2018 Asian Games
The 2018 Asian Games (Indonesian: Pesta Olahraga Asia 2018, Asian Games 2018), officially known as the 18th Asian Games and also known as Jakarta–Palembang 2018, was a pan-Asian multi-sport event held from 18 August to 2 September 2018 in the Indonesian cities of Jakarta and Palembang. The Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) originally awarded the games to Hanoi, Vietnam in November 2012, but the hosting rights were given up seventeen months later. Indonesia, which originally finished second in the bid, was considered as the strongest replacement candidate and eventually awarded the rights amid the 2014 games. Surabaya, the city put forward during the bid, was replaced by Jakarta and Palembang, having hosted the 2011 Southeast Asian Games together.
|Host city||Jakarta, Palembang|
|Motto||"Energy of Asia"|
(Indonesian: Energi Asia)
|Events||465 in 40 sports|
|Opening ceremony||18 August|
|Closing ceremony||2 September|
|Officially opened by||Joko Widodo|
President of Indonesia
|Officially closed by||Ahmad Al-Fahad Al-Sabah|
President of the Olympic Council of Asia
|Athlete's Oath||Arki Dikania Wisnu|
|Torch lighter||Susi Susanti|
For the first time, the Asian Games were co-hosted in two cities; the Indonesian capital of Jakarta (which is hosting the Games for the first time since 1962), and Palembang, the capital of the South Sumatra province. Events were held in and around the two cities, including venues in Bandung and some places in the provinces of West Java and Banten. The opening and closing ceremonies of the Games were held at Gelora Bung Karno Main Stadium in Jakarta. Also for the first time, eSports and canoe polo were contested as demonstration sports.
China led the medal tally for the tenth consecutive time. North Korea and South Korea march under the Korean Unification Flag at the opening ceremony and for the first time competed as a unified team in some events. They also won one—and first—gold medal as a unified team. Japanese swimmer Rikako Ikee was announced as the most valuable player (MVP) of the Games. There were 6 world, 18 Asian and 86 Asian Games records broken during the Games.
The OCA originally planned to hold these Games in 2019 rather than 2018, so that Asian Games would be held in the year immediately before the 2020 Summer Olympics instead of two years before. After they were awarded to Indonesia, the OCA backtracked on these plans and kept the Games in 2018, so that they would not interfere with the 2019 Indonesian general election.
Hanoi, Vietnam was originally selected to be the host after they won the bid against two other candidates, Surabaya and Dubai. They were awarded the winning bid on 8 November 2012, with 29 votes against Surabaya's 14 votes. Dubai pulled out at the last minute, instead announcing their intention to focus on future bids. The UAE's National Olympic Committee's vice-president denied any pullout and claimed that Dubai "did not apply for hosting 2019 Asian Games" and had "only considered" doing so.
However, in March 2014, there were some concerns about Vietnam's ability to host. These included concerns over whether the anticipated budget of US$150 million was realistic. There were claims that the government would eventually spend over US$300 million. In addition, critics were concerned that several stadiums built in conjunction with 2003 Southeast Asian Games had not been utilized since. Former chairman of the Vietnam Olympic Committee Ha Quang Du also claimed that hosting the Asian Games would not boost tourism in Vietnam.
On 17 April 2014, the Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng officially announced Hanoi's withdrawal from hosting, citing unpreparedness and economic recession as the main reasons for the withdrawal, saying "they have left the country unable to afford the construction of facilities and venues". Many Vietnamese people supported the decision to withdraw. No penalty was imposed for the withdrawal.
Appointment of Jakarta and PalembangEdit
After Hanoi's withdrawal, the OCA said that Indonesia, China, and the United Arab Emirates were major candidates under consideration to host. Indonesia was widely regarded as a favourite, since Surabaya was the runner-up of the previous bid, and willing to do so if selected. The Philippines and India expressed their interest about hosting the Games, but India failed to submit a late bid because it was unable to get an audience with Prime Minister Narendra Modi after being given an extended deadline by the OCA.
