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List of indigenous peoples

Standard cross-cultural sample, Africa region
Standard cross-cultural sample, Circum-Mediterannean region
Standard cross-cultural sample, East Eurasia region
Standard cross-cultural sample, Insular-Pacific region
Standard cross-cultural sample, North America region
Standard cross-cultural sample, South America region
From top, clockwise: Africa, Circum-Mediterranean, East Eurasia, South America, North America and Insular-Pacific cultural areas in the Standard cross-cultural sample.

This is a partial list of the world's indigenous / aboriginal / native people. Indigenous peoples are any ethnic group of peoples who are considered to fall under one of the internationally recognized definitions of Indigenous peoples, such as United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank, i.e. "those ethnic groups that were indigenous to a territory prior to being incorporated into a national state, and who are politically and culturally separate from the majority ethnic identity of the state that they are a part of".[1]

This list is grouped by region, and sub-region. Note that a particular group may warrant listing under more than one region, either because the group is distributed in more than one region (example: Inuit in North America and eastern Russia), or there may be some overlap of the regions themselves (that is, the boundaries of each region are not always clear, and some locations may commonly be associated with more than one region).

Contents

DefinitionEdit

Indigenous communities, peoples and nations are those which, having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, consider themselves distinct from other sectors of the societies now prevailing on those territories, or parts of them. They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve, develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, and their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal system.[2]

This historical continuity may consist of the continuation, for an extended period reaching into the present of one or more of the following factors:

  • Occupation of ancestral lands, or at least of part of them
  • Common ancestry with the original occupants of these lands
  • Culture in general, or in specific manifestations (such as religion, living under a tribal system, membership of an indigenous community, dress, means of livelihood, lifestyle, etc.)
  • Language (whether used as the only language, as mother-tongue, as the habitual means of communication at home or in the family, or as the main, preferred, habitual, general or normal language)
  • Residence in certain parts of the country, or in certain regions of the world
  • Other relevant factors.
  • On an individual basis, an indigenous person is one who belongs to these indigenous populations through self-identification as indigenous (group consciousness) and is recognized and accepted by these populations as one of its members (acceptance by the group). This preserves for these communities the sovereign right and power to decide who belongs to them, without external interference.[3]

AfricaEdit

African Great LakesEdit

 
Hadza people, who are indigenous to the African Great Lakes
 
A Maasai traditional dance.

Central AfricaEdit

 
Baka pygmy dancers in the East Province of Cameroon.
 
Batwa Pygmy with traditional bow and arrow

Horn of AfricaEdit

 
Somali women in traditional headresses
 
Tigrinya women in traditional attire
 
Wolayta chief
 
Berta people playing trumpets during a wedding ceremony

MaghrebEdit

 
Sanhaja Berber traditional dancers

Nile ValleyEdit

 
Egyptian women in traditional dress

Southwestern AfricaEdit

 
San people, who are indigenous to Southern Africa.

West AfricaEdit

 
Tuareg man from Algeria.

EurasiaEdit

AsiaEdit

Southwest Asia (Middle East)Edit

 
Marsh Arabs/Ma'dan poling a mashoof
 
Druze residents of Mount Carmel
 
Jewish man praying during Tisha B'Av at the Western Wall
 
Yazidi festival at Lalish
 
Baloch of Nimruz Province, Afghanistan

CaucasusEdit

 
Traditional Adyghe clothing.

Eurasian SteppeEdit

South AsiaEdit

 
An old Munda man, Dinajpur
 
Kodava men in traditional attire, India
 
An Adivasi woman from the Kutia Kondh tribal group in Odisha, India
 
An Indigenous Assamese woman of Assam
 
Veddha chief Uruwarige Wannila Aththo, leader of the indigenous people Sri Lanka

Southeast AsiaEdit

Mainland Southeast Asia (Indochina)Edit
 
A Wa woman carrying her child
 
Akha girl in Laos
 
Yi/Nuosu women
 
A Tai Dam lady in Laomeng village, Jinping Miao, Yao, and Dai Autonomous County, Yunnan Province, China.
Maritime Southeast Asia (Indonesia)Edit
 
A Murut man (a member of one of the Dayak ethnicities) in Monsopiad Cultural Village, Kg. Kuai Kandazon, Penampang, Sabah, Borneo Island
 
Ati woman, the Philippines, 2007[16] The Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.[17]

East AsiaEdit

North ChinaEdit
South ChinaEdit
 
Miao (Hmong) girls in China
 
Bunun dancer
TaiwanEdit
JapanEdit

SiberiaEdit

 
Representation of a Chukchi family by Louis Choris (1816)
 
Buryat shaman of Olkhon, Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia.
 
Nenets child

EuropeEdit

Eastern EuropeEdit

 
Gagauz old and young people.
 
Mordvin women of Penza Oblast dressed in traditional costumes.

Northern EuropeEdit

OceaniaEdit

Oceania includes most islands of the Pacific Ocean, New Guinea and the continent of Australia.

List of peoples by geographical and ethnolinguistic grouping:

AustraliaEdit

 
Aboriginal farmers in Victoria, Australia, 1858

Australia includes the continental landmass, and associated islands.

Indigenous Australians by native cultural regions

NorthEdit

ArnhemEdit


DesertEdit

Torres StraitEdit

RainforestEdit

TasmaniaEdit


MelanesiaEdit

 
Fijians.

