Macro-Gunwinyguan languages

The Macro-Gunwinyguan languages, also called Arnhem or Gunwinyguan, are a family of Australian Aboriginal languages spoken across eastern Arnhem Land in northern Australia. Their relationship has been demonstrated through shared morphology in their verbal inflections.

Macro-Gunwinyguan
Arnhem
Geographic
distribution
northern Australia
Linguistic classificationMacro-Pama–Nyungan?
  • Macro-Gunwinyguan
Subdivisions
Glottologgunw1250  (Gunwinyguan)
mani1293  (Maningrida)
mang1423  (Mangarrayi-Maran)
kung1259  (Kungarakany)
gaga1251  (Gaagudju)
Arnhem languages.png
The Arnhem languages (purple), and other non-Pama–Nyungan languages (grey). Below (closeup): the individual families.

 

Many of the languages have a fortis–lenis contrast in plosive consonants. Lenis/short plosives have weak contact and intermittent voicing, while fortis/long plosives have full closure, a more powerful release burst, and no voicing.[citation needed]

LanguagesEdit

Rebecca Green (2004) reconstructed the paradigms of 28 Proto-Arnhem verbs.[1] The languages included by Green are as follows, though Green only accepts Manningrida as a demonstrated branch:[2]

This is close to what Evans (1997) proposed under the name Gunwinyguan (cf. his very different proposal of Arnhem Land languages.)

Marra, Warndarrang, Alawa, and Mangarrayi have been argued to constitute a Marran family of considerable time depth (Sharpe 2008).[3][4]

Heath (1990)[5] demonstrated an East Arnhem family of Ngandi + Nunggubuyu, to which Enindhilyagwa was added (as a closer relative to Nunggubuyu) by Van Egmond (2012).[6][7]

However, Green (2003) argues that only Maningrida has been established as a valid subgroup, and that the interrelationships of the other languages are as yet unclear. The evidence for Gunwinyguan and perhaps other nodes listed above may simply be reflections of a relationship of all Arnhem languages when only a subset of them was investigated. That is, these groups may be based on shared retentions of Proto-Arnhem rather than distinct historical developments. (However, in reviewing Green, Evans pointed out that much of the Maningrida morphology was also shared by Mangarrayi.[2]) An agnostic view of the family would list each language separately, except for the established Maningrida branch:

Kungarakany, Mangarrayi, Marra, Maningrida, Ngalakgan, Bininj Gun-wok (Gunwinggu), Warndarrang, Uwinymil, Gaagudju, Dalabon, Kunbarlang, Rembarrnga, Nunggubuyu, Jawoyn, Warray, Ngandi

*Green does not address Anindilyakwa, Alawa, or Yugul. Yugul is too poorly attested for comparison based on her methods; the other two await validation.

Yangmanic, including Wardaman, had once been included in Gunwinyguan, but has been removed from recent classifications.

External classificationEdit

Evans (1997) proposes that these languages are related to Pama–Nyungan in a family he calls Macro-Pama–Nyungan, but this has not yet been demonstrated.[8]

In 2003, he proposed that they are also related to the Eastern Daly languages.[9]

VocabularyEdit

Capell (1940) lists the following basic vocabulary items for the Gunwinyguan languages:[10]

gloss Gunwinggu Gunbarlang Ngaɖi
man biniṉ giɖimarg ŋarga
woman muli‘muliŋ baramimbaṉ gandar
head gungɔidj gɔidjgɔidj waːlu
eye gunmin wumu milba
nose gungɛb wumɛːli mulju
mouth gundaŋ djaːɖɛɽ lira
tongue gundjɛn ŋaːg djälaṉ
stomach gunjan mugmaɳɖi djaːla
bone gunmuruŋ gɛːgɛg gidji
blood gungulba moɭobin djugän
kangaroo gɔɳɔbɔlɔ goːin djädji
opossum djɛːbui gundärbu djaŋana
emu gurugaiju maɳɖɛb
crow waːg djidaːwun djäŋilga
fly bɔːd mog ŋurin
sun gunduŋ gaːnag bɽaŋu
moon diːd wurana jagan
fire gunɽag wiɖidj waɭu
smoke gundɔlŋ wungawu gundjuru
water gunɽɔin njunjug ŋaba


