Indonesia large-scale social restrictions

Large-scale social restrictions (Indonesian: Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar or PSBB) are currently in place in Indonesia in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The restrictions are implemented by local governments with the approval of the Ministry of Health. It includes measures such as closing public places, schools, restricting public transport, and limiting travel to and from the restricted provinces or regions. On 7 January 2021, the measure was modified into enforcement of limitations on community activities (Pemberlakuan Pembatasan Kegiatan Masyarakat or PPKM).[1]

Muslims in Indonesia pray in congregation while imposing to strict protocols during the global pandemic. Physical distancing and the wearing of masks in public is mandatory in Indonesia during the COVID-19 outbreak, including in places of worship.

As of 1 March 2021, the restrictions have been approved or are in place for the entirety of Jakarta and Special Region of Yogyakarta, along with three cities and regencies in Banten, 20 in West Java, 23 in Central Java, 11 in East Java, and five in Bali.

BackgroundEdit

The first cases of COVID-19 were confirmed in Indonesia on 2 March 2020, when two residents of Depok, West Java tested positive for the virus.[2] On 15 March, with 117 confirmed cases, President Joko Widodo had called for Indonesians to exercise social distancing measures, with some regional leaders in Jakarta, Banten and West Java had already closed down schools and places of gathering.[3] In a statement the following day, he said he was not going for a full lockdown and lightly criticised regional leaders who tried or proposed to implement lockdown.[4] On 26 March, Dedy Yon Supriyono, mayor of the city of Tegal, Central Java had announced that the city would be implementing a local lockdown measure, closing off multiple access points to and from the city, supposed to be the first city to do so in the country.[5] But Central Java governor Ganjar Pranowo revealed that only the area around city square would be targeted, as the central government had not allowed a city-wide lockdown measure.[6]

Legal basisEdit

On 31 March 2020, Jokowi signed into law Government Regulation No. 21/2020, which regulated large-scale social restrictions, allowing regional governments to restrict the movement of people and goods in and out of their respective localities provided they had received permission from the relevant ministry (in this case the Ministry of Health, under Terawan Agus Putranto). The law also defined a "minimal" restriction as including school and work holidays, limitations on physical worship, and limitations on public gatherings. At the same time, Presidential Decision 11/2020 was also signed, declaring a national disaster. Both laws were based on the Law No. 6 of 2018 on Medical Quarantines, which had provisions for PSBB.[7][8][9]

On 7 January 2021, Minister of Home Affairs Tito Karnavian signed Ministerial Instruction No. 1/2021, instructing all governors in Java and Bali region to apply the enforcement of limitations on community activities (PPKM).[1] The measure, which specifically limits workplaces, restaurants and shopping places as well as fully allows essential sectors activities, was enforced starting on 11 January for two weeks in some cities and regencies in Java and Bali, and could be extended depending on overall evaluation.[10]

By areaEdit

JakartaEdit

Governor of Jakarta Anies Baswedan applied for a PSBB implementation in the capital on 4 April 2020, the first region to formally do so, and the request was approved on 6 April.[11] The measure came into place on 10 April, and was initially intended to remain in place for 14 days. Jakarta's PSBB restricted motorcycle taxis from carrying passengers, banned eating in at restaurants (though allowed takeaways), made it obligatory for hotels to accept people who are self-isolating, and required sporting activities to be done within the vicinity of one's own home.[12] Schools, entertainment sites, and some other locations were closed down, while public transport was limited to operating at 50 per cent capacity.[13] Only those fulfilling "basic needs" and those working in certain sectors are allowed to leave their houses, and they would be required to wear face masks.[14]

To enforce these measures, the Greater Jakarta Metropolitan Regional Police set up checkpoints on main roads and bus terminals, numbering 33 initially.[15] Due to the economic impact of the restrictions, the provincial government established a programme to deliver basic supplies including food, medical masks, and soap to poorer residents of the city.[16]

