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The Venda (VhaVenda or Vhangona) are a Southern African Bantu people living mostly near the South African-Zimbabwean border. The bantustan of Venda was created to become a homeland for the Venda people. The Venda people, like their Tsonga neighbours, are one of South Africa's minority groups, they currently number 700 000 speakers in Limpopo Province, while the Tsonga at their doorsteps number 900,000 people, also in Limpopo province.
|0.7 million – 1.0 million|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Christianity, Traditional African religion|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Shonas, Kalangas and other Bantu peoples|
The Venda of today are Vhangona, Takalani (Ungani), Masingo and others. Vhangona are the original inhabitants of Venda, they are also referred as Vhongwani wapo; while Masingo and others are originally from the Congo and the East African Rift, migrating across the Limpopo river during the Bantu expansion.
The Venda of today are descendants of many heterogeneous groupings and clans such as:
- Dzindou dza Hakhomunala Mutangwe / Dzatshamanyatsha
- Dzindou dza Vharundwa / Dza Mitshetoni /Dza Manenzhe
- Vhadau vhatshiheni
- Vhadau Madamani
- Vha Ha-Ramavhulela
- Vha Ha-Nemutudi
- Masingo; and
- Runganani(marungadzi nndevhelaho)
Vhadau, Vhakwevho, Vhafamadi, Vhania, Vhalea, and Vhaluvhu were collectively known as Vhangona. The Vhangona and Vhambedzi are considered to be the original inhabitants of Venda and the first people to live there.
The land of Vhangona was later settled by Karanga-Rodzvi clans from Zimbabwe: Vhatwanamba, Vhanyai, Vhatavhatsindi, and Vhalembethu. Masingo, Vhalaudzi, and Vhalemba are late arrivals in Venda.
According to one version of Vhangona oral history the capital of Vhangona was Mapungubwe with the Raphulu Royal House as the most senior royal house of the Vhangona. According to this version the Vhangona Kingdom had approximately 145 chiefdoms and a King (Thovhele). It is said that the Kingdom was divided into seven districts:
These districts were ruled by District Paramount Chiefs (Mahosi Mahulu), as follows:
- MuDzanani/Nesongozwi (Dzanani)
- Nembilwi (Mbilwi)
- Netswime (Tswime)
- Netshiendeulu (Tshiendeulu)
- Netshakhuma (Tshakhuma)
- Netshamanyatsha (Tshamanyantsha)
- Makhahani (Thulamela)
- NELWAMONDO (Lwamondo)
Each district had Chiefs (Khosi) who paid tribute to Mahosi Mahulu (Paramount Chiefs), then there were Headmen (VhaMusanda) and then Petty Headmen (Vhakoma). This tradition states that one of the Vhangona kings was Kinrg Shiriyadenga whose royal kraal was at Mapungubwe. It is not clear if this Shiriyadenga is the same Shiriyedenga of the Sanga dynasty, a Karanga-Rozvi branch. The Sanga dynasty, in Zimbabwe's eastern highlands, was founded by Chiphaphami Shiriyedenga who died in 1672. Could it be that at one point the Karanga-Rodzvi Empire extended beyond the Vhembe (Limpopo) River, and that the Vhangona, though not Karanga-speaking, were at one point under Karanga-Rodzvi rule?
The other version of Vhangona history disputes that the Vhangona were ever united under one chief or king. It says that the Vhangona had different independent chiefdoms and that the Vhangona chief of Nzhelele valley was Tshidziwelele of the Mudau clan. What is clear, however, is that the Vhatwanamba, who were of Karanga-Rodzvi origin, conquered Vhangona clans who lived in Mapungubwe, Musina, Ha-Tshivhula, Ha-Lishivha, Ha-Matshete, Ha-Mulambwane, and Ha-Madzhie (the areas of Ha-Tshivhula, Ha-Lishivha, Ha-Matshete, and Ha-Mulambwane are known today as Alldays and Waterpoort).
Mapungubwe was the center of a kingdom with about 5,000 people living at its center. Mapungubwe as a trade center lasted between 1030 and 1290 AD. The people of Mapungubwe mined and smelted copper, iron and gold, spun cotton, made glass and ceramics, grew millet and sorghum, and tended cattle, goats and sheep.
