COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia
The COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was confirmed to have spread to Indonesia on 2 March 2020, after a dance instructor and her mother tested positive for the virus. Both were infected from a Japanese national.
|COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia|
Cases per 100,000 by province as of 5 March 2021
Confirmed cases by province as of 5 March 2021
Deaths by province as of 5 March 2021
Recoveries by province as of 5 March 2021
|First outbreak||Wuhan, Hubei, China|
|Index case||Kemang, Jakarta|
|Arrival date||2 March 2020|
(1 year and 4 days)
|510 regencies and cities in 34 provinces|
see cases by province
|‡Suspected cases have not been confirmed by laboratory tests as being due to this strain, although some other strains may have been ruled out.|
By 9 April 2020, the pandemic had spread to all 34 provinces in the country. Jakarta, West Java, and Central Java are the worst-hit provinces, together accounting more than half of the national total cases. The largest increase of new cases in a single day occurred on 30 January 2021, when 14,518 cases were announced. At most 13,038 recoveries and 476 fatalities were ever recorded within a span of 24 hours. On 13 July 2020, the recoveries exceeded active cases for the first time.
As of 5 March 2021, Indonesia has reported 1,368,069 cases, the highest in Southeast Asia, ahead of the Philippines. With 37,026 deaths, Indonesia ranks third in Asia and 17th in the world. Review of data, however, indicated that the number of deaths may be much higher than what has been reported as those who died with acute COVID-19 symptoms but had not been confirmed or tested were not counted in the official death figure.
Indonesia has tested 7,350,641 people against its 270 million population so far, or around 27,265 people per million. The World Health Organization has urged the nation to perform more tests, especially on suspected patients.
Instead of implementing a nationwide lockdown, the government had approved large-scale social restrictions (Indonesian: Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar, abbreviated as PSBB) for some regencies and cities. Starting from late May 2020, they began to apply new normal, along with another green and yellow zone regions. This policy received much criticism and is considered as a 'disaster' due to the still increasing number of cases.
On 13 January 2021, President Joko Widodo was vaccinated at the presidential palace, officially kicking off Indonesia's vaccination program. As of 5 March 2021, 2,413,615 people had received the first dose of the vaccine, and 1,114,537 people had been fully vaccinated.
On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan, Hubei, China, which was reported to the WHO on 31 December 2019.
From January until February 2020, Indonesia reported zero cases of COVID-19, despite being surrounded by infected countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Australia. Flights from countries with high infection rate, including South Korea and Thailand, also continued to operate. Health experts and researchers at Harvard University in the United States expressed their concerns, saying that Indonesia is ill-prepared for an outbreak and there could be undetected COVID-19 cases.
On 2 March 2020, Indonesian president Joko Widodo announced the first cases in the country: a dance instructor and her mother in Depok, West Java. Both of them had held a dance class at a restaurant in Kemang, South Jakarta on 14 February, which was attended by more than a dozen people. One of whom was a Japanese, who was later tested positive for the COVID-19 in Malaysia. As Malaysia reported the case, the government of Indonesia began to trace anyone who have had close contact with the Japanese and the infected Indonesians.
The cluster was initially identified as the "Jakarta cluster" or the "dance class cluster", owing to the location of the infection. Since then, confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Indonesia began to increase slowly. By 8 March, a total of 6 people who had attended the dance class were infected by the COVID-19, including one case of repatriated Indonesian from the Diamond Princess. Several COVID-19 cases in West Java and Jakarta were found to have a link with the cluster.
The positive cases first confirmed in March are not the first Indonesians to have been infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In January, an Indonesian maid in Singapore contracted the virus from her employer.
The first confirmed death of COVID-19 in the country occurred on 11 March when a 53-year-old British citizen in Bali died. However, a Telkom employee who died on 3 March was found positive on 14 March.
A newborn baby who died in Manado, North Sulawesi on 19 May was declared as the youngest COVID-19 patient and fatality in Indonesia. On 11 April, an 11-month-old infant died at Bahteramas Regional General Hospital, Kendari while still under Patient Under Supervision (PDP) status. On 30 May, a centenarian from Surabaya had recovered, making her the oldest person to recover from COVID-19 in the country.
- A suspect is a person showing symptoms of respiratory infections, and has stayed within 14 days in any country or any region in Indonesia with local transmission and/or has established contact within 14 days with a confirmed or probable case and/or requires treatment at the hospital and has no possible diagnosis of other diseases.
- A probable case is a person, alive or deceased, who shows or showed obvious signs of COVID-19 symptoms and awaiting results of his or her swab test.
- A confirmed case is a person whose sample produced positive results based on swab or molecular rapid test. A confirmed case may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Due to lower accuracy and higher chance of false positives, a positive rapid or antibody test is not counted into the official number of cases.
- A close contact is a person who established contact with a probable or confirmed case between 2 days before and 14 days after symptoms show up, or the date of testing for asymptomatic cases. He or she must be quarantined for 14 days. Reclassification into suspect may be done should he or she show symptoms.
Other classifications include:
- A recovered case is recorded after a confirmed case is discharged from isolation. For an asymptomatic case, it is 10 days after a sample testing; for a symptomatic case, it is after a swab test or 10 days after onset of symptoms, and at least 3 days after no fever or respiratory difficulties.
- Death is recorded after someone who had been confirmed COVID-19 positive died. People who were classified into probable case's deaths are not counted in the official tally.
According to the Ministry of Domestic Affairs, a regency or municipality may be classified into three levels depending on the severity of COVID-19 cases within the region, according to these parameters:
- The number of positive cases within 14 days
- The number of suspected cases within 14 days
- The number of deaths buried according to COVID-19 protocol within 14 days
- Threat of disease contagions to healthcare workers
Each has a score of 15 points for increasing trends, 20 for stationary trends, and 25 for decreasing trends.
The three levels were assigned to a specific region:
- Red Zone if the total score reaches below 80 points. Large-scale social restrictions may be enforced.
- Yellow Zone if the total score reaches 80 to 95 points.
- Green Zone if the total score reaches 100 points (all 4 parameters show a decreasing trend).
Jakarta became the first province that confirmed COVID-19 cases, while Gorontalo was the last to do so. On 6 July, Jambi became the last province to report a death, 53 days after the penultimate province East Nusa Tenggara did. West Java set a record for most cases in a single day by a province with 4,601 cases, beating Jakarta's 4,213 cases. Java is currently the worst affected by the pandemic since it has more cases than all other regions combined. Furthermore, four most affected provinces are located on the island.
An additional 50 to 70 people were put under surveillance after coming into contact with the first two confirmed COVID-19 patients. This number includes those who had visited Mitra Keluarga Hospital in Depok, the hospital the two confirmed patients were previously admitted to before being transferred to North Jakarta.
A 37-year-old man who died in a hospital in Semarang suspected of having COVID-19 reportedly tested negative, and was instead afflicted by swine flu, probably picked up from recent travels to Spain.
In West Sumatra, two people who returned from abroad died at Padang's Dr. M. Djamil Central General Hospital. On 13 March, a woman who was being treated as a suspect of COVID-19 after returning from Umrah died. On 16 March, a 47-year-old man from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia landed at Minangkabau International Airport, showing symptoms of COVID-19. He was subsequently hospitalized at Padang's hospital and died on the same day.
Indonesia banned all flights from and to mainland China starting from 5 February. The government also stopped giving free visa and visa on arrival for Chinese nationals. Those who live or have stayed in mainland China in the previous 14 days have been barred from entering or transiting through Indonesia. Indonesians are discouraged from travelling to China.
Starting on 8 March, travel restrictions expanded to include Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do in South Korea, Lombardy, Veneto and Emilia-Romagna regions of Italy, and Tehran and Qom in Iran. Visitors with travel history within these countries but outside the aforementioned regions have to provide a valid health certificate during check-in for all transportation into Indonesia. Despite the restriction on travellers from South Korea, Indonesia is still allowing flights from the country.
The Ministry of Health ordered the installation of thermal scanners for at least 135 airport gates and port docks, and announced that provisioning over 100 hospitals with isolation rooms (to WHO-recommended standards) would begin. Starting on 4 March, Jakarta MRT also began scanning the temperature of passengers entering the stations and denying access to those with symptoms of high fever. Other public places such as mall and school also began to scan people at all their entrances.
After the first victim died, the Indonesian government admitted that they had difficulties in detecting incoming imported cases on airports, doing contact tracing and also location history for each case.