Restrictions were loosened on 4 June 2020 as the caseload went down below the agreed threshold.[17] However, once the caseload went on the rise once more threatening a shortage of medical capacity, a new wave of restrictions was announced in September 2020.[18] On 25 September 2020 Jakarta administration announced further restrictions until 11 October during the first few weeks of restrictions in September number of new cases were significantly dropped according to the officials.[19]

BantenEdit

PSBB for the Greater Tangerang area (i.e. Tangerang City, South Tangerang and Tangerang Regency) was approved by the Ministry of Health on 12 April.[20] The restrictions, set to come into effect on 18 April, would permit factories to continue running, though workers were required to exercise social distancing and wear masks.[21]

West JavaEdit

After the Ministry of Health approval on 12 April,[22] West Java Governor Ridwan Kamil issued PSBB orders for Bogor, Bogor Regency, Depok, Bekasi and Bekasi Regency, initially in effect between 15 and 28 April 2020, extendable if the virus continued to spread. Similar to Jakarta's, the measures restricted work except for certain vital sectors, limited study and worship activities (except studies related to healthcare research), and restricted passenger counts in all vehicles, including public transport and private cars.[23]

Then following the Greater Bandung area which includes Bandung, Bandung Regency, West Bandung Regency, Cimahi, and Sumedang Regency were proposed to conduct PSBB by West Java Provincial Government to the Ministry of Health on 16 April 2020 and was approved by the Minister of Health the following day.[24][25] For effective enforcement, it will be carried out according to the agreement of the Governor of West Java with the regents/mayors in the Greater Bandung area on 22 April 2020.[26]

East JavaEdit

The PSBB in East Java was approved on 21 April 2020 by the Minister of Health for Surabaya and the two neighbouring regencies, namely Sidoarjo Regency and Gresik Regency.[27] Previously, the leaders of these three regions were asked by the Governor of East Java Khofifah Indar Parawansa to implement the PSBB in an official discussion.[28] For Sidoarjo Regency, PSBB is implemented in 14 districts,[29] while Gresik Regency applies PSBB in 8 districts.[30] PSBB in the city was ended on 8 June 2020 given the economic impact of the restrictions in the area and instead will focused on enforcing strict health protocols in all businesses.[31]

RiauEdit

The city of Pekanbaru was approved by the Ministry of Health to implement PSBB on 12 April, citing a significant spread of the disease within the city.[32] The measures are planned to come into effect on 17 April, and will include restrictions on gatherings (requiring permits and limited to five people), a partial curfew between 18:00 WIB (11:00 UTC) and 05:00 WIB (22:00 UTC), and capacity restrictions in public transport.[33]

South SulawesiEdit

Makassar is the first region on Sulawesi Island that received PSBB approval from the Ministry of Health on 16 April 2020. Previously, the local city government submitted a PSBB to the central government on 14 April 2020.[34] PSBB in Makassar takes effect on 24 April 2020[35] and ended on 23 May 2020.[36]

Central JavaEdit

Tegal is the first city in Central Java to be granted permission to implement the PSBB, with an approval letter from the national government issued on 17 April 2020.[37] In Tegal, the PSBB began to be implemented on 23 April 2020.[38] PSBB in the city was ended on 23 May 2020.[39]

West SumatraEdit

West Sumatra is the first province after Jakarta to implement the PSBB. The Ministry of Health granted a permit to implement the PSBB on 17 April 2020 after being proposed by the Governor of West Sumatra Irwan Prayitno.[40] PSBB began implementation from 22 April to 5 May 2020.[41]

GorontaloEdit

Submission of PSBB in Gorontalo was approved by the Minister of Health on 28 April 2020 after the previous submission was rejected.[42]

North KalimantanEdit

The submission of the PSBB in Tarakan on 18 April 2020 was approved by the Minister of Health on 19 April 2020, together with Banjarmasin. The PSBB was proposed because there was a significant increase and spread of COVID-19 cases in the city.[43]

South KalimantanEdit

Submission of PSBB in Banjarmasin on 17 April 2020 was approved by the Minister of Health on 19 April 2020. So that all city boundaries will be given guard posts.[44]