Capell (1942) lists the following additional basic vocabulary items for the Gunwinyguan languages:[11]

gloss Southern Gunwinggu Muralidban Andiljaugwa Nunggubuyu Wandarang Ngandi Rainbarngo Buan Gundangbon
man binin binin nanamamalja nawarinjuŋ nawaɽiji nijul biː jawurin biji
woman dalug ŋalwareːrulg wudáriŋga ŋaramaninjuŋ ŋiwoibi namanaŋ diŋ‘ giɖigiɖ girigidj
head gungoidj gungoidan ariŋga jinag wugululu gulaŋ djara gɔidj gɔidj
eye gunmiːm gunmiːm meːnba bagaɭa mamaguɽ maŋandjula gaindjulja mïmï mumu
nose gungəb gungəb aminda jɔmɔːr wundjíriba gwijiban giːja djɛː djɛː
mouth gundaŋ gundaŋ adira ɽamadan wuŋaːndal gudagula diːjälŋ daːləː dalugaɽa‘
tongue gundjen gundjen aljäljigba laːn wudjijil gudälŋ diːjälŋ dɛl djɛn
stomach gunjam gunmelem mulgwa ŋuɖan wuŋandja mowara giːna guː ŋu‘
bone gunmuruŋ gunmuruŋ adidira ŋagaɽa wuŋaɽaga guŋaɽaga balmana mɔː mɔː
blood gungulba gungulba meːra wulaŋ maŋulidji mabaɳgo gulbana guraidj gulba
kangaroo goɳobolo gundagi juburáda ŋargọ mulbia mulbia bulaidj-bulaidj guiṉ guiṉ
opossum djɛːbui duri juguŋba jirgi ajirgin aɖawa marŋo dugula dugula
emu gurugaiju wajin ŋiwurugan awurban ŋuroɖo ŋuroɖo
crow waːg waːg jiŋwa wɔːwag waɽgwaɽg awa‘wa wa‘wa‘ wa‘wa‘ wa‘wa‘
fly bɔːd bɔːd juwama amun awamun abɔd buad mɔɽ bɔːd
sun gunduŋ ŋalbɛnbe mamaːwura aɭir ŋinguŋaru mawaɭir muda walir bɛbagar
moon diːɖ diːɖ jimaːwura labama nadaŋadaŋa nigurŋa gurŋa diɖ gurŋa
fire gunag gunag aŋuɽa ŋuɽa wuŋambur gudaŋi ŋuɽa mimäl mimäl
smoke gundɔlŋ gundɔlŋ aŋwara wuŋuban wundular gubán dɔːɭŋ dɔlgnɔ djunör
water gogo gunɽɔːṉ aguŋwa agogo wuŋaladja gujärg djula waː waː

Proto-languageEdit

Proto-Gunwinyguan
Reconstruction ofGunwinyguan languages

Below are some reconstructed Proto-Gunwinyguan (i.e., Proto-Gunwinyguan proper) animal and plant names from Harvey (2003):[12]