The Indonesian government announced on 4 March that it planned to turn a site on Galang Island, previously used as a refugee camp for Vietnamese asylum seekers into a 1,000-bed medical facility specially equipped to handle the coronavirus outbreak and other infectious diseases.
On 13 March, the government designated 132 treatment facilities across Indonesia. On 18 March 227 additional hospitals (109 military hospitals, 53 police Hospitals and 65 state-owned enterprises hospitals) are provisioned to cover more patients across the country. The government also established the COVID-19 Response Acceleration Task Force. Doni Monardo has been appointed to lead this team. On the same day, Minister of Home Affairs Tito Karnavian urged all of Indonesia's regional leaders to suspend all non-essential travel to foreign country.
On 15 March, President Widodo called on all Indonesians to practice what epidemiologists call social distancing to slow the spread of COVID-19 in the country. Indonesian tax authorities announced that they would move back the tax reporting deadline to 30 April 2020.
On 16 March, the Ministry of State-Owned Enterprises instructed its employees aged 50 and over to work from home. President Jokowi also clarified that the decision to implement lockdown on cities or regencies are only to be made after consultation with the central government.
As schools were closing in some regions, Minister of Education Nadiem Makarim announced the readiness of the Ministry of Education to assist schools in online learning by providing free teaching platforms. Minister of Finance Sri Mulyani also announced a shifting of infrastructure budget of 1 trillion IDR into healthcare and pandemic prevention.
On 17 March, COVID-19 health protocols have been released to public. Ministry of Foreign Affairs also expanded the travel restrictions to temporary abolish visa free entry to Indonesia for one month and deny transit or arrival for visitors who have been in Iran, Italy, Vatican City, Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, and United Kingdom within the past 14 days.
On 18 March, the government launched COVID-19.go.id site, an official source of accurate information on controlling the spread of COVID-19 in Indonesia. On the same day, The Ministry of Finance also announced that Kemayoran Athletes Village, a former athlete's housing for the 2018 Asian Games would be converted to house COVID-19 patients who show only mild symptoms after consultation from doctors. The conversion was officially completed on 23 March.
On 19 March, Bank of Indonesia decided to slash the bank rate to 4.5%, in addition to 6 other fiscal policies, in the attempt to shore up the economy amidst the COVID-19 crisis. On the same day, the chief of the Indonesian National Police Idham Azis published a notice for all policeman to enforce social distancing by dispersing assemblies at public places.
On 30 March, President Widodo refused to impose lockdown on Jakarta. Bus routes connecting Jakarta and other cities and provinces will remain open following the cancellation of a plan to temporarily suspend operations of Greater Jakarta-based intercity and interprovincial (AKAP) buses.
On 31 March, Indonesia announced IDR 405 trillion COVID-19 budget, anticipates a 5% deficit in a historic move. The government was to allocate IDR 75 trillion for healthcare spending, IDR 110 trillion for social protection, and IDR 70.1 trillion for tax incentives and credit for enterprises. The largest chunk, IDR 150 trillion, was to be set aside for economic recovery programs including credit restructuring and financing for small and medium businesses.
On 13 April, President Jokowi declared COVID-19 as a national disaster after it infected 4,557 individuals and caused 399 deaths in Indonesia. Prof. Mahfud MD as Coordinating Ministry for Political, Legal, and Security Affairs (Indonesia) said the national disaster could not be used as a justification for claiming force majeure and thereby evading obligations under contracts.
On 21 April, President Jokowi announced his decision to ban the Idul Fitri mudik (exodus) starting from 24 April to curb the spread of COVID-19 ahead of Ramadan. To help with this effort, travel by intercity bus travel was banned until 31 May, commercial and charter flights until 1 June, sea transportation until 8 June, and long-distance passenger trains until 15 June.
In late April, President Jokowi asked the United States for medical equipment, including ventilators via phone call to President Donald Trump, to which President Trump, on 24 April, responded he would provide and also reiterated the intent to strengthen economic cooperation between the two.
On 16 December 2020, President Jokowi announced that COVID-19 vaccines would be provided for free for all Indonesians. According to Jokowi, Indonesia has procured 400 million dosage of vaccines. The vaccines would be from Sinovac, Novavax, Pfizer, and AstraZeneca.
On 31 December, Indonesia's Minister of Health stated that the vaccination would be mandatory. Indonesians who have received text message from authorities have to be vaccinated.
On 17 February 2021, the Indonesian Government confirmed that it would make vaccination compulsory for citizens and would seek the private sector's help in inoculating the population.
To reduce the impact of COVID-19 pandemic to the national economy, the government released a IDR 10.3 trillion stimulus policy to the tourism sector, in the form of ticket price discounts and restaurant tax deductions. The IDR 10.3 trillion budget is given to provide discounted airplane ticket prices for 10 tourist destinations, such as Batam, Denpasar, Yogyakarta, Labuan Bajo, Lombok, Malang, Manado, Lake Toba (Silangit Airport), Tanjung Pandan, and Tanjungpinang, which applies from March to May 2020. Ticket prices for low-cost airlines are discounted by 50%, medium-service by 48%, and full-service by 45%. Specifically for this ticket price discount, the stimulus fund comes from the IDR 444.39 billion state budget (APBN) for a discounted value of 30% and 25% of passengers per flight. Additionally, there were additional IDR 100 billion ticket discounts paid by Angkasa Pura I and Angkasa Pura II and IDR 260 billion PT Pertamina (Persero) paid through jet fuel price discounts, so the total ticket price stimulus was IDR 960 billion, so that the ticket price could be discounted by 50%.
The stimulus in the form of restaurant taxes was borne by the central government was also provided to the tune of IDR 3.3 trillion. Thus, there was no restaurant tax in the ten tourist destinations above, but as compensation, the local government were to be given a grant from the central government.
Area of emergency
- Jakarta: 20 March – 19 April
- Depok: 18 March – 29 May
- Yogyakarta: 20 March – 29 May
- Bogor: 15 March – 29 May
- East Java: 14 March – 29 May
- Banten: 15 March – 29 May
- East Kalimantan: 18 March – 29 May
- West Kalimantan: 10 March – 29 May
- West Java: 19 March – 29 May
- Papua: 17 March – 17 April
- Aceh: 20 March – 29 May
- North Sumatra: 31 March – 29 May
- South Kalimantan: 22 March – 29 May
Specific regions can apply for a request for large-scale social restrictions (PSBB/LSSR) to the Ministry of Health alongside proof of endemic and mitigation steps. Should it be approved, a date will be set by the local government and will run for at least two weeks.
Under the current restrictions, all public transportation options must operate with reduced hours and capacity. Non-essential businesses and stores are required to be closed. Restaurants and food stalls are open for takeaway and delivery only; markets and essential business can may open with social distancing. Depending on the area, private transportation requires a limitation of passengers and a mask obligation will also be in effect.
On 12 March, Aceh acting governor Nova Iriansyah advised Acehnese to stay away from vices and activities that are incompatible with religious and Islamic sharia values.
On 16 March, the city of Sabang started to implement travel restrictions to forbid foreign visitors from traveling to their city.
On 20 March, Nova Iriansyah declared a "province-scale" state of emergency in Aceh for 71 days, lasting until 29 May.
On 13 March, the city of Solo in Central Java decided to close all primary schools (SD) and junior high school's (SMP) for next 2 weeks, after three positive cases are found in the city. The mayor of Solo F. X. Hadi Rudyatmo has also declared that the area is under "extraordinary event". On the same day, the Regency of Sragen decided to close all schools from kindergarten to junior high school throughout the regency for at least a week, while closure of senior high school in the regency would be decided by the provincial government.
On 14 March, Central Java governor Ganjar Pranowo decided to close all kindergarten to junior high schools in the province. High schools would remain open during the examination season. The city of Salatiga followed the same decision on 15 March. The city government would also provide a total of IDR 3 billion for medical support.
On 25 March, the governor announced that schools under control of the provincial government will postpone their opening until 13 April.
On 27 March, despite statements from President Jokowi that lockdowns are the authority of the central government, mayor of Tegal Dedy Yon Supriyono announced that Tegal would be on lockdown. He ordered that 49 road access to the city to be barricaded with movable concrete barriers, and visitors from outside will be thoroughly checked and have to undergo a 14-day quarantine period. On the other hand, the Governor of Central Java Ganjar Pranowo insisted that the blockade will only happen at some part of the city of Tegal, not on the whole city.