The people of Mapungubwe had a sophisticated knowledge of the stars, and astronomy played a major role not only in their tradition and culture, but also in their day-to-day lives. Mapungubwe traded with ancient Ethiopia through the ports of Adulis on the Red Sea and the ports of Raphta (now Quelimani) and Zafara (now Sofala) in Mozambique.
Mapungubwe predates the settlements at Great Zimbabwe, Thulamela and Dzata. It is believed that people left Mapungubwe for Great Zimbabwe because Great Zimbabwe was judged to have a more suitable climate.
The Venda were recognised as a traditional royal house in 2010 and Toni Mphephu Ramabulana has been acting king since 2012. In September 2016 Princess Masindi Mphephu, daughter of Tshimangadzi Mphephu (Venda Chief during 1993-1997), challenged her uncle Ramabulana for the throne. She claimed that she wasn't considered a candidate because of her sex.
Venda Education TransformationEdit
In the 1970s the Vhavenda people were among the poorest in South Africa. To entice them to accept independence as a Bantustan the South African government built a parliament, administrative offices and cabinet ministers' houses.
The old government under Mphephu heavily subsidized education in the form of free text books and near zero school fees, even though the government lacked sufficient funds to build proper schools and more emphasis was on excellence and hard work.
Notable Venda peopleEdit
The following is a list of notable Venda people who have their own Wikipedia articles
- Benedict Daswa, South African school teacher who is beatified by the Roman Catholic Church
- E. S. Madima, author
- Tenda Madima, author
- Tshilidzi Marwala, engineer and Vice-Chancellor and Principal of University of Johannesburg
- Florence Masebe, actress
- Mulalo Doyoyo, engineer and inventor
- Irene Mawela, singer and composer
- Mark Mathabane, author of Kaffir Boy
- Patrick Mphephu, first president of the Venda Bantustan
- Sydney Mufamadi, former minister
- Azwinndini Muronga, scientist
- Fulufhelo Nelwamondo, engineer and computer scientist
- Faith Muthambi, former minister
- Phillip Ndou, former boxer
- Lovemore Ndou, former boxer
- Joel Netshitenzhe, South African politician
- George Phadagi, first mayor of Thohoyandou
- Mizo Phyll, musician
- Kagiso Rabada, cricketer
- Cyril Ramaphosa, President of the Republic of South Africa.
- Ndivhudzannyi Ralivhona, musician
- Riky Rick, rapper
- Joe Mafela, actor
- Kembo Mohadi, Vice President of Zimbabwe.
- Mashudu Tshifularo, Professor University of Pretoria
- Mpho Tshivhase, Philosopher
- Daniel Mudau, former South African footballer
- Rodney Ramagalela, South African footballer
- Prince Neluonde, South African lawn bowler
- Eric Mathoho, South African footballer
- Mbulaeni Mulaudzi, late South African middle distance runner
- Rhoda Mulaudzi, South African footballer
- Gabriel Ramushwana, former head of state of the Bantustan of Venda
- Makhado, 19th century King of the Venda people
- Gabriel Temudzani, actor
- Jacob Tshisevhe, former South African footballer
- Tshifhiwa Munyai, South African boxer
- Clarence Munyai, South African sprinter
- Fred Phaswana, South African businessman
- Mmbara Hulisani Kevin, South African politician
- Tshilidzi Nephawe, South African basketball player
- Rudzani Ramudzuli, South African footballer
- Michael Masutha, South African politician
- Rendani Masutha, former military judge
- Emily Masanabo, South African naval officer
- Khume Ramulifho, South African politician
- Luvhengo Mungomeni, South African footballer
- Rasta Rasivhenge, South African rugby union referee
- "South africa – Tsonga and Venda". Country Studies. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- "INDIGENOUS PEOPLES ARCHIVE - VHAVENDA". Intercontinental Cry. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- "Vhavenda People". Pilot Guides. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- "Venda | African Tribes". Kruger National Park. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- "Vha Venda Culture". Alliance Française. Archived from the original on 16 June 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- "Battle for VhaVenda throne continues". enca.com. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- "Princess Masindi Mphephu loses court bid". msn.com. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- Wende, Hamilton (5 February 2011). "South African boxing that 'makes the heart strong'". BBC. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
- eDuzeNet. "Musangwe -The Mysterious Venda Combat". Bulawayo24 News. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
- Shalati Nkhwashu (21 February 2011). "It's jaw-breaking time as musangwe hits Soweto". Archived from the original on 15 October 2014.