Proto-Gunwinyguan animal names
no. gloss Proto-Gunwinyguan
8 gudgeon sp. *cakorlk
10 centipede *calarr
18 death adder *campVn/rn
26 frill-necked lizard *cangkurr
31 quoll *cappo
32 long-horned grasshopper *cappurtenyqrteny
35 crayfish *carla
38 jabiru *carnarran
39 whimbrel *carnpalcarnpal
42 water goanna *carrkka
44 female agile wallaby *carrurtrtu
49 green tree frog *catngerecngerec
53 koel *cawok
70 rifle fish *cetperte
77 willy wagtail *cikirricikirric
80 whistleduck *cilikuypi
96 quail *cirrirnrti(t)
102 bony bream *cirrpili
103 whistleduck *cirrpiyuk
105 scorpion *co(wo)c
107 hornet *cokparl
108 carpet snake *cokpiny
121 nail-tailed wallaby *cotet
127 water goanna *cucca
128 female black wallaby *cukerre
138 bowerbird *curerrk
139 kingfisher sp. *curk
142 black-headed python *curn
143 rock wallaby *curnrtupolq
145 taipan *currang
148 tawny frogmouth, owl sp. *currul
152 kangaroo rat *Cakot
154 fishtail palm *Calmarr
173 tawny frogmouth *Cawarl
178 willy wagtail *Ciningkirric
215 jabiru *kanci
230 bony bream *karlarlppa
232 Long Tom fish *karlerrq
237 black cockatoo *karnamarr
238 black flying fox *karnampal
239 emu, large feathers on emu *karnanganyca
241 big bandicoot *karnma
249 dingo *karnrteken
253 black cockatoo *karrak
255 spoonbill *karral/rla
264 goshawk *karrkkany
275 dingo *kawirVq
276 nankeen night heron *kawk
277 friarbird *kaworlk
336 kookaburra *korrowkkorrow
344 echidna *kowarrang
347 freshwater crocodile *koyow
353 emu *kulppiny
359 tawny frogmouth *kuluyqkuluy
364 blue-tongue lizard *kungar(l)ak
369 black-headed python *kunungu
374 paperbark sp. *kurlkurl
378 ibis sp. *kurnrtirnrtirn
384 blue-tongue lizard *kurri
385 blue-tongue lizard *kurrmul/rlu
388 olive python *kurrucartu
405 saltwater crocodile *kVngV
408 kookaburra *kVrVwVk
417 sugar glider *Lampalk
433 spotted bream *Leppal
442 black cockatoo *Lirrapin
448 butcherbird *Lopolopo
464 black-headed python *maccurn
467 pelican *makkakkurr
485 echidna *manappurn
495 centipede *marla
511 water goanna *marrampal
523 friarbird *martawk
528 barramundi *martpiny
530 barramundi *martukkal
561 blue-tongue lizard *milqtarl
570 barramundi *mirricci
586 blue-tongue lizard *morlel
598 rainbow serpent *muc
617 spoonbill *muqmu
625 flying fox *murru
637 frogmouth *Na-cik
639 barramundi *Namarnkorl
644 black flying fox *Nangamung
645 saltwater crocodile *Nangkurru
664 grey-crowned babbler *ngakngak
667 white corella *ngalelek
684 white cockatoo *ngarrac
685 saratoga *ngarrayarl
687 short-necked turtle *ngart
690 rifle fish *ngatpan
702 white cockatoo *ngerrk
756 tree rat; quoll *pakkaci
801 spotted nightjar *parnangka
807 kookaburra *parraca
808 darter (bird sp.) *parrakparrak
812 black wallaroo *parrk
820 march fly *partrti
824 pelican *paya
827 file snake *pekka
831 gecko spp. *pelerrk
839 bustard *penuk
845 plover *perrepperrep
846 rainbow bee-eater *perrertperrert
847 masked plover *pettelerrelerre
850 file snake *piccirri
856 galah *pilkpilk
866 barramundi *pirlmu
873 glossy ibis *pirnrtu
887 archer fish *poccalk
904 water python *porlokko
906 brolga *pornorrong
915 velvet-tailed gecko *poywek
923 pheasant *pukpuk
932 ghost bat *pumapuma
934 file snake *punupun
941 water goanna *purarr
954 water python *purrurtci
963 red-eyed pigeon *rakul
976 Torresian imperial pigeon *rumuq
981 sand goanna *Talak
997 black cockatoo *Tarrapiya
1009 plover *Tetterran
1012 dollar bird *Tewtew
1020 peewee *Tirlkrtirlk
1024 moon; moon snake *Tirt
1025 wedge-tailed eagle *Tiwana
1034 rock wallaby *Torriya
1045 ring-tailed possum *Tukula
1049 bony bream *Tulukkurr
1067 green tree frog *thakparrarraq
1093 Long Tom fish *thumpi
1097 bandicoot *thungkaq
1100 king brown snake *T(h)atpe
1115 crow *wakwak
1123 bustard *walppurrungku
1171 butcherbird *warrkcirt
1196 rainbow fish *werec
1206 possum *wirik
1216 bird sp.; rainbow bee-eater; kingfisher; whipbirds *wirritwirrit
1217 black-faced cuckooshrike *wirriwirriyak
1231 cockroach *wor(o)cwor(o)c
1244 possum sp. *wumpu
1274 yabby *yarr
1291 bird sp.; mopoke; kite *yerr/riny
1303 water rat *yirrkkup
1314 lightning; rain; Leichhardt's grasshopper [seen in wet season] *yurr
Proto-Gunwinyguan plant names
no. gloss Proto-Gunwinyguan
2 Grevillea pteridifolia *caca ~ *yacca
12 spinifex *calng
30 wattle sp. *capec
36 king brown snake *carlung
40 banyan *carnqpa
54 water lily stem *cawqcaw
60 Grevillea sp. *cenkererr
63 milkwood *cenycok
67 pandanus mat *cerrpe
82 Capparis umbonata *ciliwirn
85 Pandanus aquaticus *cimcim
93 mistletoe *cirnirrin/ny
141 lancewood *curluq
223 ironwood *kappay
235 freshwater mangrove *karlngka/iny
236 wattle sp., woomera type *karlppu
244 Acacia sp. *karnpirr
258 spinifex sp. *karrarnrtalk
278 tree sp., Gardenia megasperma, Capparis umbonata *kayapam
321 plant sp., bush potato *kongkong
329 Planchonia careya *korlq
334 pandanus husk *korrmo
341 paperbark *kot
345 paperbark humpy, bark of stringybark *kowk
377 black plum *kurnrtalq
379 Flacourtia territorialis *kurnrtun/rn
398 Terminalia grandiflora *kutt/rtrtu
402 Banksia dentata *kuypuk
431 Opilia amentacea *Leklek
461 wild passionfruit *ma(rt)rtawk
482 Canthium lucidum *mamtak
513 palm sp., Cycas media *marrappi
527 eucalyptus sp. *martpa
529 paperbark, deep coolamon *martu
576 nut of pandanus *moc
599 coolibah *muccu
602 paperbark sp. *mul/rlmu
604 conkerberry *mululuk
607 ironwood *mulyurruny
627 black currant *murrungkurn
677 eucalyptus sp. *ngapak
689 cycad *ngaththu
704 black currant *ngik
708 pandanus sp. *ngokngo
711 river red gum *ngolongkoq
776 Ficus opposita *pampul/rla
802 Owenia vernicosa *parnarr
825 green plum *pe/irrke/iq
826 quinine tree *pecca
843 eucalyptus sp. *pernpern
865 Acacia holosericea *pirliwirli
880 tea tree *pirtippirti
896 Dalabon *pon
898 wattle sp. *pongka
925 paperbark sp. *pul(p)pul
935 clump of bamboo; Bambusa arnhemica *-puny
953 Cassytha filiformis *purrurnpurrurn
955 Xanthostemon paradoxus *purt/lu
958 tree sp. - Brachychiton diversifolium *putput
962 paperbark *rakkalaq
971 pandanus *rok
977 ridge; blacksoil area; grass used in corroborees *ruwurr
999 Phragmites *Tarrin
1058 Leichhardt tree *Tupal
1089 quinine brush *thorrowq
1091 Acacia holosericea *thukkul
1095 Canthium attenuatum, Exocarpos latifolius *thumuk
1096 bloodwood *thumurluk
1101 pandanus *T(h)ayarr
1154 vine sp. - Cynanchum pedunculatum *warnpek
1169 plant sp.; Exocarpos latifolus; lemon grass *warrinycalan
1181 Grevillea pteridifolia *watpar
1239 black plum *wucal
1259 pandanus *yakngarra