On 2 March, in response to the confirmed cases, DKI Jakarta governor Anies Baswedan halted the issuance of permits for large gatherings. These including concerts by Foals, Babymetal, Head in the Clouds, and Dream Theater.
On 13 March, after 69 positive COVID-19 cases, several tourist destinations in Jakarta including Ancol Dreamland, multiple government-managed museums, Ragunan Zoo and Monas were closed for 2 weeks. The Islamic organization Muhammadiyah formed a "command center" allocating 20 hospitals in the country to handle the outbreak, with the center being led by emergency medicine specialist Corona Rintawan.
On 14 March, Jakarta governor Anies Baswedan decided to suspend all school activities and examinations for two weeks in response to prevent further spread of the virus in the capital city of Jakarta.
On 16 March, MRT Jakarta, LRT and TransJakarta started to reduce number of trips, corridors and timetables (06.00 – 18.00), however, this policy was retracted due to long queue in many bus stops and train stations in morning. Odd-even policy will be halted during outbreak.
On 20 March, Anies Baswedan declared a state of emergency in Jakarta for the next 14 days, lasting until 2 April.
On 28 March, Jakarta provincial government extends the state of emergency until 19 April.
On 2 April, Anies Baswedan Allocates IDR 3 trillion to Fight Coronavirus Outbreak, and the budget will be used to fund the city's fight against the virus up until May this year, by gradually allocating IDR 1.3 trillion and an additional IDR 2 trillion
Jakarta's application for curfew was approved by the Ministry of Health on 7 April and is set to take effect from Friday, 10 April for at least two weeks.
On 21 April, the local government prepared 136 schools as isolation areas for COVID-19 and the policy is currently still a proposal waiting for approval from the Education Office.
On the same day, the Governor of East Java Khofifah Indar Parawansa ordered the closure of all schools throughout the province. Educational institutions were advised to cancel any kind of student exchange until an indefinite time. However national examination in the province would not be postponed.
On 16 March, the mayor of Malang Sutiaji decided to close all access to the city (lockdown), starting on 18 March. As of 16 March, there is no positive COVID-19 in Malang or the province of East Java. He would later clarify that the lockdown only applies to the government of Malang, not the general populace.
On 20 March, Khofifah declared a state of emergency for East Java.
On 31 March, the provincial government of North Sumatra declared a state of emergency until 29 May 2020.
On 24 March, the provincial government of Papua decided to close any in and out access to Papua except for logistics and medical workers starting from 26 March for 14 days. Indonesian Minister of Home Affairs Tito Karnavian disagreed with the decision, saying that the central government's advice to the regional governments is not to close transportation, but to ban mass gatherings.
On 30 March, Jakabaring Athletes Village, a former athlete's housing for the 2018 Asian Games in Palembang, was appointed by the Governor of South Sumatera Herman Deru to be the house of PUM's treatment (ODP Center). He named it as "COVID-19 Healthy House" (Rumah Sehat COVID-19).
On 14 March, the city of Depok and Bogor decided to close all schools from kindergarten to senior high school until 28 March 2020. This decision was also followed by the city of Bandung, in which the city opted to close schools for the next two weeks and advised schools to hold online teachings.
On 15 March, West Java COVID-19 distribution map was released to public. The Regency of Bogor implement "semi-lockdown" on tourist area Puncak for foreign visitors, to prevent them from entering the area. Jalak Harupat, Pakansari and Patriot Chandrabragha stadiums are being prepared for COVID-19 Mass Rapid Test.
Applications for large-scale social distancing for Depok city, Bogor city & regency, and Bekasi city & regency, all of which belong to the Jakarta metropolitan area, were approved on 11 April and will be in effect on 15 April for at least two weeks.
On 15 March, the governor decided to impose quarantine for all students from kindergarten to senior high school level in the province until a date which is yet to be decided. During the quarantine period, students must stay at their homes for studying. An exception is given for final year senior/vocational high school students on their respective national final examinations date.
In response of the outbreak, multiple universities opted to cancel classes and instead would teach students online.
On 16 March, at least 17 universities across Indonesia confirmed that conventional face-to-face lectures would be cancelled and would be replaced by online classes. Graduations and gatherings were cancelled and students and lecturers who had gone abroad from countries with confirmed coronavirus cases with any reasons should self-isolate at home. As of 14 March, numerous universities have closed their classes, such as Universitas Indonesia (UI), Universitas Gajah Mada (UGM), Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya, Universitas Gunadharma, Universitas Multimedia Nusantara (UMN), Sekolah Tinggi Akuntansi Negara (STAN), Kalbis Institut, Binus University, Universitas Atmajaya, London School Public Relations (LSPR), Universitas Yarsi, Universitas Pelita Harapan (UPH), Telkom University, Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta (UAJY), Universitas Hasanuddin (UNHAS), Universitas Tarumanegara (UNTAR), Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB), and Universitas Al-Azhar Indonesia (UAI). University of Brawijaya (UB), a university in Malang, creates a disinfection chamber as an effort to contain the coronavirus.
On 16 March, Telkomsel, Bank Mandiri, Indonesian Financial Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre and Bank Indonesia announced work-from-home and split-team policy, these policies will be started on 17 March until further notice.
On 28 March, Indonesia AirAsia (QZ) suspended all domestic and international flights to overcome the spread of the pandemic. All domestic flights suspended between 1 and 21 April 2020 while international flights between 1 April and 17 May 2020.
On 16 March, Indonesian Council of Ulama (MUI) and Muhammadiyah urge to substitute Friday prayer with Zuhr prayer and not to attend any religious activities within heavily virus-plagued areas.
Indonesians who returned from China, South Korea, Italy, Iran, United Kingdom, Vatican City, France, Spain, Germany, and Switzerland were subject to additional health screening and a 14-day stay-at-home notice or quarantine depending on appearing symptoms.
Garuda Indonesia, Citilink, Lion Air, Batik Air, and Sriwijaya Air cancelled several flights and grounded their aircraft. Meanwhile Indonesia AirAsia cancelled all flights. International airlines have either temporarily suspended services or continue operating with reduced frequency. Other airlines such as China Airlines and Etihad Airways choose to continue their services as usual.
From 24 April until 8 June, the government suspended all passenger to travel outside areas with at least one confirmed case, regions that had imposed large-scale social restrictions (PSBB), and those that had been declared COVID-19 red zones. The ban applied to all types of public and private transportation by air, sea, land, and railway, except for vehicles carrying leaders of state institutions, police and military vehicles, ambulances, fire trucks, hearses and vehicles transporting logistical supplies, staple goods and medicines.
Due to its number spike, a total of 59 countries banned non-essential travel to and from Indonesia, among them included Malaysia, Hungary, United Arab Emirates, South Africa, and the US as declared by the CDC. The Indonesian government persuaded other countries to bring Indonesians to their country, but the countries questioned on whether Indonesia is able to manage the outbreak and thus keep them safe. The Minister of Foreign Affairs Retno Marsudi telecommunicated with other countries to discuss it; some countries then decided to only unban very essential travel with travellers already conducted two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, in consideration of Indonesia's disrupted economy.
Indonesia imposed a 14-day lockdown from 1 until 14 January 2021 after a new variant of coronavirus was detected in December 2020 and had spread to some countries. Foreigners worldwide would be banned to enter the country's territories. This was later extended until 28 January.
Failure to detect the virus
Health experts were concerned early on that the country was failing to identify the transmission of the virus. Marc Lipsitch, professor of epidemiology at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, "analysed air traffic out of the Chinese city at the centre of the outbreak in China and suggested in a report ... that Indonesia might have missed cases" of coronavirus disease 2019. Western diplomats as well as local and international news outlets postulated that the lack of cases within Indonesia result from inadequate testing and under reporting, as opposed to sheer luck and divine intervention.
On 22 March, a research paper suggested that the official number of infections may only reflect 2% of the real COVID-19 infections in Indonesia. According to The Jakarta Post on 5 April 2020, the central government has only conducted a daily average of 240 PCR tests since 2 March.
Lack of transparency
President Jokowi was also criticized in March 2020 by Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, human rights groups, and also by political party such as Golkar and PKS for lack of transparency regarding information on COVID-19. Widodo insisted on not sharing travel history details of the patients that tested positive with coronavirus in an attempt to reduce panic and uneasiness in the general public. The public had asked the government to release official national map of COVID-19 confirmed cases' location, as unofficial independent maps may provide incorrect data.
Tests and treatment
Reports surfaced about patients in Greater Jakarta having to wait for a long time to get tests or treatment for possible cases of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as referral hospitals face the increasing strain.
