The suffix -stan (Persian: ـستان, translit. stân) is Persian for "place of" or "country". It appears in the names of many regions in Iran, Afghanistan, Central and South Asia, but also in the Caucasus and Russia; areas where significant amounts of Persian culture were spread or adopted.
Etymology and cognatesEdit
The suffix -stan is analogous to the suffix -land, present in many country and location names. The suffix is also used more generally, as in Persian (borrowed into Urdu) rigestân (ریگستان) "place of sand, desert", golestân (Persian: گلستان) "place of flowers, garden", Pakistân "land of the pure", Hindustân "land of the Indus river", and in Bengali koborsthan (Bengali: কবরস্থান koborsthān) "graveyard/cemetery" etc.
Originally an independent noun, this morpheme evolved into a suffix by virtue of appearing frequently as the last part in nominal compounds. It is of Indo-Iranian and ultimately Indo-European origin: It is cognate with Sanskrit sthā́na (Devanagari: Sanskrit: स्थान [st̪ʰaːna]), meaning "the act of standing", from which many further meanings derive, including "place, location; abode, dwelling", and ultimately descends from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sthāna-.
The Proto-Indo-European root from which this noun is derived is *steh₂- (older reconstruction *stā-) "to stand" (or "to stand up, to step (somewhere), to position (oneself)"), which is also the source of English to stand, German stehen "to stand", Latin stāre "to stand" and Ancient Greek hístēmi (ἵστημι) "to make to stand, to set".
English state originates from the same root, through Old French estat, from Latin: status ("manner of standing, attitude, position, carriage, manner, dress, apparel; and other senses"), from Latin: stāre.
The Indo-Iranian word has a Slavic counterpart in the form of Proto-Slavic *stanъ. In Russian, стан (stan) means "settlement" or "semi-permanent camp". In Polish, Belarusian and Ukrainian, stan means "state" or "condition", while in Serbo-Croatian it translates as "apartment" (a Slovene word "stanovanje", referring to an apartment or other closed space of living, is an obvious derivative of stan) in its modern usage, while its original meaning was "habitat". In Czech and Slovak, it means "tent" or, in military terms, "headquarters". In Romanian, stână (a Slavic loanword) refers to a temporary or semi-permanent settlement used for sheep and herds of other domestic animals.
Also in Germanic languages, the root can be found in German: Stand ("place, location"), and Proto-Germanic *stadi- "place, location" in German Stadt, Dutch: stad, Danish: sted, West Frisian: stêd and English stead, all meaning either "place" or "city".
|Country||Capital||Currency||Area km²||Population||Den. /km²|
Some of these nations were also known with the Latinate suffix -ia during their time as Soviet republics: Turkmenistan was frequently Turkmenia, Kyrgyzstan often Kirghizia, and even Uzbekistan was very rarely Uzbekia.
- Armenia Hayastan (Armenia)
- Haya- comes from legends that mention the patriarical founder of the Armenian Nation Hayk. Names may have once included Haykastan.
- India Hindustan (India)
Country names in various languagesEdit
|English Name||Persian name||Turkish name||Urdu name||Armenian name|
|Armenia||Armanestân - ارمنستان||Ermenistan||Hayastan - Հայաստան|
|Bulgaria||Bulgharestân - بلغارستان||Bulgaristan|
|England||Engelestân - انگلستان||Englistan/Inglistan - انگلستان|
|Georgia||Gorjestân - گرجستان||Gürcistan|
|Mongolia||Mogholestan - مغولستان||Moğolistan|
|Poland||Lahestân - لهستان||Lehastan - Լեհաստան|
|Saudi Arabia||Arabestân-e Saudi - عربستان سعودی|
|Serbia||Serbestân - صربستان||Sırbistan|
|Country||Sub-national unit||Capital||Area km²||Population||Den. /km²||Type|
|Iran||Golestan||Gorgan||20,367 km²||1,777,014||87/km km²||Provinces of Iran|
|Sistan and Baluchestan||Zahedan||181,785 km²||2,775,014||15/km²|
|Pakistan||Balochistan||Quetta||247,190 km²||12,344,408||Province of Pakistan|
|Gilgit-Baltistan||Gilgit||72,971 km²||1,800,000||Autonomous Region of Pakistan|
|Russia||Bashkortostan||Ufa||143,600 km²||4,072,292||28.36/km²||Republics of Russia|
|India||Rajasthan||Jaipur||342,239 km²||68,548,437||State of India|
|Azerbaijan||Gobustan||Qobustan||1,369.4 km²||37,137||27/km²||Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan|
|Uzbekistan||Karakalpakstan||Nukus||164,900 km²||1,711,800||7.5/km²||Region of Uzbekistan|
|Iraq||Kurdistan||Erbil (Hewlêr)||78,736 km²||5,500,000||Autonomous region of Iraq|
|Afghanistan||Nuristan||Parun||9,225.0 km²||140,900||15/km²||Province of Afghanistan|
Cities and countiesEdit
- Parchestan (several)
- Shahrestan (Shahrestan). It is also a common noun meaning "county" in Persian, used for the counties of Iran.