On 5 May 2014, the OCA visited some Indonesian cities including Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, and Palembang. At this time Surabaya decided to drop their bid to host the Games and instead focus on hosting the already scheduled 2021 Asian Youth Games. On 25 July 2014, during a meeting in Kuwait City, the OCA appointed Jakarta as the host of the Games with Palembang as the supporting host. Jakarta was chosen because of its well-equipped sports facilities, adequate transportation networks, and other facilities such as hotels and lodgings for guests. On 20 September 2014, Indonesia signed the host city contract, and during the closing ceremony of 2014 Asian Games in Incheon, Indonesia was appointed symbolically by the OCA to host the next Games.
Development and preparationsEdit
By 2015, the central government had allocated a budget of IDR 3 trillion (US$224 million) to prepare for the Games, with regional administrations also expected to supply some part of the funding. By July 2018, the budget allocation for the Games had been reported to be IDR 6.6 trillion (US$450 million) including IDR 869 billion (US$59 million) from sponsorships. However, on 2 September 2018, Finance Minister of Indonesia disclosed that IDR 8.2 trillion was financed by 2015-2018 state budget, which was used by the local organizing committee, namely the Indonesia Asian Games Organizing Committee (INASGOC), for all preparations, opening, organizing, and finalizing the implementation of the 2018 Asian Games. The total cost for arranging the Games is estimated about US$3.2 billion, of which $2.4 billion being spent on infrastructure development associated with the games.
Branding and designEdit
The initial logo for the 2018 Asian Games was first unveiled on 9 September 2015, in celebration of the country's National Sports Day. On 27 December 2015, the Games' mascot Drawa was unveiled by vice president Jusuf Kalla. Both the emblem and mascot were a stylized rendition of the cenderawasih, a rare species of bird in Indonesia.
The designs were widely criticised for their outdated appearance, and Drawa was also criticised for having little connection to Indonesian culture and history (with some Indonesians joking that the mascot looked more like a chicken than a cenderawasih). Organisers ultimately withdrew the original emblem and mascot, and announced an open call for a new design. Out of 60 submissions, the new emblem — entitled "Energy of Asia" — was unveiled on 28 July 2016. The new emblem was modelled upon the Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, and was intended to symbolise unity among Asian countries.
Three new mascots were also unveiled: Bhin Bhin—a greater bird-of-paradise; Atung—a Bawean deer; and Kaka[note 1]—a Javan rhinoceros. They represent the Eastern, Central, and Western regions of Indonesia, as well as strategy, speed and strength. The mascots' outfits reflect traditional textiles; Bhin Bhin wears a vest with Asmat pattern details, Atung wears a Sarong with Batik tumpal patterns, and Kaka wears a Palembang Songket with flower patterns. Their names were derived from the national motto of Indonesia, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika".
Marketing and promotionEdit
On 18 August 2017, simultaneous events were held at Jakarta's National Monument and Palembang's Kuto Besak Fort to mark the one-year milestone before the Games. The event in Jakarta was attended by president Joko Widodo, and featured performances by Taeyeon and Kim Hyo-yeon of K-pop group Girls' Generation. Countdown clocks were unveiled at the Selamat Datang Monument and in front of Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium.
The official theme song of the Games, "Meraih Bintang" ("Reach for the Stars"), was performed by Via Vallen. The song was included in a larger official album for the Games released 13 July 2018, featuring various Indonesian musicians.
As part of an effort to appeal to younger spectators, the Indonesian idol group JKT48 (a branch of the Japanese group AKB48) also sent teams to provide entertainment at the Games' venues during events.
The torch relay began at the Major Dhyan Chand National Stadium in New Delhi, host of the 1st Asian Games, on 15 July 2018. The flame was generated from a parabolic mirror directed straight at the sun. On 18 July 2018, a ceremony took place in Brahma field by the 9th century Hindu temple of Prambanan near Yogyakarta, where the torch's flame from India were fused together with an Indonesian natural eternal flame taken from Mrapen, Central Java. Subsequently, the Torch Relay Concert were performed marking the start of torch relay throughout the country.
The relay travelled through 54 cities in 18 provinces in Indonesia, including host cities. The relay covered a total distance of 18,000 kilometres (11,000 mi). The relay finished on 17 August, the 73rd anniversary of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, at the National Monument in Jakarta before being carried into the opening ceremony at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium the next day.