President Jokowi came in the course of March under increased pressure to impose a partial lockdown on virus-plagued areas, with scientists saying the country is racing against time to curb the spread of COVID-19 before Eid al-Fitr and that a community quarantine could be the only solution to do exactly that. On 16 March, Jokowi said lockdown policies are the authority of the central government, and warned the local government to not impose lockdown without the consent of the central authority.
On 27 March, dozens of Indonesian medical professors called for "local lockdowns", saying that the government's policy of physical distancing is not "effective". The government is drafting a regulation (PP) to stipulate the procedures and requirements for imposing regional quarantines.
Additional death rates excluded from official counts
According to a report from Reuters, as of 28 April 2020, there were around 2,200 patients who had died with coronavirus symptoms, but not included into the official death toll of 693. This suggests that Indonesia has a higher death rate than the official counts. An analysis by Financial Times showed that there were 1,400 more deaths in Jakarta compared to the historical average number of deaths in March and April. This excess deaths figure is 15 times the official figure of 90 COVID-19 deaths in this same period.
Evasion of travel restrictions
Also, despite the travel restrictions which suspended all passengers to travel outside areas with at least one confirmed case, many Indonesians disregarded it and have attempted to evade the travel restrictions in order to return to hometown during Eid al-Fitr season. This caused scientists to raise concern that this evasion would lead to the diseases which can spread easily from Jakarta and nearby satellite cities, where it is the epicenter of the pandemic, to other regions of Indonesia with weak medical facilities which were, it was argued, unable to handle large numbers of outbreak.
There were also a few attempts to evade the travel restrictions which were discovered by the police department, such as one of the cargo trucks which was stopped, in which an intermodal container was hiding a car with passengers inside, to be transported from Java to Sumatra. An additional four cargo trucks were also detained when the driver attempting to bring 20 passengers from Jakarta inside the containers which were covered with tarpaulin.
Lack of safety in tobacco industries
Despite the temporary closure of HM Sampoerna due to two workers dying from COVID-19, with additional 63 workers tested positive, Pandu Riono, the epidemiologist from University of Indonesia reported that other cigarette factories in East and West Java will continue to operate without practicing social distancing and workers never wearing face masks. This sparks concern that the cigarette factories could create new clusters for the coronavirus outbreak considering that this industry usually has large workforce.
In the first weeks of the pandemic, surgical face masks in Indonesia soared in price by over six times the original retail value from around IDR 30,000 to IDR 185,000 (some sources said it exceeds IDR 300,000) per box in some outlets after the announcement of two citizens tested positive for the coronavirus. Panic buying was reported since mid-February before the first cases were confirmed. President Jokowi condemned the hoarding of face masks and hand sanitizers and Indonesian National Police started to crack down on suspected hoarders.
Following the worldwide trend of stock price drops, the IDX Composite weakened even before the first confirmation of the disease in Indonesia. In response to expected economic slowdown due to the loss of Chinese economic activity, Bank Indonesia cut its interest rates by 25 basis points to 4.75% on 20 February.
On 13 March, equity trading halted for the first time since 2008 over pandemic.
On 19 March, IDX Composite halted because of the sharp downturn of more than 5%. This is the fourth trading halt that IDX Composite experienced during the coronavirus crisis. Indonesia Financial Service Authority or OJK have mandated a suspension of trading if IDX Composite fell down more than 15%.
Numbers of shopping malls started to voluntarily close due to declining foot traffic; only pharmacies, groceries and ATM still operate with limited hours.
Indonesian Finance Minister predicted that Indonesian economic growth Q2 can drop to 0.% or even minus 2.6%, but in Q3 can recover to 1.5 to 2.8%.
Indonesia's economic growth in the first quarter of 2020 stood at 2.97%, but it is the weakest economic growth recorded since 2001. The second-quarter contraction was recorded to be 5.32%, exceeding both government and economists' predictions. Though many economists, such as Brian Tan at Barclays, Radhika Rao at DBS and Helmi Arman at Citi still expect the economy to contract in 2020. It was estimated in August that as many as 3.7 million Indonesians may have lost their jobs. The contraction was the steepest economic drop Indonesia has experienced since the Asian financial crisis.
Brian Tan, Barclays Investment Bank's regional economist, noted that private consumption, government consumption and fixed investment all fell in Q2 as social distancing measures under Indonesia's large-scale social restriction measures, or Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar (PSBB), have stifled economic activity. This led to a collapse in imports, which outpaced the decline in exports, he said in a report.
Barclays is thus slashing its 2020 GDP forecast further to a 1.3% contraction, down from 1% contraction, Mr Tan said, which is below the central bank's earlier GDP growth forecast range of 0.9 to 1.9%.
Sports, tourism, and leisure
Indonesian tourism has been severely affected. In March, overall tourist numbers fell by 64%, and Chinese tourists by 97%. Bali, where tourism accounts for 60% of GRP, had witnessed its foreign tourist arrivals fell by 93.2% in April. Hotels were taking on a meager occupancy rate, with some hotels experiencing 5% and even 0% occupancy rate due to overspecialization on Chinese visitors, increasing travel restrictions from source countries, and an overall fear of the virus. There was, however, an increase in interest for domestic tourism, and Chinese tourists which had already been on the island generally opted to extend their stay. All beaches in Bali were temporarily closed for the public.
The 2020 edition of the National Sports Week (PON) in Papua, which was initially slated for October, has been postponed until next year. Jakarta ePrix race of the 2019–20 Formula E season will also be postponed due to coronavirus concerns, then later cancelled after the rescheduling calendar involving Berlin ePrix for the season-ending triple header. The city's Capital Investment and One-Stop Service (PM-PTSP) announced it plans to postpone any public events with mass-gatherings from March to April following the news of an increasing number of COVID-19 cases to 27.
Numerous music events such as by Rich Brian, Hammersonic, Dream Theater, Babymetal, Slipknot, ONE OK ROCK, and electronic dance music festival "We Are Connected" has been suspended in the country.
Starting on 19 December 2020, Bali required its domestic visitors who would travel by air during the Christmas and New Year holiday to perform a PCR test, or an antigen test if they are entering by land or sea. Due to the sudden regulation, 133,000 would-be visitors asked for plane ticket refund, with losses estimated at around 317 billion IDR.
The 2021 FIFA U-20 World Cup, which would have been hosted in Indonesia on 20 May-12 June 2021, was cancelled by FIFA on December 24. Despite the cancellation, Indonesia was awarded the right to host the subsequent FIFA U-20 World Cup instead.
Below is the list of prominent Indonesians who died from COVID-19:
- Abdul Gafur
- Adi Darma
- Ali Jaber[a]
- Ali Taher
- Amir Sambodo
- Aptripel Tumimomor
- Bambang Suryadi
- Clara Eunike
- Dadang Wigiarto
- Dudu Duswara
- Edward Antony
- Farida Pasha
- Frans Volva
- Gatot Sudjito
- Ibnu Saleh
- Imam Suroso
- Jalaludin Rakhmat
- Lukman Niode
- Masud Yunus
- Mochammad Soufis Subri
- Naek L. Tobing
- Nadjmi Adhani
- Pollycarpus Budihari Priyanto
- Rina Gunawan
- Soraya Abdullah
- Thohari Aziz
- Thoriq Husler
- Yopie Latul
- Died during the recovery or healing process.
- "Peta Sebaran" (in Indonesian). COVID-19 Handling and National Economic Recovery Committee. 5 March 2021.
- "Indonesia COVID-19 Dashboard". ArcGIS (in Indonesian). COVID-19 Handling and National Economic Recovery Committee. 5 March 2021.
- Ratcliffe, Rebecca (2 March 2020). "First coronavirus cases confirmed in Indonesia amid fears nation is ill-prepared for an outbreak". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "Indonesia confirms first cases of coronavirus". Bangkok Post. Reuters. 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "Indonesia's COVID-19 recoveries beat active cases for the first time". Jakarta Globe. 13 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "Coronavirus Update Worldwide". Worldometer. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- Allard, Tom; Lamb, Kate (28 April 2020). "Exclusive: More than 2,200 Indonesians have died with coronavirus symptoms, data shows". Reuters. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
- "Update data uji PCR COVID-19 di Indonesia per tanggal 5 Maret 2021 Pukul 12.00 WIB" (in Indonesian). Indonesian National Board for Disaster Management. 5 March 2021.