- Arabistan – the name of the Arabian Peninsula and other meanings
- Arbayistan – a Sassanid Persian satrapy in Late Antiquity
- Armanestan – Armenia
- Asorestan – the province of Babylonia under the Sassanid Empire
- Azadistan – a short-lived state in the Iranian province of Azarbaijan under Mohammad Khiabani
- Balawaristan – a revived historical name of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan
- Balochistan/Baluchistan – a region in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan
- Baloristan – a region of Northern Areas of Pakistan
- Baltistan – a northern region in Pakistan
- Bantustan – an Apartheid-era South African and South West African black 'homeland' (the term coined by analogy)
- Cholistan Desert – a desert region in Punjab, Pakistan
- Dardistan – a region in northern Pakistan of Dardu speakers
- Dihistan – a Sasanian province
- East Pakistan – the historic name for pre-independence Bangladesh
- East Turkestan or Uyghurstan – a region dominated by the Turkic-speaking Uyghur people, located in northwest China
- Frangistan – a historical term used (by Muslims and Persians in particular) to refer to Western or Christian Europe
- Gorjestan – Georgia
- Hazaristan – the Hazarajat, homeland of the Hazara people in central Afghanistan
- Hindustan – land of the Indus River.
- Kabulistan – a historical name of the territory centered around present-day Kabul Province of Afghanistan
- Kafiristan (land of the infidels) – historic region in Afghanistan until 1896, now known as Nuristan. A similarly-named region exists in north Pakistan.
- Kohistan – several regions of this name exist
- Kurdistan – Kurdish region
- Lazistan – Persian name of Lazica, an ancient Georgian monarchy in western Georgia.
- Lehistan – Poland
- Lezgistan – ethnolinguistic region in southern Dagestan and northern Azerbaijan
- Majarestan – Hungary
- Moghulistan (Mughalistan) – a historical area in Central Asia that included parts of modern-day Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Xinjiang
- North Waziristan – northern part of Waziristan region in Pakistan
- Pashtunistan – the area of Afghanistan and North-Western Pakistan historically inhabited by the Pashtun tribes
- Quhistan – a region of medieval Persia, essentially the southern part of Greater Khorasan
- Registan – historic site in Samarkand, meaning "place of sand"
- Russian Turkestan – Turkestan in the Russian Empire, later Turkestan Autonomous SSR
- Sakastan or Sistan – region of Afghanistan and Pakistan where Scythians or Sakas resided in the 2nd century BCE
- Saraikistan – a proposed region in southern Punjab province of Pakistan
- South Waziristan – southern part of Waziristan region in Pakistan
- Tabaristan – a historical region along the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea
- Turgistan or Turestan – a Sasanian province
- Talyshistan – ethnolinguistic region in the SE Caucasus and NW Iran
- Tokharistan, Tocharistan or Tukharistan, also known as Balkh or Bactria – the ancient name of a historical region in Central Asia, located between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus)
- Turkestan or Turkistan – ethnolinguistic region of Turkic peoples and languages, encompassing Central Asia, northwest China, parts of the Caucasus and Asia Minor
- Uyghurstan, China, same as East Turkestan
- Waziristan – a region of northwest Pakistan
- Qabailistan - a region in western Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
- Zabulistan – a historical region roughly corresponding to today's Zabul Province in southern Afghanistan.