Melanesia generally includes New Guinea and other (far-)western Pacific islands from the Arafura Sea out to Fiji. The region is mostly inhabited by the Melanesian peoples.

MicronesiaEdit

Micronesia generally includes the various small island chains of the western and central Pacific. The region is mostly inhabited by the Micronesian peoples.

PolynesiaEdit

 
Samoan family

Polynesia includes New Zealand and the islands of the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The region is mostly inhabited by the Polynesian peoples.

Polynesian outliers

The AmericasEdit

The Americas is the supercontinent comprising North and South America, and associated islands.

List of peoples by geographical and ethnolinguistic grouping:

North AmericaEdit

North America includes all of the continent and islands east of the Bering Strait and north of the Isthmus of Panama; it includes Greenland, Canada, United States, Mexico, Central American and Caribbean countries. However a distinction can be made between a broader North America and a narrower Northern America and Middle America due to ethnic and cultural characteristics.


ArcticEdit

 
Two Inuit women in traditional amauti (packing parkas)

SubarcticEdit

Pacific Northwest CoastEdit

Northwest Plateau-Great Basin-CaliforniaEdit

Northwest PlateauEdit
Great BasinEdit
CaliforniaEdit

Great PlainsEdit

Eastern WoodlandsEdit

Northeastern WoodlandsEdit
Southeastern WoodlandsEdit

SouthwestEdit

MesoamericaEdit

 
Tzeltal dancers waiting to perform, San Cristobal.
 
Mam people.
 
Mayan family from Yucatán
 
Amuzgos in traditional dress.
 
Mazatec girls performing a dance in Huautla de Jimenez.
 
Huichol woman and child.

Circum-CaribbeanEdit

 
A Kuna woman in traditional dress.

CaribbeanEdit

 
Portrait of the Kali'na exhibited at the Jardin d'Acclimatation in Paris in 1892

The Caribbean, or West Indies, generally includes the island chains of the Caribbean.

South AmericaEdit

 
Emberá women
 
Bororo-Boe man from Mato Grosso at Brazil's Indigenous Games, 2007
 
Quechua woman and child in the Sacred Valley, Peru

South America generally includes all of the continent and islands south of the Isthmus of Panama.


Circum-Caribbean (Chibcha)Edit

AmazonEdit

GuianasEdit

Eastern Highlands (Brazilian Highlands)Edit

ChacoEdit

AndesEdit

Southern ConeEdit

AraucaniaEdit
PatagoniaEdit
Fire Land (Tierra del Fuego)Edit

CircumpolarEdit

Circumpolar peoples is an umbrella term for the various indigenous peoples of the Arctic. List of peoples by ethnolinguistic grouping:

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Sanders, Douglas (1999). "Indigenous peoples: Issues of definition". International Journal of Cultural Property. 8 (1): 4–13. doi:10.1017/S0940739199770591. 
  2. ^ Jose R. Martinez Cobo
  3. ^ Definition of indigenous peoples
  4. ^ Unrepresented Nations and People Organization | UNPO, Assyrians the Indigenous People of Iraq [1]
  5. ^ Sawahla & Dloomy (2007, pp. 425–433)
  6. ^ Tubb, 1998. pg-13-14.
  7. ^ Mark Smith in "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" states "Despite the long regnant model that the Canaanites and Israelites were people of fundamentally different culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites and Canaanites in the Iron I period (c. 1200 – 1000 BC). The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture... In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period." (pp. 6–7). Smith, Mark (2002) "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" (Eerdman's)
  8. ^ Rendsberg, Gary (2008). "Israel without the Bible". In Frederick E. Greenspahn. The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship. NYU Press, pp. 3–5
  9. ^ Josephus. War of the Jews 9:2.
  10. ^ http://www.khazaria.com/genetics/abstracts.html
  11. ^ http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1003316
  12. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7303/full/nature09103.html
  13. ^ http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2010/06/tracing-roots-jewishness
  14. ^ The UN Refugee Agency | UNHCR, World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples [2]
  15. ^ Department of Evolutionary Biology at University of Tartu Estonian Biocentre | Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Israeli Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation, Molecular Anthropology Group [3]
  16. ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Philippines: Overview, 2007", UNHCR | Refworld.
  17. ^ Hanihara, T (1992). "Negritos, Australian Aborigines, and the proto-sundadont dental pattern: The basic populations in East Asia". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 88 (2): 183–96. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330880206. PMID 1605316. 
  18. ^ Rouse (1992)

ReferencesEdit

Kipuri, Naomi (2007), "Kenya", in Sille Stidsen (compilation and ed.), The Indigenous World 2007 (PDF online edition), International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs yearbooks (ISSN 1024-0217), Marianne Wiben Jensen (Horn of Africa and East Africa regional ed.), Copenhagen: IWGIA, distributed by Transaction Publishers, pp. 468–476, ISBN 978-87-91563-23-2, OCLC 30981676 
Minority Rights Group International (1997), World Directory of Minorities, London, UK: Minority Rights Group International, ISBN 978-1-873194-36-2 
Rouse, Irving (1992), The Tainos: Rise and Decline of the People who greeted Columbus, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-05181-6, OCLC 24469325 
Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998). Canaanites. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3108-X.