- "WHO urges Indonesia to test more suspected patients amid high death rate". The Jakarta Post. 11 July 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
- Bean, James P. (11 June 2020). "Indonesia's 'new normal' a disaster in the making". Asia Times. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
- Stanley Widianto (13 January 2021). "Indonesia launches vaccination drive as COVID-19 deaths hit record". Reuters. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
- "Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia". Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- Elsevier. "Novel Coronavirus Information Center". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Reynolds, Matt (4 March 2020). "What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- "Crunching the numbers for coronavirus". Imperial News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- "High consequence infectious diseases (HCID); Guidance and information about high consequence infectious diseases and their management in England". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "World Federation Of Societies of Anaesthesiologists – Coronavirus". www.wfsahq.org. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Randy Mulyanto; Febriana Firdaus (18 February 2020). "Why Are There No Reported Cases of Coronavirus in Indonesia?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
- Desca Lidya Natalia (2 March 2020). Zita Meirina (ed.). "Presiden: Ibu-anak warga Indonesia positif COVID-19". Antara News Agency (in Indonesian). Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- Dimas Jarot Bayu (3 March 2020). Happy Fajrian (ed.). "Kondisi Dua WNI yang Positif Virus Corona Semakin Membaik". KataData.co.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- Egi Adyatama (8 March 2020). Syailendra Persada (ed.). "Kasus 05 WNI Virus Corona Diduga dari Kluster Warga Jepang". Tempo.co (in Indonesian). Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- Dani Prabowo (2 March 2020). Diamanty Meiliana (ed.). "Kasus Positif Corona di Indonesia Terungkap dari Telepon WN Jepang". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- Egi Adyatama; Joniansyah Hardjono; Diko Oktara (9 March 2020). "Pasien Baru Corona Terhubung dengan Kluster Jakarta". Koran Tempo (in Indonesian). Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- Marlinda Oktavia Erwanti (8 March 2020). "Pasien Kasus 5 yang Positif Corona dari 'Kelompok Dansa'". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- Abdul Basith (8 March 2020). Syamsul Azhar (ed.). "Satu lagi kasus positif virus corona berasal dari klaster pesta dansa di Jakarta". Kontan.co.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "Pasien Corona dari Kelompok Dansa Terus Bertambah". Detik.com (in Indonesian). 9 March 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- Agung Sandy Lesmana (9 March 2020). "Pasien Baru Suspect Corona di RSPI SS Gabung Grup Klub Dansa di Jakarta". Suara.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "Indonesian maid in Singapore tests positive for coronavirus". The Jakarta Post. Agence France-Presse. 4 February 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- Angga Riza (11 March 2020). "Pasien Corona Kasus 25 Meninggal Dunia di RSUP Sanglah Bali". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 March 2020.
- Achmad Dwi Afriyadi (16 March 2020). "Telkom Buka Suara Ada Karyawannya Meninggal Positif Corona". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- Isal Mawardi (16 March 2020). "Istri-Anak Pegawai Telkom yang Meninggal di Cianjur Juga Kena Corona". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- Tito Dirhantoro, ed. (3 June 2020). "Jadi Pasien Positif Covid-19 Termuda, Bayi Baru Lahir Akhirnya Meninggal Dunia di Rumah Sakit Manado". Kompas.tv (in Indonesian). Retrieved 12 June 2020.
- Kiki Andi Pati (11 April 2020). Dheri Agriesta (ed.). "1 Pasien Positif Covid-19 dan 1 PDP Berumur 11 Bulan Meninggal di Kendari". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- Achmad Faizal (30 May 2020). David Oliver Purba (ed.). "Pasien COVID-19 Tertua di Indonesia yang Berhasil Sembuh". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- "Kemenkes Kenalkan Istilah Probable, Suspect, Kontak Erat dan Terkonfirmasi COVID-19". Kementerian Kesehatan. 14 July 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- "Arti Zona Hijau, Kuning, dan Merah Daerah Corona versi Mendagri". Kumparan. Kumparan. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
- Stanley Widianto; Agustinus Beo Da Costa; Jessica Damiana (13 February 2020). "Indonesia traces movements of Chinese tourist with coronavirus". Reuters. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
- "Indonesian Official Says Japanese Coronavirus Patient Who Visited Bali Infected With SARS-CoV-2, Not COVID-19". Coconuts Media. 24 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- Khadijah Nur Azizah (29 February 2020). "Terbang Via Bali, WN Selandia Baru Positif Covid-19". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "Three people in Singapore latest to test positive for COVID-19 after visiting Indonesia". The Jakarta Post. 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- Siret, Mal; Jackson, Patrick (2 March 2020). "EU raises virus risk level as deaths worldwide top 3,000". BBC News (Coronavirus). BBC. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- Nanda Perdana Putra (2 March 2020). "Wali Kota Depok: 50 Orang Lebih Terindikasi Virus Corona". Liputan6.com (in Indonesian) (Coronavirus). Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "Indonesia Says Suspected Coronavirus Patient Dies of Swine Flu". Jakarta Globe. 27 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- Perdana Putra (13 March 2020). Aprillia Ika (ed.). "Satu Pasien Suspect Corona Meninggal Dunia di RSUP M Djamil Padang". Kompas.com (in Indonesian).
- "Sesak Napas, Penumpang AirAsia Dibawa ke RSUP M Djamil Padang". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). 16 March 2020.
- Yola Sastra (16 March 2020). "Satu Penumpang dari Malaysia Dirujuk ke RSUP Dr M Djamil Padang". Kompas (in Indonesian).
- Laila Syafarud (16 March 2020). Budhi Santoso (ed.). "RSUP M Djamil Padang masih periksa penumpang pesawat asal Malaysia". Antara News Agency (in Indonesian).
- "Penumpang Pesawat dari Malaysia Dilaporkan Meninggal di RSUP M Djamil". hariansinggalang.id. 16 March 2020.
- Nasir, Muchtar (11 March 2020). "Menteri Kesehatan Tetapkan 132 Rumah Sakit Rujukan COVID-19". Info Infeksi Emerging Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
- Da Costa, Agustinus Beo; Suroyo, Gayatri; Davies, Ed; Cushing, Christopher; Kerry, Frances (2 February 2020). "Indonesia bars entry to visitors from China amid evacuation protest". Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "COVID-19: Indonesia bars people from hardest-hit regions in Iran, South Korea, Italy". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "COVID-19: Indonesia still allows flights to and from South Korea amid travel ban". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
- Yinglun, Shi (2 March 2020). "2 Indonesians found infected with COVID-19 domestically". Xinhua. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- "Indonesian border authorities implement thermal scanners at airports due to coronavirus outbreak". Newsflare. 22 January 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- Weedon, Alan (2 March 2020). "Coronavirus COVID-19 has now reached Indonesia, President Joko Widodo confirms". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- Bhwana, Petir Garda (4 March 2020). "Coronavirus Update; MRT Begins Checking Passengers' Temperature". Tempo. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
- Media, Kompas Cyber. "Kasus Covid-19 Terus Bertambah: Sulitnya Deteksi di Bandara dan Tracing Kontak". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 12 March 2020.