- Khalistan or Sikhistan – a proposed country created from areas within India with a Sikh majority
- Maronistan – a proposed name for Maronite state in Lebanon during the Lebanese Civil War.
- Sunnistan, Shiastan and Kurdistan – a proposed division of Syria and Iraq where Sunni-majority, Shia-majority and Kurdish-majority areas can have their own countries
- Adjikistan – a fictional central Asian country in the videogame SOCOM U.S. Navy SEALs: Combined Assault.
- Aldastan – a fictional central Asian country consisting of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, from Command & Conquer: Generals.
- Avgatiganistan – a pun of 'Afghanistan', it means 'Fried eggs' ('Avga tiganista') in Greek. Fictional country by author Eugene Trivizas.
- Azadistan – a fictional kingdom from the anime Mobile Suit Gundam 00, It means "free land".
- Azmanastan (or Uzmenistan) – a fictional country and region in the film The Expendables 3.
- Bangistan – a fictional country in the Bollywood movie Bangistan (2015) starring Riteish Deshmukh and Pulkit Samrat.
- Bazrakhistan – a fictional former Soviet republic in the movie Act of War (1998) starring Jack Scalia.
- Belgistan – a fictional Middle Eastern country in the anime Gasaraki.
- Berzerkistan – a fictional republic run by genocidal terrorist godhead and President for Life Trff Bmzklfrpz, in the comic strip Doonesbury.
- Brajikistan – a fictional country from season 2 of the teen sitcom Wingin' It.
- Cobrastan – a fake fictional country made up by a character named Jorji Costava in his passport from the game Papers, Please.
- Derkaderkastan – a fictional Middle Eastern country in Team America: World Police.
- Franistan – a fictional country referred to in the television show I Love Lucy.
- Helmajistan – a fictional area from the anime Full Metal Panic!.
- Howduyustan ("how do you stand?") – a fictional country from Uncle Scrooge comic book stories.
- Irakistan – a fictional country in the game Broforce
- Iranistan – an oriental region of Hyborea (Conan the Barbarian stories).
- Istan – a fictional island state in the online role-playing game, Guild Wars Nightfall.
- Kamistan (Islamic Republic of) – a fictional Middle Eastern country featured in the television series 24.
- Kazanistan – an ideal state imagined by John Rawls in The Law of Peoples, in which there is a system of law, legal representation for all groups, and a respect for basic human rights, but not full democracy.
- Kehjistan – the state of the eastern jungles in the game Diablo II.
- Kekistan – a fictional country created by 4chan members that has become a political meme and online movement.
- Kerakhistan – a fictional Middle Eastern country featured in the tabletop miniature wargame Battlefield Evolution.
- Kreplachistan – a fictional country in the Austin Powers film series.
- Langbortistan – a fictional country in the Danish Donald Duck cartoons
- Lojbanistan – the fictional country lojbanists imagine themselves inhabiting 
- Moldovistan – a fictional island country in The Real Adventures of Jonny Quest.
- Obristan – a fictional country in Papers, Please.
- Paristan or Pari-estan – a fairyland in the folklore of Middle East, South Asia and Central Asia.
- Pokolistan – a fictional country in DC Comics.
- Serdaristan – a fictional country in Battlefield: Bad Company.
- Takistan – a fictional country in ARMA 2: Operation Arrowhead.
- Tazbekistan – a fictional central Asian nation in the BBC television series Ambassadors.
- Trashcanistan – a fictional country mentioned by the hosts of "MXC".
- Turaqistan – a fictional country in the movie War, Inc..
- Turmezistan – a fictional country in Doctor Who.
- Tyrgyzstan – a fictional country in the BBC television drama The State Within.
- Yakyakistan - a fictional northern country in My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic.
- Zekistan – a fictional central Asian nation in the video game Full Spectrum Warrior.
- Absurdistan – sometimes used to satirically describe a country where everything goes wrong
- Bimaristan – a kind of hospital in medieval Persia and the medieval Islamic world
- Bradistan – a moniker for Bradford, England, owing to its large population of Pakistani worker migrants
- Dalitstan.org – a Dalit advocacy website active until mid-2006, one of 18 websites that were blocked by the Indian government to check for hate messages following the 11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings.
