Pepe the Frog
Pepe the Frog (//) is an Internet meme. A green anthropomorphic frog with a humanoid body, Pepe originated in a comic by Matt Furie called Boy's Club. It became an Internet meme when its popularity steadily grew across Myspace, Gaia Online and 4chan in 2008. By 2015, it had become one of the most popular memes used on 4chan and Tumblr. Different types of Pepe include "Sad Frog", "Smug Frog", "Angry Pepe", "Feels Frog", and "You will never ..." Frog. Since 2014, "Rare Pepes" have been posted on the (sarcastic) "meme market" as if they were trading cards.
|Boy's Club character|
Pepe in his original format
|First appearance||Boy's Club (2005)|
|Created by||Matt Furie|
By 2016, the character's image had been appropriated as a symbol of the alt-right movement. The Anti-Defamation League included Pepe in its hate symbol database but wrote that most instances of Pepe were not used in a hate-related context. Since then, Pepe's creator has expressed his dismay at Pepe being used as a hate symbol and has sued organisations for doing so. In 2019, Pepe was used by protesters in the Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests as a symbol of liberty and resistance.
Pepe the Frog was created by American artist and cartoonist Matt Furie in 2005. Its usage as a meme came from his comic Boy's Club #1. The progenitor of Boy's Club was a zine Furie made on Microsoft Paint called Playtime, which included Pepe as a character. He posted his comic in a series of blog posts on Myspace in 2005.
In the comic, Pepe is seen urinating with his pants pulled down to his ankles and the catchphrase "feels good man" was his rationale. Furie took those posts down when the printed edition was published in 2006.
Pepe was used in blog posts on Myspace and became an in-joke on Internet forums. In 2008, the page containing Pepe and the catchphrase was scanned and uploaded to 4chan's /b/ board, which has been described as the meme's "permanent home". The meme took off among 4chan users, who adapted Pepe's face and catchphrase to fit different scenarios and emotions, such as melancholy, anger, and surprise. Color was also added; originally a black-and-white line drawing, Pepe became green with brown lips, sometimes in a blue shirt. "Feels Guy", or "Wojak", originally an unrelated character typically used to express melancholy, was eventually often paired with Pepe in user-made comics or images.
In 2014, images of Pepe were shared on social media by celebrities such as Katy Perry and Nicki Minaj. As Pepe became more widespread, 4chan users began referring to particularly creative and unique variants of the meme as "rare Pepes". These images, sometimes as physical paintings, were sold on eBay and posted on Craigslist. 4chan users referred to those who used the meme outside the website as "normies" (or "normalfags"). In 2015, Pepe was #6 on Daily News and Analysis's list of the most important memes and the most retweeted meme on Twitter.
Appropriation by the alt-right
During the 2016 United States presidential election, the meme was connected to Donald Trump's campaign. In October 2015, Trump retweeted a Pepe representation of himself, associated with a video called "You Can't Stump the Trump (Volume 4)". Later in the election, Roger Stone and Donald Trump Jr. posted a parody movie poster of The Expendables on Twitter and Instagram titled "The Deplorables", a play on Hillary Clinton's controversial phrase "basket of deplorables", which included Pepe's face among those of members of the Trump family and other figures popular among the alt-right.