Venues and infrastructuresEdit
For the Games, some venues were built, some were renovated, and prepared across four provinces in Indonesia: Jakarta, South Sumatra, Banten, and West Java. The facilities for the 2018 Asian Games were located in the capital city of Jakarta and Palembang (South Sumatra), in four different sports clusters (three in Jakarta and one in Palembang). However, 15 arenas for matches and 11 training arenas in West Java and Banten which shares border with Jakarta, were also used to support the Games. In total, there were 80 venues for competitions and training prepared. The organisation hopes to keep the cost down by using the existing sports facilities and infrastructure, including those venues built for the 2011 Southeast Asian Games, and after the test event of the 2018 Asian Games in February, INASGOC moved several sports that will be held in Jakarta International Expo to Jakarta Convention Center.
The Gelora Bung Karno Sports Complex in Jakarta hosted 13 events. The 56-year-old Main Stadium was refurbished for the Games, replacing its existing bleachers and seating with an all-seater design (reducing capacity to 76,127), and adding new LED lighting and sound systems among other enhancements.
The Jakarta International Velodrome at Rawamangun in East Jakarta was rebuilt, at a cost of US$40 million for cycling, badminton, futsal, basketball, and wrestling. The Jakarta International Equestrian Park at Pulomas underwent a US$30.8 million renovation, with a capacity of 1,000, 100 stables, lodging for athletes, and other amenities.
Jakabaring Sport City complex at Palembang hosted for other sports events. Several plans were raised to add and improve the facilities in the complex, including a capacity upgrade of Gelora Sriwijaya Stadium from 36,000 to 60,000 seats. This was cancelled later and instead the capacity was decreased to 23,000 after the instalment of individual seats to the entire stadium concrete tribunes along with pitch and other facilities improvements in the stadium. The new venue in Jakabaring Sports City was a 40-lane bowling alley which was completed in late May 2018. Eight additional tennis courts was built in the complex for the Games. The length of canoeing and rowing venue in Jakabaring Lake was extended to 2,300 meters along with rowing facilities and a tribune which was built on the lake shore. Other existing venues which was used for Games were also renovated, including Ranau Sports Hall as sepak takraw venue.
Athletes Village in Jakarta was built at Kemayoran on an area of 10 hectares land, which had 7,424 apartments in 10 towers. Total accommodation capacity of 22,272 at the village exceeded International Olympic Committee standards, which require Olympics hosts to provide rooms for at least 14,000 athletes. The Athletes Village inside the Jakabaring Sports City at Palembang housed 3,000 athletes and officials.
As part of the Games preparation, the construction of the Jakarta MRT and Jakarta LRT was accelerated, though neither were ready for general commercial operation at the time of the opening ceremonies. A line of Jakarta LRT connected the athletes' village at Kemayoran in Central Jakarta to the Velodrome at Rawamangun in East Jakarta. City bus operator TransJakarta added 416 buses to serve the officials, and also provide free rides on selected days during the Games.
Palembang upgraded their transportation facilities ahead for the Games by building 25 kilometres of the Palembang Light Rail Transit from Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport to Jakabaring Sports City which opened for public use in July 2018. Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport is expanding its existing arrival and departure terminals to increase its capacity and also connecting the airport with the light rail transit (LRT) terminal by building a skybridge. Other transportation facilities such as toll roads, flyovers, and bridges will be also built in and around the city.
The opening ceremony started at 19:00 Western Indonesian Time (UTC+7) on Saturday, 18 August 2018. Wishnutama, CEO of Indonesian TV network NET. was the creative director for the ceremony. The ceremony stage showcased a towering 26 meter-high mountain with a waterfall as its background, accompanied by Indonesian plants and flowers. North and South Korea delegates marched together under one unified flag of Korea, which marked the first time both countries did so in the Asian Games after 12 years.
In March 2017, the Olympic Council of Asia initially announced that the Games would feature 484 events in 42 sports, including the 28 permanent Olympic sports contested at the 2016 Summer Olympics, the five additional sports that will be contested at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, as well as events in other non-Olympic sports. In April 2017, the OCA approved reductions in the programme in response to cost concerns; belt wrestling, cricket, kurash, skateboarding, sambo, and surfing were dropped from the programme, and there was to be a reduced number of competitions in bridge, jet ski, jujitsu, paragliding, sport climbing, taekwondo (in particular, all non-Olympic weight classes), and wushu. These changes reduced the total number of events to 431.