- Dondestan – an album by Robert Wyatt. Sounds like Spanish: "¿Dónde están?", lit. 'Where are they?'.
- Filmistan – a film-production company
- Gazimestan – name of a monument commemorating the historical Battle of Kosovo
- Hamastan – a concept of a Palestinian Islamic government with Sharia as law
- Iranistan – a pseudo-orientalist mansion built for P. T. Barnum in 1848 in Connecticut
- Islamistan – means 'Land of Islam', used in various contexts
- Jewistan – a moniker proposed by Professor Francis Boyle as a replacement name for the state of Israel.
- Londonistan – French counter-terrorism agents gave the British/English capital of London this sobriquet. Sometimes used derogatorily to refer to the large immigrant, especially Muslim population in the city of London.
- Muristan – a complex of streets and shops in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem
- New Yorkistan – the title of the cover art for the December 10, 2001 edition of The New Yorker magazine
- The New Yorkistan map itself included various districts ending in -stan, e.g., Bronxistan, Cold Turkeystan, Fuhgeddabouditstan, Gaymenistan, Taxistan, Youdontunderstandistan, etc.
- Paganistan – the pagan/neo-pagan community of Minneapolis-Saint Paul in Minnesota
- Registan – a UNESCO World Heritage Site in central Samarkand, Uzbekistan
- Sarvestan – a Sassanid-era palace in the Iranian province of Sarvestan
- Shabestan – an underground space, usually found in traditional architecture of mosques, houses, and schools in ancient Persia
- Shahrestan (several meanings)
- Skateistan – a skateboarding/educational organization based in Kabul, Afghanistan
- Toucanistan – satyrical nickname for São Paulo (state), Brazilian state where the Brazilian Social Democracy Party, called as "Toucans", is hegemonic
- Yooperstan – a satirical name for regions of Michigan speaking Upper Peninsula English
- Johnson, Bridget. "'Stan Countries – What the Suffix 'Stan' Means". About.com. Archived from the original on March 30, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Harper, Douglas. "-stan". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
- Google Ngram Uzbekia, Kirgizia, Turkmenia, Tajikia
- Becker, Seymour (2004). Russia's Protectorates in Central Asia: Bukhara and Khiva, 1865–1924. Routledge. p. 553. ISBN 1-134-33582-2.
As early as June 1920, Lenin had toyed with the idea of dividing Russian Turkestan into three national regions: Uzbekia, Kirgizia and Turkmenia.
- "Cobrastan". Papers Please Wiki. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
- "Lojbnaistan". lojban wiki. 4 November 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- Cowan, John Waldemar (1997). "1". The Complete Lojban Language (First ed.). Fairfax, VA, USA: The Logical Language Group. p. 3. ISBN 0-9660283-0-9.
- Dibyesh Anand (15 October 2011). Hindu Nationalism in India and the Politics of Fear. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-0-230-36263-5.
- "Govt blocks 18 sites to check hate messages". The Times of India. 2006-07-19.
- Jewistan: Finally Recognizing Israel as the Jewish State by Francis A. Boyle, Dissident Voice, October 21st, 2010. Accessed 2014-12-27. Archived 2014-12-30.
- Connections @ Illinois – Jewistan: Finally Recognizing Israel as a Jewish State Archived April 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine..
- Abbas Accepts Occupation Harshness By Stephen Lendman, People's Voice, February 7th, 2014. Accessed 2014-12-27. Archived 2014-12-30.
- Anti-Semitic Website Attacks Fiveish: “Sick Jew Children Dance with Dollar Bill Man to Bring Joy”, Matzav.com, Wednesday July 9, 2014.
- Pizza, Murphy (2009). "Schism as midwife: how conflict aided the birth of a contemporary Pagan community". In Lewis, James R.; Lewis, Sarah M. Sacred schisms: how religions divide (PDF). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 249–261. ISBN 978-0-511-58071-0. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
[...] the Pagan community of the Minnesota Twin Cities, otherwise known by members as 'Paganistan.'