 5.2 to 5.6 million. Up to that point, the white population largely increased due to high birth rates and immigration. Subsequently, between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s, the white population decreased overall. However, from 2006 to 2013, the white population increased.

Year White population % of total population Source
1904 1,116,805 21.6% 1904 Census
1911 1,270,000   22.7%   1911 Census[12]
1960 3,088,492   19.3%   1960 Census
1961 3,117,000   19.1%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1961
1962 3,170,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1962
1963 3,238,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1963
1964 3,323,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1964
1965 3,398,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1965
1966 3,481,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1966
1967 3,563,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1967
1968 3,639,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1968
1969 3,728,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1969
1970 3,792,848   17.1%   1970 Census
1971 3,920,000   17.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1971
1972 4,005,000   16.9%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1972
1973 4,082,000   16.8%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1973
1974 4,160,000   16.7%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1974
1975 4,256,000   16.8%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1975
1976 4,337,000   18.2%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1976
1977 4,396,000   17.9%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1977
1978 4,442,000   18.5%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1978
1979 4,485,000   18.4%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1979
1980 4,522,000   18.1%   1980 Census[15]
1981 4,603,000   18.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1981
1982 4,674,000   18.3%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1982
1983 4,748,000   18.2%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1983
1984 4,809,000   17.7%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1984
1985 4,867,000   17.5%   1985 Census[15]
1986 4,900,000   17.3%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1986
1991 5,068,300   13.4%   1991 Census
1992 5,121,000   13.2%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1992
1993 5,156,000   13.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1993
1994 5,191,000   12.8%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1994
1995 5,224,000   12.7%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1995
1996 4,434,697   10.9%   South African National Census of 1996
1997 4,462,200   10.8%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1997
1998 4,500,400   10.7%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1998
1999 4,538,727   10.5%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1999
2000 4,521,664   10.4%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2000
2001 4,293,640   9.6%   South African National Census of 2001
2002 4,555,289   10.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2002
2003 4,244,346   9.1%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2003
2004 4,434,294   9.5%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2004
2005 4,379,800   9.3%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2005
2006 4,365,300   9.2%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2006
2007 4,352,100   9.1%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2007
2008 4,499,200   9.2%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2008
2009 4,472,100   9.1%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2009
2010 4,584,700   9.2%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2010
2011 4,586,838   8.9%   South African National Census of 2011
2013 4,602,400   8.7%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2013
2014 4,554,800   8.4%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2014
2015 4,534,000   8.3%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2015
2016 4,515,800   8.1%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2016
2017 4,493,500   8.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2017
2018 4,520,100   7.8%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2018

Fertility ratesEdit

Contraception among white South Africans is stable or slightly falling: 80% used contraception in 1990, and 79% used it in 1998.[55] The following data shows some fertility rates recorded during South Africa's history. However, there are varied sources showing that the white fertility rate reached below replacement (2.1) by 1980. Likewise, recent studies show a range of fertility rates, ranging from 1.3 to 2.4. The Afrikaners tend to have a higher birthrate than that of other white people.

Year Total fertility rate[56] Source
1960 3.5   SARPN
1970 3.1   SARPN
1980 2.4   SARPN
1989 1.9
1990 2.1   SARPN
1996 1.9   SARPN
1998 1.9   SARPN
2001[57] 1.8
2006[57] 1.8
2011 1.7   Census 2011

Life expectancyEdit

The average life expectancy at birth for males and females

Year Average life expectancy Male life expectancy Female life expectancy
1980[58] 70.3 66.8 73.8
1985[59] 71 ? ?
1997 73.5 70 77
2009[60][61] 71 ? ?