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Bowern, Claire and Harold Koch, 2004. Australian Languages: Classification and the Comparative Method, p 44
  2. ^ a b Green, Rebecca (2003). "Proto-Maningrida within Proto-Arnhem: evidence from verbal inflectional suffixes". In Nicholas Evans (ed.). The Non-Pama-Nyungan languages of northern Australia. Pacific Linguistics 552. Canberra: Australian National University. pp. 369–421. hdl:1885/146725.
  3. ^ Sharpe, Margaret C. (2008). "Alawa and its Neighbours: Enigma Variations 1 and 2". In Bowern, Claire; Evans, Bethwyn; Miceli, Luisa (eds.). Morphology and Language History: In honour of Harold Koch. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 59–70. ISBN 9789027290960.
  4. ^ N92 Alawa at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
  5. ^ Heath, Jeffrey, 1990, A case of intensive lexical diffusion: Arnhem Land, Australia
  6. ^ Van Egmond, M-E. (2012). "Enindhilyakwa phonology, morphosyntax and genetic position." Doctoral thesis. University of Sydney. pp. 314–70. hdl:2123/8747
  7. ^ Bowern, C. (2017). "Language isolates of Australia." in Campbell, L., ed. Language Isolates. Abingdon: Routledge: 323–43
  8. ^ McConvell, Patrick and Nicholas Evans. (eds.) 1997. Archaeology and Linguistics: Global Perspectives on Ancient Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press
  9. ^ Evans, Nicholas, 2003, The non-Pama-Nyungan languages of northern Australia
  10. ^ Capell, Arthur. 1940. The Classification of Languages in North and North-West Australia. Oceania 10(3): 241-272, 404-433. doi:10.1002/j.1834-4461.1940.tb00292.x
  11. ^ Capell, Arthur. 1941-1942, 1942-1943. Languages of Arnhem Land, North Australia. Oceania 12: 364-392, 13: 24-51.
  12. ^ Harvey, Mark. 2003. An initial reconstruction of Proto Gunwinyguan phonology. In Evans, Nicholas (ed.), The non-Pama-Nyungan languages of northern Australia: comparative studies of the continent's most linguistically complex region, 205-268. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.