- Fadli (4 March 2020). "Indonesia to turn former Vietnamese refugee camp into hospital for COVID-19 patients". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- detikcom, Tim. "Pemerintah Tambah RS untuk Perawatan Pasien Virus Corona, Totalnya 359". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Indonesia scrambles to contain coronavirus as most hospitals not ready". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- dob. "Jokowi Tunjuk Doni Monardo Jadi Panglima Pemberantas Corona". CNBC Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- Prasetia, Andhika. "Cegah Tertular Corona, Mendagri Minta Kepala Daerah hingga DPRD Tak ke LN". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Jokowi calls for 'social distancing' to stem virus spread". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Caratri, Endah (17 March 2020). "Pelaporan SPT Tahunan Wajib Pajak OP Mundur ke 30 April". Berita Daerah. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- Chandra, Ardan Adhi. "Pegawai Kementerian BUMN Usia 50 Tahun Kerja dari Rumah Mulai Senin". detikfinance (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- Trimahanani, Emy (16 March 2020). "Jokowi, Kurangi Mobilitas untuk Cegah Penularan COVID-19, Bukan Lockdown". Berita Daerah. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- Nugrahani, Hanny (16 March 2020). "Platform Gratis Bagi Siswa Belajar di Rumah, Kerjasama Dengan Mendikbud". Vibizmedia.com. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- Trimahanani, Emy (17 March 2020). "Demi Penyelamatan Rakyat, Menkeu Siapkan Rp 1 Triliun Tangani Penyebaran Corona". Berita Daerah. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- Media, Kompas Cyber. "Berikut Protokol Kesehatan jika Alami Gejala Virus Corona". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "Lakukan Protokol Kesehatan ini jika Mengalami Gejala Covid-19". Sehat Negeriku (in Indonesian). 16 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- Prasetia, Andhika. "Cegah Persebaran Corona, Travelers dari 8 Negara Ini Dilarang Masuk RI". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- antaranews.com. "Govt launches official website furnishing information on COVID-19". Antara News. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- detikcom, Tim. "Informasi tentang Corona Satu Pintu, Pemerintah Luncurkan Situs COVID-19". detiknews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- Kusuma, Hendra. "Wisma Atlet Kemayoran Jadi Tempat Isolasi Pasien Corona". detikfinance (in Indonesian). Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- "Melihat Kapasitas Wisma Atlet, Lokasi Isolasi Pasien Corona". ekonomi (in Indonesian). Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- Media, Kompas Cyber. "Wisma Atlet untuk Pasien Covid-19, Wapres: Ada 1.800 Tempat Tidur". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Video: Former Asian Games athletes village turned into COVID-19 hospital". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- Pakasi, Alfred. "BI Memangkas BI 7-DRRR ke 4,50%, Rilis 7 Langkah Kebijakan; Memitigasi Risiko COVID-19". Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- Putra, Nanda Permana (2 April 2020). "Isi Maklumat Kapolri Terkait Corona yang Buat Kapolsek Kembangan Dicopot". Liputan6.com. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Indonesia may ban Idul Fitri exodus to stop COVID-19 transmission". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- "Jokowi refuses to impose lockdown on Jakarta". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Buses still able to leave and enter Jakarta despite calls for quarantine". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Indonesia announces IDR 405 trillion COVID-19 budget, anticipates 5% deficit in historic move". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Kanavino Ahmad Rizqo (14 April 2020). "Menko Mahfud: Keppres Bencana Nasional Tak Bisa Jadi Dasar Force Majeur!".
- Post, The Jakarta. "BREAKING: Jokowi bans 'mudik' as Ramadan approaches". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
- "Indonesia to ban air, sea travel till early June amid coronavirus pandemic". The Straits Times. 23 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
- Nurbaiti Alya, Roidila Riza (23 April 2020). "Govt temporarily bans passenger travel to prevent 'mudik'". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
- Palencia, Gustavo; Lambert, Lisa (24 April 2020). "Trump says U.S. sending ventilators, coronavirus help to Latin America, Asia". Reuters. Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- Gorbiano, Marchio Irfan; Nurbaiti, Alya. "Trump agrees to send Indonesia medical supplies following call with Jokowi". The Jakarta Post. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- "Presiden Jokowi: Vaksin COVID-19 untuk Masyarakat Gratis". detiknews.com (in Indonesian). 16 December 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
- Fitria Chusna Farisa (1 January 2021). "Jokowi: Indonesia Telah Amankan Vaksin Covid-19 Sinovac, Novavax, AstraZeneca, dan BioNTech-Pfizer". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 1 January 2021.
- Tsarina Maharani (1 January 2021). "Tak Boleh Menolak, Warga yang Terima SMS dari Kemenkes Wajib Vaksin Covid-19". NewsSetup.kontan.co.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 1 January 2021.
- "Indonesia makes Covid-19 vaccines compulsory, allows private vaccination". The Star. 17 February 2021. Archived from the original on 17 February 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
- "Pemerintah tetapkan insentif penerbangan, tiket pesawat diskon hingga 50%". Kontan.co.id (in Indonesian). 25 February 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Ananda, Aria. "Jurus Jokowi Lawan Virus Corona dengan Diskon Tiket Pesawat". CNNIndonesia.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- "Lihat Nih! Terbang ke 10 Destinasi Wisata Ini, Diskonnya hingga 50%". Warta Ekonomi (in Indonesian). 26 February 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Anisatul Umah (21 March 2020). "Ini Daftar Pemda yang Sudah Tetapkan Darurat Corona". CNBC Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- Vitorio Mantalean (28 March 2020). "Pemprov DKI Perpanjang Masa Tanggap Darurat Covid-19 sampai 19 April 2020". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- Selvi Mayasari (26 March 2020). Khomarul Hidayat (ed.). "Cegah penyebaran corona, akses masuk pelabuhan di Papua tutup mulai 26 Maret". Kontan.co.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "Plt. Gubernur Aceh Tetapkan Status Tanggap Darurat Skala Provinsi COVID-19". humas.acehprov.go.id. Aceh Provincial Government. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- Siregar, Evalisa (31 March 2020). "Status Sumut naik menjadi Tanggap Darurat COVID -19". Antara News Agency. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Nurholis Huda (31 March 2020). Alpri Widianjono (ed.). "UPDATE CORONA KALSEL – Gubernur Perpanjang Masa Tanggap Darurat Covid-19". Tribun Banjarbaru. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Fahlevi, Fahdi (13 April 2020). "Alasan Pemerintah Tolak Pengajuan PSBB dari Palangkaraya".
- "Yang Perlu Diketahui dari PSBB Jakarta yang Berlaku Hari Ini". 10 April 2020.
- Lisye Sri Rahayu (12 April 2020). "Cegah Corona, Kemenhub: Penumpang Pesawat Jurusan Daerah PSBB Dibatasi 50%".
- Lisye Sri Rahayu (12 April 2020). "Kemenhub: Penumpang Kereta Api Jurusan Daerah PSBB Dibatasi 65%".
- Donny Dwisatryo Priyantoro (16 April 2020). "Selama PSBB, Ojol di Kota Ini Tak Boleh Angkut Penumpang".
- Setyadi, Agus. "Cegah Corona, Pemprov Aceh Imbau Tak Cipika-cipiki hingga Jauhi Maksiat". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- "Antisipasi Corona, Mulai Senin Besok Sekolah di Aceh Libur, Siswa Bisa Belajar di Rumah". Tribun News. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Setyadi, Agus. "Sabang Aceh Tolak Turis Asing untuk Cegah Penyebaran Corona". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- Rifa'i, Bahtiar. "Banten KLB Virus Corona, Gubernur Liburkan Siswa Sekolah". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Media, Kompas Cyber. "Solo KLB Corona, SD dan SMP Diliburkan 14 Hari". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- "Solo Deklarasikan KLB Corona". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- "Pemkab Sragen Liburkan Sekolah". Bisnis. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- Purbaya, Angling Adhitya. "Corona Mewabah, Gubernur Ganjar Liburkan Sekolah se-Jateng". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- "Sekolah Libur 2 Minggu, Salatiga Anggarkan IDR 3 Miliar Tangani Corona". Kompas. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- "Pemprov Jateng Resmi Perpanjang Libur Sekolah Sampai 13 April 2020. Kadisdikbud Sebut Demi Selamatkan Anak Karena Puncak Wabah Corona Diprediksi Terjadi Bulan April!". Joglosemar News (in Indonesian). 25 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- Media, Kompas Cyber. "KLB Virus Corona Solo Diperpanjang sampai 13 April, Razia Siswa yang Berkeliaran Digiatkan". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- RMOL. "Semarang Dan Sukoharjo Tetapkan Masa "Libur" Sekolah Diperpanjang". rmoljateng.com. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "Pemkot Salatiga Perpanjang Pembelajaran Daring hingga 13 April 2020". SINDOnews.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "Tegal Lockdown: 49 Jalan Akan Ditutup Beton, Tamu Diisolasi". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- "Ganjar Bantah Kota Tegal Local Lockdown: Hanya Alun-alun Saja". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- "Jakarta Tanggap COVID-19". Jakarta Tanggap COVID-19 (in Indonesian). Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Ikhsanudin, Arief (2 March 2020). "Ada Positif Corona, Anies Tak Keluarkan Izin Keramaian Baru". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- Sari, Nursita (3 March 2020). "Dampak Virus Corona, Pemprov DKI Tangguhkan Izin 3 Konser Ini". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