Province White unemployment rate (strict)
Eastern Cape[62] 4.5%
Free State
Gauteng[63] 8.7%
KwaZulu-Natal[64] 8.0%
Limpopo[65] 8.0%
Mpumalanga[64] 7.5%
North West
Northern Cape[66] 4.5%
Western Cape 2.0%


Average annual household income by population group of the household head.[67][68]

Population group Average income (2015) Average income (2011) Average income (2001)
White R 444 446 (321.7%) R 365 134 (353.8%) R 193 820 (400.6%)
Indian/Asian R 271 621 (196.6%) R 251 541 (243.7%) R 102 606 (212.1%)
Coloured R 172 765 (125.0%) R 112 172 (108.7%) R 51 440 (106.3%)
Black R 92 983 (67.3%) R 60 613 (58.7%) R 22 522 (46.5%)
Total R 138 168 (100%) R 103 204 (100%) R 48 385 (100%)

Percentage of workforceEdit

Province Whites % of the workforce Whites % of population
Eastern Cape[62] 10% 4%
Free State
Gauteng[69] 25% 18%
KwaZulu-Natal[64] 11% 6%
Limpopo[65] 5% 2%
North West
Northern Cape[66] 19% 12%
Western Cape[70] 22% 18%


Language 2011 2001 1996
Afrikaans 60.8% 59.1% 57.7%
English 35.9% 39.3% 38.6%
Other languages 3.3% 1.6% 3.7%
Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%


Religion among white South Africans remains high compared to other white ethnic groups, but likewise it has shown a steady proportional drop in both membership and church attendance with until recently the majority of white South Africans attending regular church services.

Religious affiliation of white South Africans (2001 census)[71]
Religion Number Percentage (%)
- Christianity 3 726 266 86.8%
- Dutch Reformed churches 1 450 861 33.8%
- Pentecostal/Charismatic/Apostolic churches 578 092 13.5%
- Methodist Church 343 167 8.0%
- Catholic Church 282 007 6.6%
- Anglican Church 250 213 5.8%
- Other Reformed churches 143 438 3.3%
- Baptist churches 78 302 1.8%
- Presbyterian churches 74 158 1.7%
- Lutheran churches 25 972 0.6%
- Other Christian churches 500 056 11.6%
Judaism 61 673 1.4%
Islam 8 409 0.2%
Hinduism 2 561 0.1%
No religion 377 007 8.8%
Other or undetermined 117 721 2.7%
Total 4 293 637 100%

Notable White South AfricansEdit

Science and technologyEdit


Royalty and AristocracyEdit

Arts and mediaEdit





  • Mariette Bosch, murderer executed by the government of Botswana in 2001 for the murder of South African Ria Wolmarans