Central SulawesiEdit

Submission of PSBB in Buol Regency was approved by the Minister of Health on 28 April 2020.[45] The submission of the PSBB by the Buol Regency government was due to a surge in the number of positive cases in the area which caused Buol to be the region with the most positive COVID-19 cases compared to other regions in Central Sulawesi.[46]

South SumatraEdit

In South Sumatra there were two cities with PSBB status, namely Palembang and Prabumulih, with a separate Minister of Health approval letter dated 12 May 2020. As for these two regions, there were local transmissions or one area transmission.[47] PSBB in these two cities began on 20 May and were ended on 16 June.[48]

CircumventionEdit

Despite the travel restrictions, which suspend all passenger to travel outside areas with at least one confirmed case, many Indonesians have instead disregarded and attempted to evade the travel restrictions in order to perform the Mudik. This has caused scientists to raise concern that this evasion will lead to the diseases which can spread easily from Jakarta and nearby satellite cities, where the main outbreak is occurring, to other regions with weak medical facilities which would be unable to handle large numbers of cases.[49]

There are also few attempts on evading the travel restrictions which had been discovered by the police department, such as one of the cargo trucks was stopped only to find an intermodal container hidden in the car with passengers inside to be transported from Java to Sumatra. Four more additional cargo trucks were also detained when the driver attempted to bring 20 passengers from Jakarta inside the containers covered in tarpaulin.[49]

Request chronologyEdit

No. Area Province Status Decision date Starting date Ref
1 Jakarta Approved 6 April 2020 10 April 2020 [11]
2 Rote Ndao East Nusa Tenggara Rejected 11 April 2020 [50]
3 Bekasi, Bekasi Regency, Bogor, Bogor Regency, Depok West Java Approved 12 April 2020 15 April 2020 [22]
4 Pekanbaru Riau Approved 17 April 2020 [32]
5 South Tangerang, Tangerang, Tangerang Regency Banten Approved 18 April 2020 [20]
6 Palangka Raya Central Kalimantan Rejected 12 April 2020 [50]
7 Sorong West Papua Rejected 12 April 2020 [50]
8 Bolaang Mongondow North Sulawesi Rejected 15 April 2020 [51]
9 Makassar South Sulawesi Approved 16 April 2020 24 April 2020 [52]
10 Bandung, Bandung Regency, Cimahi, Sumedang Regency, West Bandung Regency West Java Approved 17 April 2020 22 April 2020 [53]
11 Tegal Central Java Approved 23 April 2020 [54]
12 West Sumatra Approved 22 April 2020 [55]
13 Banjarmasin South Kalimantan Approved 19 April 2020 24 April 2020 [56]
14 Tarakan North Kalimantan Approved 26 April 2020 [56]
15 Gorontalo Gorontalo Rejected 19 April 2020 [57]
16 Surabaya, Sidoarjo Regency, Gresik Regency East Java Approved 21 April 2020 28 April 2020 [58]
17 Gowa Regency South Sulawesi Approved 22 April 2020 29 April 2020 [59]
18 Gorontalo Approved 1 May 2020 4 May 2020 [60]
19 West Java Approved 6 May 2020 [61]
20 Palangka Raya Central Kalimantan Approved 7 May 2020 11 May 2020 [62]
21 Buol Regency Central Sulawesi Approved 9 May 2020 12 May 2020 [45][63]
22 Banjar Regency, Banjarbaru, Barito Kuala Regency South Kalimantan Approved 11 May 2020 16 May 2020 [64][65]
23 Batu, Malang, Malang Regency East Java Approved 11 May 2020 17 May 2020 [66][67]
24 Bengkalis Regency, Dumai, Kampar Regency, Pelalawan Regency, Siak Regency Riau Approved 12 May 2020 15 May 2020 [68][69]
25 Palembang, Prabumulih South Sumatra Approved 15 May 2020 20 May 2020 [70]
26 Banten Approved September 2020 7 September 2020 [71]
27 Jakarta Approved 9 September 2020 14 September 2020 [72]

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