- Aditia, Andika (14 March 2020). "Virus Corona Jadi Pandemi, Konser Dream Theater di Indonesia Ditunda". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- Ikhsanudin, Arief. "Anies Tutup Monas, Ragunan hingga Ancol 2 Pekan untuk Cegah Corona". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- Sari, Nursita (13 March 2020). "Pemprov DKI Tutup Ancol, Ragunan hingga Monas Selama Dua Pekan". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- Diah, Femi. "Bukan Hanya Monas-Ancol, Anies Juga Tutup 15 Tempat Wisata Lain". detikTravel (in Indonesian). Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- "Doctor called Corona helps Indonesia battle coronavirus". The Star. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "COVID-19: Jakarta suspends schools, exams for two weeks". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- Azzahra, Tiara Aliya. "Pemprov DKI Siapkan 500-1.000 Tempat Tidur di RS Rujukan untuk PDP Corona". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Iqbal, Muhammad. "Anies Pangkas Rute & Jam Operasi TJ, MRT, dan LRT Jakarta". CNBC Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Iqbal, Muhammad. "TransJakarta Hanya Operasi 13 Rute Mulai Besok, Ini Daftarnya". CNBC Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Ikhsanudin, Arief. "Anies: Armada Bus Transjakarta-MRT Disesuaikan Seperti Semula di Rush Hour". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- Iqbal, Muhammad. "Mulai Besok, Anies Cabut Aturan Ganjil-Genap di Seluruh DKI". CNBC Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Wahid, Ahmad Bil. "Corona Ancam Jakarta, Anies Tetapkan Status Tanggap Darurat Bencana". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- Afifa, Laila (2 April 2020). "Anies Baswedan Allocates Rp3tn to Fight Coronavirus Outbreak". Tempo. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Atika, Sausan (8 April 2020). "COVID-19: Jakarta to tighten mobility restrictions". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
- Bhwana, Petir Garda (21 April 2020). "Jakarta Govt Prepares 136 Schools as Isolation Area for COVID-19". Tempo. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
- "Anies tarik rem darurat, Jakarta PSBB total". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). 9 September 2020. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
- "Antisipasi Covid-19, Sekolah di Kota Malang Diliburkan". Kompas.id. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- "Gubernur Khofifah Putuskan Sekolah se-Jawa Timur Libur, UN Tetap Jalan". Liputan6. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "Cegah Corona, Wali Kota Tutup Akses Keluar dan Masuk Kota Malang Mulai Lusa". merdeka.com. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- Media, Kompas Cyber. "Wali Kota: Tidak Ada Penutupan Akses Menuju Kota Malang". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- Media, Kompas Cyber. "9 Orang Positif Covid-19, Khofifah Tetapkan Jatim Darurat Virus Corona" [9 Positive People Covid-19, Khofifah Determine Corona Virus Emergency East Java]. Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- "Sumut Naikkan Status Penanganan Virus Corona". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). 31 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Damarjati, Danu (24 March 2020). "Darurat Corona, Akses Keluar-Masuk Papua Ditutup!". detikNews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- Aji, M Rosseno (25 March 2020). "Mendagri Tito Karnavian Tak Setuju Papua Tutup Akses". Tempo.co (in Indonesian). Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- Eko Adia Saputra, ed. (30 March 2020). "Gubernur Sumsel, Herman Deru Resmikan Rumah Sehat di Jakabaring". Tribunnews.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Mantalean, Vitorio (14 March 2020). "Pemkot Depok Liburkan Sekolah Dua Pekan Cegah Penyebaran Covid-19". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- Astyawan, Putra Ramadhani (14 March 2020). "Antisipasi Korona, SD hingga SMP di Kota Bogor Diliburkan 2 Pekan : Okezone Megapolitan". okezone.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- Putra, Wisma. "Pandemi Corona, Sekolah di Kota Bandung Libur Dua Pekan". Detik. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Putri, Zunita. "Ridwan Kamil Ungkap Peta Persebaran Corona di Jabar". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Liputan6.com (16 March 2020). "Cegah Corona, Bupati Bogor Berlakukan Semi Lockdown di Kawasan Puncak". liputan6.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- Hermansyah, ANTARA FOTO/ Fakhri. "Stadion Patriot Kota Bekasi jadi Lokasi Rapid Test". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- "Satellite cities gear up as Health Ministry green lights PSBB request". The Jakarta Post. 12 April 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
- "Cegah Penyebaran Corona, Gubernur Liburkan Seluruh Sekolah di Kalbar". Kumparan. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- "Dosen UI Pulang dari Negara Terdampak Corona Wajib Isolasi". CNN Indonesia.
- Retaduari, Elza Astari. "Corona Merebak, Mahasiswa UAJY Kuliah Online dan Tak Ada KKN". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Abdurrahman, Muhammad Nur. "Cegah Corona, Unhas Terapkan Kuliah Online dan Tunda Wisuda". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Alfons, Matius. "Cegah Penyebaran Corona, IPB Terapkan Kuliah Online-Pulangkan Mahasiswa". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- "15 Kampus Terapkan Kuliah Online untuk Cegah Korona". Medcom. 14 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- Makdori, Yopi (14 March 2020). "15 Perguruan Tinggi Gelar Kuliah Jarak Jauh, Ini Daftarnya". Liputan6. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- "Malang university students invent disinfection chamber to prevent COVID-19 spread".
- Rachman, Fadhly Fauzi. "Tokopedia Mulai Uji Coba Kerja dari Rumah". detikfinance (in Indonesian). Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Setiawan, Kodrat (14 March 2020). "Antisipasi Corona, Gojek Uji Coba Karyawan Kerja dari Rumah". Tempo. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Rachman, Fadhly Fauzi. "Cegah Penyebaran Corona, Unilever Ikut Terapkan Kerja dari Rumah". detikfinance (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- Wareza, Monica. "Karyawan Mandiri & Telkomsel Bisa Kerja di Rumah Mulai Besok". market (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- Laucereno, Sylke Febrina. "Pegawai BI Bergiliran Kerja dari Rumah". detikfinance (in Indonesian). Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- Lidyana, Vadhia. "PPATK Terapkan Kerja dari Rumah, Tetap Awasi Pencucian Uang?". detikfinance (in Indonesian). Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- Bonauli. "AirAsia Setop Sementara Semua Penerbangan Indonesia". detikTravel (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- Novika, Soraya. "Sumbang Rp 52 M untuk Lawan Corona, Ini Pesan Orang Terkaya RI". detikfinance (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- Ghivarianto, Reyhan Diandri. "Grab Siapkan Rp 160 Miliar Bantu Redam Dampak Corona di Indonesia". detikinet (in Indonesian). Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Media, Kompas Cyber. "Fatwa MUI: Umat di Area Rawan Covid-19 Boleh Tinggalkan Salat Jumat, Diganti Salat Zuhur". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "Muhammadiyah: Bila Darurat, Shalat Berjamaah di Rumah". Republika Online. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "COVID-19: Muhammadiyah advises Muslims to not perform 'tarawih', Idul Fitri prayers". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Media, Kompas Cyber. "Imigrasi Larang WNA Masuk ke Indonesia Mulai 2 April". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Indonesia to bar foreigners from entering in bid to curb imported cases". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- "Advisory on Coronavirus For Travelers to Indonesia". Indonesia Travel. 18 March 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "AirAsia Indonesia Suspends All Flights Starting 1 April". The Jakarta Post. 28 March 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
- "More Than 12,000 Flights in Indonesia Have Been Cancelled". The Jakarta Post. 9 March 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
- "59 Negara Tutup Pintu bagi Warga Indonesia, Ini Data Covid-19 Indonesia-Malaysia". www.msn.com. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
- Puspitaningrum, Citra (8 September 2020). "59 Negara Tutup Pintu bagi WNI, CDC AS Juga Larang Rakyatnya ke Indonesia". Akurat.co (in Indonesian). Retrieved 8 September 2020.
- "59 Negara Tutup Pintu untuk Warga Indonesia, Malaysia Salah Satunya". Bisnis.com. 8 September 2020. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
- Aditya L. Jono (28 December 2020). "Indonesia Imposes 14-day Lockdown Amid New Covid Variant Fear". Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
- Hermawan, Ary (29 February 2020). "Let's not kid ourselves. Indonesia is unlikely to be COVID-19-free. And that's not our biggest problem". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- McVeigh, Karen; Graham-Harrison, Emma (14 February 2020). "Academic stands by research querying Indonesia's claim to be coronavirus-free". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2 March 2020 – via www.theguardian.com.