Also during the election, various news organizations reported associations of the character with white nationalism and the alt-right. In May 2016, Olivia Nuzzi of The Daily Beast wrote that there was "an actual campaign to reclaim Pepe from normies" and that "turning Pepe into a white nationalist icon" was an explicit goal of some on the alt-right. In September 2016, an article published on Hillary Clinton's campaign website described Pepe as "a symbol associated with white supremacy" and denounced Trump's campaign for its supposed promotion of the meme. The same month, the two sources for Nuzzi's Daily Beast article revealed to The Daily Caller that they had coordinated beforehand to mislead Nuzzi (particularly about the existence of a campaign) under the expectation that she would uncritically repeat what she was told, with one saying, "Basically, I interspersed various nuggets of truth and exaggerated a lot of things, and sometimes outright lied—in the interest of making a journalist believe that online Trump supporters are largely a group of meme-jihadis who use a cartoon frog to push Nazi propaganda. Because this was funny to me." The Anti-Defamation League, an American organization opposed to antisemitism, included Pepe in its hate symbol database but wrote that most instances of Pepe were not used in a hate-related context. In January 2017, in a response to "pundits" calling on Theresa May to disrupt Trump's relationship with Russia, the Russian Embassy in the United Kingdom tweeted an image of Pepe. White supremacist Richard B. Spencer, during a street interview after Trump's inauguration, was preparing to explain the meaning of a Pepe pin on his jacket when he was punched in the face, with the resulting video itself becoming the source of many memes.
In an interview with Esquire, Furie said of Pepe's usage as a hate symbol, "It sucks, but I can't control it more than anyone can control frogs on the Internet". Fantagraphics Books, Furie's publisher, issued a statement condemning the "illegal and repulsive appropriations of the character". On October 17, Furie published a satirical take of Pepe's appropriation by the alt-right movement on The Nib. This was his first comic for the character since he ended Boy's Club in 2012. On May 6, 2017, on Free Comic Book Day, it was announced that Furie had killed Pepe off in response to the character's continued use as a hate symbol. But in an interview with Carol Off on her show As It Happens Furie said that despite news of Pepe's death, he will eventually return: "The end is a chance for a new beginning ... I got some plans for Pepe that I can't really discuss, but he's going to rise from the ashes like a phoenix ... in a puff of marijuana smoke." Soon thereafter, Furie announced his intention to "resurrect" Pepe, launching a crowdfunding campaign for a new comic book featuring Pepe.
During the 2016 United States presidential election, Kek became associated with alt-right politics. Kek is associated with the occurrence of repeating digits, known as "dubs",[original research?] on 4chan, as if he had the ability to influence reality through internet memes.
Since late 2016, the satirical ethnicity of Kekistan has been used by U.S.-based alt-right protesters opposed to what they view as political correctness. These Kekistanis decry the "oppression" of their people and troll counterprotesters by waving the "national flag of Kekistan" (modeled after the Nazi war flag, with the red replaced by green, the Iron Cross replaced by the logo for 4chan, and the swastika replaced by a rubric for KEK). This flag was prominently displayed at the 2017 Berkeley protest for free speech in mid-April, and the Unite the Right rally in August 2017.
In June 2017, a proposed app and Flappy Bird clone called "Pepe Scream" was rejected from the Apple App Store due to its depiction of Pepe the Frog. The app's developer, under the name "MrSnrhms", posted a screenshot of his rejection letter on /r/The Donald. The app is available on the Google Play Store.
A children's book appropriating the Pepe character, The Adventures of Pepe and Pede, advanced "racist, Islamophobic and hate-filled themes", according to a federal lawsuit Furie filed. The suit was settled out of court in August 2017, with terms including the withdrawal of the book from publication and the profits being donated to the nonprofit Council on American-Islamic Relations. Initially self-published, the book was subsequently published by Post Hill Press. The book's author, a vice-principal with the Denton Independent School District, was reassigned after the publicity.
In January 2019, the video game Jesus Strikes Back: Judgment Day was released, which allows players to play as Pepe the Frog, among other figures, and murder various target groups including feminists, minorities, and liberals.
In June 2019, Furie received a $15,000 out of court settlement in a copyright infringement case against Infowars and Alex Jones concerning unlicensed use of the image of Pepe the Frog on far-right themed posters. Furie stated that he would continue to "enforce his copyrights aggressively to make sure nobody else is profiting off associating Pepe the Frog with hateful imagery."
"Esoteric Kekism", or the Cult of Kek, is a term for the parody religion of worshipping Pepe the Frog, which sprang from the similarity of the slang term for laughter, "kek", and the name of the ancient Egyptian frog god of darkness, Kek. This deity, in turn, was associated with Pepe the Frog on internet forums. The internet meme has its origin on the internet message forum 4chan and other chans, and the board /pol/ in particular. Kek references are closely associated with Trump and the alt-right.