The final programme was unveiled in September 2017, increasing it to 465 events in 40 disciplines as the second-largest programme in Asian Games history. Additional disciplines being introduced at the 2020 Summer Olympics were also added, including 3x3 basketball and BMX freestyle.
For the first time in Asian Games history, eSports and canoe polo were contested as demonstration sports in the Games. Six video game titles, most notably Pro Evolution Soccer 2018, were featured in the eSports events.
- Demonstration sports
Participating National Olympic CommitteesEdit
All 45 members of the Olympic Council of Asia participated in the games. North Korea and South Korea competed as a unified team in some events under the name "Korea" (COR), as they did at the 2018 Winter Olympics, making it the 46th participant of the Games. Both nations also marched together under one flag during the opening and closing ceremonies.
Originally set to compete as Independent Asian Athletes, the Kuwaitis were allowed to compete under their own flags just two days before the opening ceremony.
Below is a list of all the participating NOCs. The number of competitors per delegation is indicated in brackets.
|Participating National Olympic Committees|
- Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees (by highest to lowest)
|UAE||United Arab Emirates||138|
|OC||Opening ceremony||●||Event competitions||1||Gold medal events||CC||Closing ceremony||Sources:|||
5 x 5
3 x 3
|Traditional boat race||2||2||1||5|
|Daily medal events||21||29||28||33||42||37||26||36||39||29||36||34||30||44||1||465|
The closing ceremony started at 19:00 Western Indonesia Time (UTC+7) on Sunday, 2 September 2018 and ended at 21:25. In addition to local artists and a Chinese segment, the South Korean boybands Super Junior and iKon, and Indian singer Sidharth Slathia performed in the ceremony. Mayor of Hangzhou Xu Liyi received the Games flag for the 2022 Games from Jakarta Governor Anies Baswedan and South Sumatra Governor Alex Noerdin.
China led the medal table for the tenth consecutive time. Korea claimed their first gold medal at the Games in the canoeing women's traditional boat race 500 m event. A total of 37 NOCs won at least one medal, 29 NOCs won at least one gold medal and 9 NOCs failed to win any medal at the Games.
The top ten ranked NOCs at these Games are listed below.
|3||South Korea (KOR)||49||58||70||177|
|7||Chinese Taipei (TPE)||17||19||31||67|
|10||North Korea (PRK)||12||12||13||37|
|Totals (37 NOCs)||464||465||622||1551|
Concerns and controversiesEdit
Before the Games, authorities in Indonesia were confident both host cities would be ready for the Games although they have had only four years to prepare rather than the usual six after stepping in to fill the gap when Vietnam, whose city of Hanoi was originally chosen to host these Games by the Olympic Council of Asia, dropped out in 2014 citing concerns over costs. On top of that, work in both host cities was delayed throughout 2015 because government funding was not immediately available.
Various concerns from traffic congestion problems, series of terror attacks, which local police claimed is a pre-Asian Games crackdown on terror suspects and petty street criminals, and already-provoked Indonesian fans at the venue.
Jakarta struggled with air pollution and river pollution problems. River pollution revealed where authorities covered a foul-smelling river near the athletes' village with black nylon mesh over fears it will be an eyesore at the showpiece event. Governor of Jakarta at that time, and the Indonesian Environment and Forestry Ministry quickly relieved the issues by various solutions.
A doping case from a Turkmenistan wrestler was recorded, which put the sport's existence for future Games in jeopardy.