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Mid-year population estimates 2018" (PDF). Statistics South Africa. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. p. 21. ISBN 9780621413885. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015.
  3. ^ "Table 2.6: Home language within provinces (percentages)" (PDF). Census 2001 - Census in brief. Statistics South Africa. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2005. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  4. ^ a b "What's in a name? Racial categorisations under apartheid and their afterlife". Archived from the original on 7 April 2014.
  5. ^
  6. ^ "South Africa - Community Survey 2016". Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  7. ^ Hunt, John (2005). Campbell, Heather-Ann (ed.). Dutch South Africa: Early Settlers at the Cape, 1652-1708. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 13–35. ISBN 978-1904744955.
  8. ^ Keegan, Timothy. Colonial South Africa and the Origins of the Racial Order (1996 ed.). David Philip Publishers (Pty) Ltd. pp. 15–37. ISBN 978-0813917351.
  9. ^ a b c Lloyd, Trevor Owen (1997). The British Empire, 1558-1995. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 201–203. ISBN 978-0198731337.
  10. ^ Greaves, Adrian. The Tribe that Washed its Spears: The Zulus at War (2013 ed.). Barnsley: Pen & Sword Military. pp. 36–55. ISBN 978-1629145136.
  11. ^ "Census of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope. 1865". HathiTrust Digital Library. 1866. p. 11. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  12. ^ a b c Shimoni, Gideon (2003). Community and Conscience: The Jews in Apartheid South Africa. Lebanon, New Hampshire: University Press of New England. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-1584653295.
  13. ^
  14. ^ Kriger, Robert; Kriger, Ethel (1997). Afrikaans Literature: Recollection, Redefinition, Restitution. Amsterdam: Rodopi BV. pp. 75–78. ISBN 978-9042000513.
  15. ^ a b c d "Population of South Africa by population group" (PDF). Dammam: South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries. 2004. Archived from the original on 28 February 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  16. ^ "The People of South Africa" (PDF). Government of the Republic of South Africa. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2008.
  17. ^ "Redirecting old link". Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  18. ^ "Simon Wood meets the people who lost most when Mandela won in South Africa". the Guardian. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  19. ^ "Foreign Correspondent - 30/05/2006: South Africa - Poor Whites". ABC. Archived from the original on 5 December 2007. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  20. ^ "Over 1000 Boer Farmers in South Africa Have Been Murdered Since 1991". Genocide Watch. Archived from the original on 30 December 2005. Retrieved 31 December 2005.
  21. ^ "Login". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  22. ^ Criminal Justice Monitor (26 September 2003). "Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Farm Attacks, 31 July 2003". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 11 October 2006.
  23. ^ Peet van Aardt (24 September 2006). "Million whites leave SA - study". Archived from the original on 16 April 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  24. ^ Cherryl Walker (2016). Pallotti, Arrigo; Engel, Ulf (eds.). South Africa after Apartheid: Policies and Challenges of the Democratic Transition. Leiden: Brill. p. 153. ISBN 9789004325593. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  25. ^ "Boers are moving north — News — Mail & Guardian Online". 3 May 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  26. ^ "Land Debate: The Facts Are on the Table". Agri SA. 1 November 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  27. ^ Da Silva, Chantal (1 March 2018). "Thousands Sign Petition Asking Trump To Let White Farmers in South Africa Migrate to U.S. After Country Votes To Force Them Off Land". Newsweek. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  28. ^ Harper, Paddy; Whittles, Govan (2 March 2018). "ANC unity cracks over land issue". Mail and Guardian. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  29. ^ White flight from South Africa | Between staying and going Archived 12 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Economist, 25 September 2008
  30. ^ Do 400,000 whites live in squatter camps in South Africa? No Archived 5 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Africa Check, 22 May 2013
  31. ^ Wood, Simon (22 January 2006). "Race against time". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 February 2013. Certainly the new phenomenon of white poverty is often blamed on the government's Affirmative Action employment legislation, which reserves 80 per cent of new jobs for blacks.
  32. ^ O'Reilly, Finbarr (26 March 2010). "Tough times for white South African squatters". Reuters. Retrieved 25 February 2013. At least 450,000 white South Africans, 10 percent of the total white population, live below the poverty line
  33. ^ Wood, Simon (22 January 2006). "Race against time". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 February 2013. some research claiming that up to 150,000 are destitute and struggling for survival
  34. ^ Fourie, Hilda (2 July 2008). "Criminals feel 'entitled' to steal". Beeld. Johannesburg. Retrieved 25 February 2013. According to the police's latest crime statistics, which were announced at the Union Buildings on Monday, house robberies had increased countrywide by 13.5%.
  35. ^ Fourie, Hilda (2 July 2008). "Criminals feel 'entitled' to steal". Beeld. Johannesburg. Retrieved 25 February 2013. According to the report, Gautengers who live in richer neighbourhoods "like Brooklyn, Garsfontein, Sandton, Honeydew and Douglasdale, have a bigger chance of being targeted or murdered in house robberies".
  36. ^ Coming Home The Times. 21 December 2008
  37. ^ a b Jane Flanagan (3 May 2014). "Why white South Africans are coming home". Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  38. ^ "Community Profiles > Census 2011 > Migration". Statistics South Africa. Retrieved 31 August 2013.[dead link]
  39. ^, The Washington Times. "South Africa begins seizing white-owned farms".
  40. ^ Pather, Ra'eesa. "First step to land expropriation without compensation". The M&G Online. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
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