"Kek" originated as a variation of "lel", itself a variation of "lol", and seems to come from the video game World of Warcraft, or alternatively a Korean onomatopoeia for laughter written as "kekeke". The phrase then became associated with the Egyptian deity of the same name. "Esoteric Kekism" references the "Esoteric Hitlerism" of writer Savitri Devi.
Kekistan is a fictional country created by 4chan members that has become a political meme and online movement. The name is a portmanteau of "kek" and the suffix "-stan", a common Central Asian country suffix. Kekistanis identify themselves as "shitposters" persecuted by excessive political correctness. Self-identified Kekistanis have created a fictional history around the meme, including the invasion and overthrow of other fictional countries such as "Normistan" and "Cuckistan". Kekistanis have also adopted Internet personality Gordon Hurd (in his "Big Man Tyrone" persona) as their president and the 1986 Italo disco record "Shadilay" (originally performed by a group named P.E.P.E., an apparent pun on the similarity between the band's name and Pepe the Frog's) as a national anthem. The record gained attention from the group in September 2016 because of the name of the group (P.E.P.E) and art on the record depicting a frog holding a magic wand.
Cheong credits Carl Benjamin, who uses the pseudonym Sargon of Akkad on YouTube, for popularizing the meme. Benjamin claimed that Kekistanis could technically classify as an ethnic group for the British census, and contacted the Office for National Statistics to request that it be added, but was unsuccessful.[better source needed]
Symbol of Hong Kong protests
Hong Kong protestors began to use depictions of Pepe the Frog as a symbol of liberty and resistance against the extradition bill and police brutality in the 2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests. New images of Pepe the Frog surfaced showing Pepe with an injured eye after a young female first aider got her eye gouged by a projectile thrown by police and spurred a new protest campaign called "An eye for an eye". A sign with Pepe with an injured eye holding by a young nurse with her one eye covered gained international media attention. Furie responded in an email with a protester, stating "This is great news! Pepe for the people!".
- Priscilla, Frank (September 30, 2016). "The Strange Internet Journey of Pepe The 'Chilled-Out Stoner Frog'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
- Khan, Imad (April 12, 2015). "4chan's Pepe the Frog is bigger than ever—and his creator feels good, man". The Daily Dot. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- Hathaway, Jay (December 9, 2015). "Tumblr's Biggest Meme of 2015 Was Pepe the Frog". New York Magazine. Archived from the original on July 25, 2017. Retrieved 2017-09-14.
- "We Asked The Art World How Much Rare Pepes Are Going For". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved 2018-08-21.
- "About US – Rare Pepe Directory". rarepepedirectory.com. Retrieved 2018-08-21.
- Kiberd, Roisin (April 9, 2015). "4chan's Frog Meme Went Mainstream, So They Tried to Kill It". Motherboard. Vice Media. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- Furie, Matt (October 13, 2016). "Pepe the Frog's Creator: I'm Reclaiming Him. He Was Never About Hate". Time. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
- Segal, Oren (September 29, 2016). "Pepe the Frog: yes, a harmless cartoon can become an alt-right mascot". The Guardian. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
- "Pepe the Frog". Anti-Defamation League. September 27, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
- "Pepe the Frog meme branded a 'hate symbol'". BBC News. September 28, 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
- Swinyard, Holly (June 13, 2019). "Pepe the Frog creator wins $15,000 settlement against Infowars". The Guardian.
- "Pepe The Frog is a symbol of liberty during Hong Kong pro-democracy protests". Reclaim the Net. August 13, 2019.