- Odi Aria Saputra (10 April 2015). "Keppres Asian Games Turun Pertengahan April" (in Indonesian). Sriwijaya Post. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- Prasetya, Muhammad Hary (12 February 2016). "Tema Asian Games 2018, The Energy of Asia, Ini Artinya". Superball.id. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
- "Japan's swimmer Ikee named Asian Games' MVP". Xinhuanet.com. Xinhua News Agency. 2 September 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- "18-8-18 start planned for 18th Asian Games". Olympic Council of Asia. 27 January 2015. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- Ade Irma Junida (2 October 2014). "GBK akan direnovasi demi Asian Games 2018" (in Indonesian). Antara. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- Davies, Will (20 September 2014). "Indonesia to Host 2018 Asian Games". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
- Butler, Nick. "Asian Games set to be awarded to Jakarta – but in 2018 not 2019". Inside the Games. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- Adamrah, Mustaqim (9 November 2012). "RI loses Asian Games bid to Vietnam". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- Sambidge, Andy (9 November 2012). "UAE denies Asian Games 2019 vote pull-out". Arabian Business. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- Tam, Aaron (9 November 2012). "Hanoi wins race to host 2019 Asian Games: officials". AFP. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- "Hanoi wins race to host 2019 Asian Games". The Star. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
- "Vietnam lawmakers concerned by mounting cost of Asian Games". Thanh Nien News. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Vietnam PM could pull plug on Asian Games". Thanh Nien News. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Vietnam backs out as hosts of 2019 Asian Games". Reuters. 17 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Tre, Tuoi (17 April 2014). "Vietnamese hail PM's decision to relinquish 2019 Asiad". Tuoi Tre. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
- "Asian Games: No penalty for Vietnam pullout, says OCA". Channel News Asia. 24 April 2014. Archived from the original on 24 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Thongsombat, Kittipong (30 April 2014). "Trio vying to host 2019 Asian Games". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "Indonesia favorite to take on 2019 Asiad". Shanghai Daily. 19 April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
- "Indonesia 'proud' to host 2019 Asiad if selected". The Times of India. 19 April 2014. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
- Alinea, Eddie (31 August 2014). "POC bids to host next Asian Games". Manila Standard Today. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
- Ganguly, Sudipto (7 July 2014). "India drops plans for late 2019 Asian Games bid". Reuters India. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
- "Kesiapan Indonesia Sebagai Calon Tuan Rumah AG 2019 Mulai Dievaluasi". Pikiran Rakyat. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- Tjahjo Sasongko (28 July 2014). "Setelah 1962, Jakarta Kembali Tuan Rumah Asian Games" (in Indonesian). Kompas.com. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Indonesia to host 18th Asian Games in 2018". Olympic Council of Asia. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- Butler, Nick (4 October 2014). "Asian Games: The Closing Ceremony". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- Putri Utami (20 March 2014). "Menpora Janji Arena Asian Games 2018 Siap Tahun Ini" (in Indonesian). Okezone. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- DP, Yashinta (16 September 2015). "Pembukaan dan Penutupan Asian Games 2018 diadakan di Jakarta". Antara News. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- Goddard, Emily (8 January 2015). "Preparations for Jakarta 2018 Asian Games praised by OCA President". inside the games. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- mediaindonesia.com. "Keterlibatan Sponsor di Asian Games Perkecil Beban Pemerintah". Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- "Biaya Asian Games 2018 Rawan Membengkak, Inasgoc Cari Sponsor Baru | sport – Bisnis.com". Bisnis.com. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- Media, Kompas Cyber (6 July 2018). "Pemerintah Antisipasi Bengkaknya Anggaran Asian Games karena Pelemahan Rupiah – Kompas.com". KOMPAS.com. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- "Finance Minister Discloses Amount of State Budget Use for Asian Games 2018". Netral News. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- "How Indonesia is gearing up for the 2018 Asian Games". Asian Correspondent. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- "2018 Asian Games: Time for Indonesia to shine". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- Prathivi, Niken (10 September 2015). "Asian Games logo expected to inspire high performance". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "JK Resmikan Logo dan Maskot Asian Games 2018". Republika.co.id (in Indonesian). 27 December 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
- Nistanto, Reska K. (1 January 2016). "Ini Kata Pelaku Industri Kreatif Soal Maskot Asian Games". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 13 September 2018.
- Wardhani, Dewanti A. "Ministry to change logo, mascot after outcry". thejakartapost.com. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Etchells, Daniel (29 July 2016). "Official logo and mascots relaunched for 2018 Asian Games". Inside the Games. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- Parlina, Ina (29 July 2016). "RI gets down to business with new logo, cute mascots". The Jakarta Post. Jakarta. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- "Meet Bhin-bhin, Ika, Atung, Asian Games 2018 Mascots - Jakarta Globe". 28 July 2016.