- Pandasurya, Wijaya (28 February 2020). "Kekhawatiran AS dan Negara Barat Soal Penanganan Corona di Indonesia". Merdeka.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- S.S. Kurniawan, ed. (27 February 2020). "Kedutaan besar negara Barat cemas dengan penanganan virus corona di Indonesia". Kontan (in Indonesian). Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- "We Don't Cover Things Up, Indonesia Says Amid Doubts Over Its Covid-19 Handling". Jakarta Globe. 28 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- Febriana Firdaus (19 February 2020). "Indonesian Screening May Be Missing Virus Carriers". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- Barron, Laignee (28 February 2020). "A Silent Epidemic? Experts Fear the Coronavirus Is Spreading Undetected in Southeast Asia". Time (magazine). Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- Cochrane, Joe (18 February 2020). "'We owe it to God': as Indonesia prays, how is it keeping the coronavirus at bay?". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- Da Costa, Agustinus Beo (27 February 2020). "Indonesia says lack of COVID-19 cases a blessing from God". Reuters. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- Febriana Firdaus; Rebecca Ratcliffe (26 March 2020). "Indonesia's hidden coronavirus cases threaten to overwhelm hospitals". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- "Using a delay-adjusted case fatality ratio to estimate under-reporting". CMMID Repository. 22 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
- Moch. Fiqih Prawira Adjie, Arya Dipa and Ardilla Syakriah (5 April 2020). "Jakarta, West Java governors doubt central govt COVID-19 figures". The Jakarta Post.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "'Rp 72 Miliar Untuk Influencer': Cara Indonesia Merespon Virus Corona" ['Rp 72 Billion for Influencers': How Indonesia Responds to the Coronavirus]. Tempo (in Indonesian). 28 February 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "Cegah Kepanikan, Pengusaha Minta Pemerintah Jujur Soal Virus Corona – Katadata.co.id". katadata.co.id (in Indonesian). 3 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- Persada, Syailendra (13 March 2020). "Komnas HAM Minta Pemerintah Terbuka Soal Virus Corona". Tempo. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- "PKS Minta Pemerintah Lebih Terbuka soal Corona". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- Zhacky, Mochamad. "Daerah Sumber Corona Harus Diungkap, Golkar Dorong Pemerintah Transparan". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- Media, Kompas Cyber. "Jokowi Akui Pemerintah Rahasiakan Sejumlah Informasi soal Corona". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- "Pengamat Desak Peta Covid-19 Nasional: Mudah dan Tak Mahal". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "'It was too crowded': Patients find it hard to get COVID-19 tests, treatment". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- Media, Kompas Cyber. "Jokowi Larang Pemerintah Daerah Lakukan Lockdown Terkait Covid-19". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Indonesia to issue lockdown regulation as COVID-19 cases continue to soar". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Top Indonesian doctors call for lockdown, say physical distancing not enough". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- "Asia cracks down on coronavirus 'fake news'". The Straits Times. 10 April 2020.
- "Indonesia's true coronavirus death toll could be over 2,000 higher, data shows". South China Morning Post. Reuters. 28 April 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
- John Burn-Murdoch, Valentina Romei and Chris Giles (26 April 2020). "Global coronavirus death toll could be 60% higher than reported". Financial Times.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "Indonesia's Ramadan exodus risks spreading Covid-19 across the country". France 24. 8 April 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
- "Snaking queues at Jakarta airport as crowds ignore COVID-19 distancing rules". CNA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
- Chew, Amy (7 May 2020). "Indonesians dodge Jokowi's travel ban, raising fears of coronavirus spike in provinces". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
- "Surgical masks soar in price as Indonesia confirms first coronavirus cases". Newsflare. 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "In 'virus-free' Indonesia, outbreak fears stoke panic buying frenzy". South China Morning Post. 15 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "Jokowi Warns Against Hoarding of Facemasks Amid Growing Coronavirus Fears". Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Police seize 350 boxes of face masks during raid on suspected hoarder in West Jakarta". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
- Technical Brief on the Implications of COVID-19 on Census (PDF). UNFPA.
- "Indonesia stock index plunges to three-year low amid virus fears". The Jakarta Post. 26 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "Bank Indonesia cuts rate, revises down growth target amid virus outbreak". The Jakarta Post. 20 February 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Indonesian stocks slump 4% upon opening along with regional markets as WHO declares pandemic". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Trading halted for first time since 2008 over pandemic". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Rupiah weakens to Rp 15,000 per dollar amid stronger greenback, COVID-19 fears". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- Pakasi, Alfred. "Rupiah Rabu Ditutup Melemah ke Rp15.218/USD; Dollar Global Naik sebagai Likuiditas Investor". Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- Panjaitan, Selasti. "Setelah Sempat Alami Trading Halt, IHSG Ditutup Anjlok 5.35% Pada Sesi Pertama". Retrieved 19 March 2020.
- Hamdani, Trio. "Daftar Mal Tutup Sebagian Toko". detikfinance (in Indonesian). Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- Lidya Julita Sembiring (16 April 2020). "Covid-19 Berkepanjangan, Sri Mulyani Khawatir RI Bisa Resesi".
- Bantillo, Pearl (6 May 2020). "Indonesia faces technical recession; partial lockdown to hit Q2 GDP".
- "Indonesia's Q2 GDP contraction draws mixed views from economists". The Business Times. 5 August 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
- "Indonesia's GDP contracts deeper than expected at 5.32% in Q2". The Jakarta Post. 5 August 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
- "Indonesian Tourism Buckles as Chinese Tourists Stop Coming". JakartaGlobe. 4 May 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- "Bali sees almost 100% drop in foreign tourists". Inquirer.net. 26 April 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- "Despite no recorded cases, Bali tourism still catches a cold from COVID-19 outbreak". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
- Varagur, Krithika (20 February 2020). "'Bali's been through a lot': holiday island's tourism industry hit by coronavirus fears". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
- "No going back: Bali's Chinese tourists fear coronavirus-hit homeland". The Straits Times. 29 February 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
- "Potret Penutupan Seluruh Pantai di Kuta Bali". Detik.com (in Indonesian). 31 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Laila Afifa (15 April 2020). "Papua PON 2020 Postponed Due to Pandemic". Tempo.co. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
- Ihsanuddin (23 April 2020). "Wabah Covid-19, Alasan PON di Papua Ditunda hingga Tahun Depan". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 9 September 2020.
- Bhwana, Petir Garda (11 March 2020). "Jakarta Formula E Race Postponed Due to Coronavirus Concerns". Tempo. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
- Bhwana, Petir Garda (11 March 2020). "Jakarta Plans to Stop Public Events as Coronavirus Cases Climb". Tempo. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
- Liputan6.com (4 March 2020). "Akibat Virus Corona, 6 Konser Ini Batal Digelar di Indonesia". liputan6.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- TV, CNBC Indonesia. "Hammersonic Festival 2020 Batal, akan Ada Kembali pada 2021". lifestyle (in Indonesian). Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- dob. "Gara-gara Corona, Konser Dream Theater di Jakarta Ditunda". lifestyle (in Indonesian). Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "Japanese rock band ONE OK ROCK postpones Jakarta concert amid coronavirus outbreak". Coconuts Jakarta. Coconuts Media Limited. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "Akibat Virus Corona, 10 DJ Internasional Batal Tampil di We Are Connected Bali, April Ini". Tribun Jabar (in Indonesian). Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "Dampak Corona, Film KKN di Desa Penari Ditunda Penayangannya di Bioskop". merdeka.com. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- "Imbas Virus Corona, Penayangan Film Tersanjung The Movie Ditunda". fimela.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- Muchammad Yani (26 March 2020). "Rilis Generasi 90-an: Melankolia Akhirnya Ditunda". MerahPutih.com. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- Stanly Ravel (17 March 2020). "IIMS 2020 Ditunda karena Corona, Uang Peserta Pameran Dikembalikan 100 Persen". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- Andika, M. Luthfi. "IIMS 2020 Batal Digelar". detikoto (in Indonesian). Retrieved 25 December 2020.
- "Tournament | BLIBLI Indonesia Open 2020 (Cancelled)". bwfworldtour.bwfbadminton.com. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
- "Events | Indonesia Masters 2020 Super 100 (Cancelled)". bwfbadminton.com. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
- "Mulai 19 Desember 2020, ke Bali Wajib Swab PCR Maksimal H-7 Keberangkatan". BaliBisnis.com (in Indonesian). 17 December 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
- Hikam, Herdi Alif Al (17 December 2020). "Masuk Bali Wajib PCR, Refund Tiket Tembus Rp 317 M". detikfinance.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 18 December 2020.
- FIFA.com. "Welcome to FIFA.com News – Update on FIFA Women's World Cup™ and men's youth competitions – FIFA.com". www.fifa.com. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia.|
- Latest Updates on the Coronavirus cases in Indonesia – Ministry of Health of Indonesia
- CoronaTracker – Statistics on the coronavirus cases in Indonesia
- Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases
- historical data by Johns Hopkins University