- Furino, Giaco (August 3, 2016). "Pepe the Frog's Creator Talks Making Zine History". The Creators Project. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- Mazur, A.J. (August 7, 2010). "Q&A with Matt Furie". Know Your Meme. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- Collins, Sean T. (July 28, 2015). "The Creator of Pepe the Frog Talks About Making Comics in the Post-Meme World". Vice. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- Haskell, Will (July 30, 2015). "This guy created the frog meme that's all over the internet — here's why he's 'kinda pissed off'". Tech Insider. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- Notopoulos, Katie (May 11, 2015). "1,272 Rare Pepes". BuzzFeed. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
- Blevins, Joe (October 28, 2015). "Read This: Could images of 4chan's 'sad frog' meme actually be worth money?". The A.V. Club. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- Bergado, Gabe (September 10, 2015). "The rare Pepe trade is booming on Craigslist". The Daily Dot. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- Nair, Roshni (December 27, 2015). "Best of 2015: 15 memes that won the internet". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- "Here are the 10 most important memes of 2015, according to Tumblr". Irish Examiner. December 8, 2015. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- Ellis, Emma Grey (September 14, 2016). "Gab, the Alt-Right's Very Own Twitter, Is The Ultimate Filter Bubble". Wired. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
- Weich, Ben (2018-10-29). "What is Gab? The alt-right social media platform used by suspected Pittsburgh shooter Robert Bowers". The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
- Caldwell, Don. "Activists Adopt Pepe Memes in Hong Kong Protests". Know Your Meme. Literally Media Ltd. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
- Ko, Christina (August 17, 2019). "How Pepe the Frog became face of Hong Kong protests – despite cartoon being a symbol of hate in US". South China Morning Post. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
- Resnick, Gideon (October 20, 2015). "4chan 4 Trump". The Daily Beast. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- Dickson, Caitlin (September 12, 2016). "Trump's son, adviser share image featuring white nationalists' favorite cartoon frog". Yahoo! News. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Sarlin, Benjy (August 25, 2016). "5 Things to Know About the 'Right'". NBC News. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Dovere, Edward-Isaac (September 12, 2016). "Why Clinton's bad weekend won't rewrite the race". Politico. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Kampeas, Ron (September 1, 2016). "Do alt-right's white identity politics sanction anti-Semitism?". J. Weekly. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Nuzzi, Olivia (May 26, 2016). "How Pepe the Frog Became a Nazi Trump Supporter and Alt-Right Symbol". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Chan, Elizabeth (September 12, 2016). "Donald Trump, Pepe the frog, and white supremacists: an explainer". Hillary for America. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Revesz, Rachael (September 13, 2016). "Hillary Clinton attacks Donald Trump for posting Pepe the Frog meme". The Independent. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Bennett, Jonah (September 14, 2016). "Here's How Two Twitter Pranksters Convinced The World That Pepe The Frog Meme Is Just A Front For White Nationalism". The Daily Caller. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
- Smith IV, Jack (September 27, 2016). "Pepe the Frog meme is now on the ADL's hate symbol database. Feels bad, man". Mic. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- Marcin, Tim (January 9, 2017). "Russian Embassy Posts Pepe The Frog Meme, A White Supremacist Hate Symbol, According To ADL". International Business Times. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- Beauchamp, Zack (January 9, 2017). "The Russian government just tweeted an image of a white supremacist frog". Vox. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- Murphy, Paul P. (January 21, 2017). "White nationalist Richard Spencer punched during interview". CNN Politics.
- Amatulli, Jenna (January 23, 2017). "Pepe's creator comments on alt-right leader Richard Spencer getting punched". Huffington Post.