- White, Jonathan (17 August 2018). "Asian Games mascots: how does 2018 trio of Bhin Bhin, Atung and Kaka compare to creations of decades past?". South China Post. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
- "Logo & Mascot 18th Asian Games 2018" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2016.
- "Asian Games medals reflect Indonesian culture". Antara News. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- Zafna, Grandyos. "Layar Hitung Mundur Asian Games Eksis di Bundaran HI". detiknews. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- "Asian Games Countdown". Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- Morgan, Liam (10 December 2017). "Pakistan Olympic Association hosts first official fun run to promote 2018 Asian Games". www.insidethegames.biz. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
- Kumampung, Dian Reinis (13 July 2018). "Semangati Para Atlet lewat Album 'Asian Games 2018: Energy of Asia'" [Encourage athletes through the album 'Asian Games 2018: Energy of Asia']. Kompas (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- Mercy Raya (10 August 2018). "Promosikan Asian Games ke Kaum Milenial, INASGOC Gaet JKT48" [Promoting the Asian Games to Millenials, INASGOC Got JKT48]. Detik.com (in Indonesian). Trans Media. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
- Nizar Zulmi (28 August 2018). "Semangat JKT48 Dukung Para Kontingen Asian Games 2018" [Spirit of JKT48 to Support the Asian Games Contingents]. Bintang.com (in Indonesian). Elang Mahkota Teknologi. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
- Wina Setyawatie (10 May 2018). "Beginilah Bentuk Obor Asian Games 2018" [This Is the Shape of 2018 Asian Games' Torch] (in Indonesian). Pikiran Rakyat. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
- "Api Asian Games 2018 Berasal dari Sinar Matahari | Republika Online". Republika Online. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
- Media, Kompas Cyber (18 July 2018). "Di Candi Prambanan, 2 Legenda Atlet Indonesia Satukan Api Obor Asian Games 2018 – Kompas.com". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- Wismabrata, Michael Hangga (18 July 2018). "5 Fakta Unik Api Obor Asian Games 2018 – Kompas.com". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Indonesia Works Hard to Complete Asian Games 2018 Facilities". Tempo. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- "RI preparing Asian Games venues in record time". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- Raya, Mercy (7 April 2018). "Lima Bulan Menuju Asian Games, INASGOC Ubah Venue Cabor". detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- Rahmat, Arby (12 January 2018). "Lampu Stadion GBK Saingi San Siro Milan". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 January 2018.
- Baskoro, Rangga (12 January 2018). "SU GBK Jadi Stadion Paling Terang Di Asia". Tribunnews.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- "Gelora Bung Karno Main Stadium Ready for 2018 Asian Games". Jakarta Globe. 2018-01-13. Retrieved 2018-12-19.
- Post, The Jakarta. "GBK stadium to go dark for Earth Hour". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2018-12-19.
- Diah, Femi (29 September 2017). "Wajah Terkini Stadion Utama GBK: Rasa Baru yang Makin Merah Putih". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- Raya, Mercy (12 January 2018). "Stadion Utama GBK Sudah Lebih Ramah Disabilitas". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- "Welcoming The New Face of Gelora Bung Karno Stadium". Tempo. Retrieved 2018-12-19.
