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Help:IPA/Bulgarian and Macedonian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard Bulgarian and Standard Macedonian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-bg}}, {{IPA-mk}}, and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

When two examples are given, the first is in Bulgarian and the second in Macedonian. When a word has the same spelling in both languages or the sound does not occur in one language, only one example is given.

See Bulgarian phonology and Macedonian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these two languages.

Consonants
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
BG MK
b баба box
c кьопоолу,[1] ќар cute
d дом dust
d͡z дзифт, ѕвезда birds
d͡ʒ джем, џем jab
f филм fact
ɡ гарван good
ɟ гяур,[1] ѓавол argue
j сойка, пајак yes
k къща, куќа skill
l лимон leap
ɫ лош all
ʎ любов, љубов million
m море mocha
n нос north
ɲ баня, бања canyon
ŋ банка sing
p пет speak
r работа trilled r, like in Spanish
прст US: verb (trilled)
s стол salt, mask
ʃ шума sugar
t тайна, тајна style
t͡s цар bats
t͡ʃ чай, чај cheese
v вода view
x хартия, хартија loch (Scottish English)
z зима zoo
ʒ жълт, жолт pleasure
Marginal consonants
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
BG MK
ɫ̩ Попокатепетл little
њутн button
ɣ видях го between go and ahold
ç Хюз huge
w уиски water
Vowels
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
BG MK
a брат father
ɤ кът plus (General American, Scottish English)
ɛ цена edge
i сив police
ɔ слон off
u хубав, убав pool
Reduced vowels
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
BG MK
ɐ щерка, камък sofa
o нещо, уста thought (RP), coat (Scottish English)
Marginal vowels
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
BG MK
ə ксмет sofa
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
BG MK
ˈ Denotes stress on the following syllable
ˌ Denotes secondary stress on the following syllable
◌ʲ Denotes palatalization of the preceding consonant

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b A reference grammar of modern Bulgarian, Ernest A. Scatton, Slavica Publishers, 1984, p.17

SourcesEdit

  • Жобов, Владимир (2004), Звуковете в българския език
  • Lunt, Horace G. (1952), Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language, Skopje
  • Sabev, Mitko (2015), Reduction of unstressed central and back vowels in Contemporary Standard Bulgarian (PDF), Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow, UK
  • Scatton, Ernest A. (1984), A reference grammar of modern Bulgarian