- Miller, Matt (September 28, 2016). "Exclusive: The Creator of Pepe the Frog Is Voting for Hillary". Esquire. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
- "The Truth About Pepe the Frog". Fantagraphics Books. October 6, 2016. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
- Wade, Cameron (October 17, 2016). "Pepe the Frog Creator Matt Furie Pens New Comic Showing Pepe's Alt-Right Nightmare". Paste. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
- Powell, Austin (October 17, 2016). "Pepe the Frog creator's new Trump comic captures the horror of the 2016 election". The Daily Dot. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
- "Pepe the Frog 'is killed off to avoid being a hate symbol'". BBC News. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
- Vincent, James (8 May 2017). "Pepe the Frog is officially dead". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
- "Pepe lives! Artist Matt Furie says internet-famous frog will 'rise from the ashes'". News.club. Retrieved May 10, 2017.[permanent dead link]
- "As It Happens: Pepe lives! Artist Matt Furie says internet-famous frog will 'rise from the ashes'". CBC Listen. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- "Pepe the Frog rises from the dead, creator says". ABC News. June 27, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Moomaw, Graham (February 16, 2017). "In Charlottesville, GOP candidate for governor Corey Stewart allies with alt-right-inspired blogger who wants to protect 'glorious Western civilization'". Richmond Times-Dispatch.
- Mardell, Mark (September 22, 2016). "Naked Nigel, the God Kek and modern politics". BBC News.
- King, James (November 22, 2016). "Cucks & Kek: Racism's Old Guard Reaches Out To An Online Generation". Vocativ.
- Lock, Colm (December 1, 2016). "Harambe and the magic of memes". The Mancunion. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
- Harkinson, Josh (October 27, 2016). "Meet the White Nationalist Trying To Ride The Trump Train to Lasting Power". Mother Jones.
- Hathaway, Jay (November 7, 2016). "Trump Fans Unleash Last-Minute Flood of Pepe the Frog Memes". The Daily Dot. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
- Spencer, Paul (November 18, 2016). "Trump's Occult Online Supporters Believe 'Meme Magic' Got Him Elected". Motherboard. Vice Media.
- Wilson, Jason (May 23, 2017). "Hiding in plain sight: how the 'alt-right' is weaponizing irony to spread fascism". The Guardian. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- Neiwert, David (May 8, 2017). "What the Kek: Explaining the Alt-Right 'Deity' Behind Their 'Meme Magic'". Southern Poverty Law Center.
- Woods, Baynard (May 8, 2017). "Democracy in Crisis: Populism, Belonging, and Inside Jokes at Trump's Reality Show Rally". Washington City Paper.
- "kekbanner.jpg". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Lenz, Ryan (May 1, 2017). "The Battle for Berkeley: In the name of freedom of speech, the radical right is circling the Ivory Tower to ensure a voice for the alt-right". Southern Poverty Law Center.
- "Deconstructing the symbols and slogans spotted in Charlottesville". Washington Post. August 18, 2017. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
- Porter, Tom (August 13, 2017). "Here's a guide to the white nationalist groups involved in the Charlottesville demonstration". Newsweek. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
- Koebler, Jason; Matsakis, Louise (June 9, 2017). "Pepe Is Banned From the Apple App Store". Motherboard. Vice Media. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- Tarantola, Andrew (June 9, 2017). "Apple deems Pepe 'objectionable' and bans the frog from its App Store". Engadget. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- Wootson, Cleve R. (August 15, 2017). "An assistant principal wrote a children's book about alt-right mascot Pepe the frog. It cost him his job". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
- Deb, Sopan (August 30, 2017). "Pepe the Frog Cartoonist Stops Distribution of Children's Book". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 1, 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
- EDT, Alfred Joyner On 6/3/19 at 5:55 AM (June 3, 2019). "Anger over "sick" video game that allows you to play as Donald Trump gunning down migrants, feminists and Antifa". Newsweek.
- Smith, Blake (December 17, 2016). "Writings of French Hindu who worshipped Hitler as an avatar of Vishnu are inspiring the US alt-right". Scroll.in.
- "How an ancient Egyptian god spurred the rise of Trump". The Conversation. March 7, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
- Burton, Tara Isabella (February 14, 2017). "Apocalypse Whatever". Real Life. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
- Menegus, Bryan (January 4, 2017). "Trump Supporters Outraged By Slight To Pepe Meme". Gizmodo.
- Broderick, Ryan (January 25, 2017). "Trump Supporters And Neo-Nazis Are Using Secret Chatrooms To Harass Shia LaBeouf". Buzzfeed.