- "Perusahaan Inggris Bangun Velodrome Asian Games 2018". Tempo. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- "Pulo Mas equestrian facility to be completed next month". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- "Direnovasi, Kapasitas Stadion Jakabaring Berkurang". superball.bolasport.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- Media, Kompas Cyber (31 May 2018). "APP Sinar Mas Serahkan Jakabaring Bowling Center – Kompas.com". KOMPAS.com. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- VIVA, PT. VIVA MEDIA BARU -. "Penambahan Lapangan Tenis untuk ASIAN Games 2017 – VIVA". www.viva.co.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- "Sumsel Siap Gelar 18 Cabang Olahraga Asian Games 2018" (in Indonesian). Suara Pembaruan. 3 March 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- "Jelang Asian Games, ISTAF Apresiasi Persiapan GOR Ranau – klikampera". klikampera (in Indonesian). 28 March 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- Aziza, Kurnia Sari; Afrianti, Desy (7 January 2015). "Jelang Asian Games 2018, DKI Akan Bangun Kampung Atlet di Kemayoran". KOMPAS. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Govt to build 10 apartment towers for athletes in Kemayoran". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- Tristia Tambun, Lenny (7 January 2015). "Hadapi Asian Games 2018, Djarot Minta Pembangunan MRT Dikebut" (in Indonesian). Berita Satu. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Ibnu Aqil, Andi Muhammad (13 July 2018). "Transjakarta gets 416 new buses ahead of Asian Games". The Jakarta Post. thejakartapost.com. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
- "Indonesia Aims to Better Incheon's Asian Games Record in Spectator Numbers". Jakarta Globe. 10 August 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
- "South Sumatra to build monorail for 2018 Asian Games". Antara News. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
- "Beroperasi Tangal 23 Juli 2018. Warga Palembang tak Sabar Naik LRT. Harga Tiket Flat Rp 5.000 – Sriwijaya Post". Sriwijaya Post (in Indonesian). 19 July 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- "Palembang airport to be revamped for 2018 Asian Games". Jakarta Post. thejakartapost.com. 14 October 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- "Jadi Tuan Rumah, Pemkot Targetkan 2017 Siap Sambut Asian Games" (in Indonesian). Rakyat Merdeka Online Sumsel. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- "Di Balik Pembukaan Asian Games 2018: Eko Supriyanto & Denny Malik – Tirto.ID". tirto.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- NDTVSports.com. "Asian Games 2018 Opening Ceremony Highlights: Grand Opening Ceremony Draws To A Close – NDTV Sports". NDTVSports.com. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Winters, Max (6 March 2017). "Forty-two sports confirmed for 2018 Asian Games". InsideTheGames. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- Butler, Nick (19 April 2017). "Exclusive: Cricket and sambo among sports removed from 2018 Asian Games programme". Inside the Games. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Cricket removed from 2018 Asian Games programme". The Indian Express. 20 April 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Forty sports and 462 events included in final programme for Jakarta 2018". Inside the Games. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- Dewi, Arum Kusuma (18 April 2017). "Esports Akan Dipertandingkan di Asian Games". INDOSPORT.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- "Canoe Polo Demonstration Event" (PDF). Asian Canoe Federation. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
- "Indonesia prepares to light up the Energy of Asia for the Asian Games 2018". Indonesia.travel. Ministry of Tourism, Republic of Indonesia. 8 August 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
- Riotta, Chris (19 June 2018). "North and South Korea agree to joint teams for Asian Games". Independent. independent.co.uk. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- Editorial, Reuters (16 August 2018). "Olympics-IOC provisionally lifts Kuwait ban two days ahead of Asian Games". U.S. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
- "Asian Games 2018 Jakarta Palembang". Asian Games 2018 Jakarta Palembang.
- Ibrahim Momand, Mohammad (15 August 2018). "Afghan squad leaves for 2018 Asian Games". Salam Watandar. salamwatandar.com. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Bangladesh sends 117 athletes for 2018 Asian Games". banglanews24.com. 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Bhutanese athletes gear up for 18th Asian Games 2018". Business Bhutan. businessbhutan.bt. 15 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Cambodia Wins Second Gold Medal in 2018 Asian Games, Ski Modified". en.freshnewsasia.com. 25 August 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- Hong'e, Mo (16 August 2018). "China to use Asian Games as preparation for Tokyo Olympics, says official". Ecns.cn. Xinhua. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "中国香港代表团在亚运村升旗 女剑客江旻憓担纲开幕旗手". Sina News. sina.com.cn. 16 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Ministry clears 804-member contingent". The Hindu. thehindu.com. 11 August 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- Laksamana, Nugyasa (6 August 2018). "Kontingen Indonesia untuk Asian Games 2018 Resmi Dikukuhkan". Kompas.com. olahraga.kompas.com. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Iran's national flag hoisted in 2018 Asian Games Village". Mehr News Agency. mehrnews.com. 16 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Nagatsuka, Kaz (13 August 2018). "Team Japan targets short- and long-term success at Asian Games". The Japan Times. japantimes.co.jp. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Team Jordan athletes start heading to Indonesia". The Jordan Times. jordantimes.com. 16 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Up to 200 Kazakhstan's athletes arrive at Asian Games in Jakarta". BNews KZ. bnews.kz. 16 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "韩国强势阵容征战亚运，期待蝉联金牌榜亚军". Sports.news.cn. Xinhuanet.com. 10 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Moura, Nelson (15 August 2018). "Macau|Local Karaté-do gold medallist left out of 2018 Asian Games due to passport regulations". Macau News Agency. macaubusiness.com. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Phung, Adrian (10 August 2018). "PM urges Asian Games athletes to repeat 2010 feat". The Sun Daily. thesundaily.my. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "State flag handed over to Mongolian athletes". Montsame. montsame.mn. 14 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Post, Kathmandu (17 August 2018). "Participation itself an achievement: Nepal sports council". The Jakarta Post. thejakartapost.com. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Eyeing medals, Oman to send young team to Jakarta". Times News Service. Times of Oman. 28 July 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "POA approves 245-strong contingent for Asian Games". Dawn. Dawn.com. 1 August 2018. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
- Beltran, Nelson (18 August 2018). "272 Filipino bets ready for war in 18th Asian Games". Phil Star Global. Philstar.com. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Mackay, Duncan (17 August 2018). "Qatar choose squash player to carry flag at Asian Games Opening Ceremony". inside the games. insidethegames.biz. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Meenaghan, Gary (14 August 2018). "Saudi Arabia hopeful ahead of opening Asian Games clash against Iran". Arab News. arabnews.com. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Asian Games: Singapore pin hopes on Schooling while Malaysia's David seeks fifth squash gold". Channel News Asia. channelnewsasia.com. 15 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Kumara, Athula (16 August 2018). "The Sri Lankan team will leave for Indonesia today for the 18th Asian Games". Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC). Colombo, Sri Lanka. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Kaluarachchi, Anjana (12 August 2018). "SL to send largest ever contingent to Asian Games". Ceylon Today. Colombo, Sri Lanka. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Premier pledges full support for Taiwan delegation at 2018 Asian Games". Executive Yuan, Republic of China (Taiwan). english.ey.gov.tw. 15 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Thais aiming for 17 gold medal haul in Indonesia". Bangkok Post. bangkokpost.com. 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Turkmen athletes to compete for medals in summer Asian Games". Chronicles of Turkmenistan. en.hronikatm.com. 15 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Palmer, Dan (2 August 2018). "United Arab Emirates confirm large delegation for Jakarta Palembang 2018". inside the games. insidethegames.biz. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- Tashkhodjayev, Javokhir (7 August 2018). "Uzbekistan athletes will compete at the Asian Games 2018". Uzbekistan National News Agency. uza.uz. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Vietnamese athletes ready for ASIAD 2018 competitions". Vietnam+. vietnamplus.vn. 17 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "Sport Technical Handbook" (PDF). p. 36.
- "Media Guide" (PDF). p. 79–81, 116–387.
- "Closing Ceremony Asian Games 2018". asiangames2018.id. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- "China's Hangzhou takes over flag of 2022 Asian Games". ECNS. 3 September 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- "Asian Games: Unified Korea team grab historic gold in canoe race". Channel NewsAsia. 26 August 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- "Medals". asiangames2018.id. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
- Rowbottom, Mike (18 August 2017). "Chairman of 2018 Asian Games Organising Committee confident host cities will be ready for event". Inside the Games. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- Davies, Ed; Silviana, Cindy (8 March 2018). "Indonesia confident on Asian Games preparations, traffic concerns remain". Reuters. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "Asian Games 2018: Risks of traffic jam and terror attack concern organisers". vietnamplus.vn. 18 July 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "Muda-muda Provokator, Pemain Timnas U-16 Malaysia Pasang Terbalik Bendera Indonesia - Tribun Jateng". Tribun Jateng (in Indonesian). 27 July 2018. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
- Peter, Fabian. "OCM look into athletes' safety at Asian Games". New Straits Times. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
- Editorial, Reuters. "From cloud seeding to vehicle curbs, Indonesia fights pollution..." IN. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "How to Spruce Up for Asian Games? Cover a Polluted River". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Black river stinks no more: City councilors". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
- Post, The Jakarta. "Ministry installs nano bubble equipment for Sentiong River". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
- "Turkmen doping case puts wrestling under pressure at Asian Games". Channel News Asia. Channelnewsasia.com. AFP. 24 August 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2018.