- "The Emerging Racists: The Challenge of Covering the Radical Right". The Southern Poverty Law Center. December 19, 2016.
- King, J.J. (September 14, 2016). "Steal This Show S02E02: 'The Platform Is You'". TorrentFreak.
- Kestenbaum, Sam (February 17, 2017). "In Elaborate Joke, Internet Provocateurs Turn 'Trash Bird' Into Nazi Icon". The Forward.
- Goldberg, Michelle (February 23, 2017). "Alt-Right Facts". Slate.
- Bruet-Ferréol, Quentin (November 17, 2016). "Les trolls de 4chan sont persuadés d'avoir fait élire Donald Trump". Slate (in French).
- Nunez, E. J. (November 2, 2016). "Alt-right is a new, evolving movement". The Cougar.
- Dickson, Caitlin (November 23, 2016). "What 'alt-right' really means: a glossary of terms". Yahoo! News.
- Colon, David (December 8, 2016). "More Swastikas Surface In Hell's Kitchen, Newtown Creek Nature Walk". Gothamist. Archived from the original on November 5, 2017.
- "Mosque Arson Suspect Left Social Media Hints of Anti-Muslim, Anti-Semitic Views". The Southern Poverty Law Center.
- "Alt-right trolls Pennsylvania with billboard of Trump Pepe". The Daily Dot. October 6, 2016.
- "Wew, lad: Everyone hates this meme that simply refuses to die". The Daily Dot. September 12, 2016.
- Sarkar, Samit (September 14, 2017). "Bungie explains how Destiny 2 armor resembling hate symbol made it into the game". Polygon.com. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- Devi, Savitri (June 8, 2015). The Lightning and the Sun. Counter Currents Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9781935965541 – via Google Books.
- Singal, Jesse (May 30, 2016). "4chan Isn't Sure Whether It's Excited the Times Wrote Up Its Anti-Semitism". New York.
- Posner, Sarah (February 24, 2017). "CPAC's Flirtation With the Alt-Right Is Turning Awkward". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
- Hathaway, Jay (February 15, 2017). "The alt-right is trying to co-opt that dumb purple bird on Facebook". The Daily Dot.
- Hine, G. E.; Onaolapo, J.; De Cristofaro, E.; Kourtellis, N.; Leontiadis, I.; Samaras, R.; Stringhini, G.; Blackburn, J. (October 11, 2016). "Kek, Cucks, and God Emperor Trump: A Measurement Study of 4chan's Politically Incorrect Forum and Its Effects on the Web". Social and Information Networks. arXiv:1610.03452. Bibcode:2016arXiv161003452E.
- Neiwert, David. "What the Kek: Explaining the Alt-Right 'Deity' Behind Their 'Meme Magic'". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
- Cheong, Ian Miles (May 29, 2017). "What is Kekistan? The Internet's Most Controversial Political Meme Explained". Heatstreet. Archived from the original on July 4, 2017. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- Spector, Zeke (2017-11-03). "Meet Big Man Tyrone, the president of Kekistan (not a real country)". Vice News. Retrieved 2017-12-20.
- Alonso, Nicolás (February 21, 2017). "Diccionario del mundo Trump". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved July 10, 2017.
- Benjamin, Carl (March 12, 2017). "Sargon of Akkad explains Kekistan to The Amazing Atheist #FreeKekistan". YouTube. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
- Victor, Daniel (2019-08-19). "Hong Kong Protesters Love Pepe the Frog. No, They're Not Alt-Right". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
- 向樂高 (2019-08-20). "青蛙Pepe曾被指極右象徵 今常見香港示威現場 創作者咁回應…". 香港01 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2019-08-22.
- "Pepe青蛙成逆權運動文宣～網民去信告知原作者，原作者：「Pepe for the people！」". Holiday 假期日常 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2019-08-22.
- Singal, Jesse (September 16, 2016). "How Internet Trolls Won the 2016 Presidential Election". New York. Retrieved September 16, 2016.