Surma is a collective term for three ethnic groups — Chai, Timaga, and Suri Baale — living in southwestern Ethiopia. Suri is composed of three subgroups; Chai, Timaga and Baale groups (self-names), politically and territorially different, but all speaking 'South East Surmic' languages within the Nilo-Saharan family, in the Surmic language group, which includes Mursi, Majang, and Me'en languages.
|'Surmic' speakers: 80,000 (1998), 186,875 (2007)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Ethiopia, South Sudan|
|Suri, Mursi, Me'en|
|Animism, minority Christianity|
|Related ethnic groups|
The term Suri is the Ethiopian government's collective name for the Chai, Timaga, and Suri Baale as expressed in the label 'Suri woreda' (= lower administrative district) in southwestern Ethiopia, bordering South Sudan. The 2007 national Ethiopian census figures for ethnic groups distinguish "Suri" from "Mursi" and "Me'enit" (= singular of Me'en). Some authors have used the terms "Suri" and "Surma" interchangeably, or for contradictory purposes.
The Suri are an agro-pastoral people and inhabit part of the West Omo zone of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region (SNNPR) in Ethiopia, while the Other live partly in neighbouring South Sudan. Some are also found west of Jemu. The Suri population was ca. 20,622 in 1998 (census est.) and ca. 32,000 in 2016. The Suri are culturally closely related to the more 'famous' Mursi, but the latter do not regard themselves as 'Suri' despite the similarities.
The Suri groups share a similar culture, and show social and historical kinship with the Mursi and Me'en groups. Within Ethiopia, their homeland is relatively remote, located in semi-arid plains, valleys and foothills. There are traditional rivalries with neighbouring groups such as the Nyangatom and the South Sudanese Toposa, constantly raiding into Ethiopian territory. In recent decades, these conflicts have become quite bloody, with multiple use of automatic firearms (now present in significant numbers), no available overarching structures of mediation, and lack of effective government action. Major sources of the weapons have been the parties in the Sudanese Civil War. At times, the local police only allows foreigners to travel there with a hired armed guard. Local Suri authorities have also been imposing hefty tourist 'travel sums' on foreign tourists visiting the area.
The Suri are a self-conscious and culturally proud people, with, among others, a liking for stick fighting called saginé. This is more properly called 'ceremonial duelling', and serves as a rite of passage for male youngsters and brings great prestige to men — it is especially important when seeking a bride — and they are very competitive, at the risk of serious injury and occasional death.
At a young age, to beautify themselves for marriage, most women have their bottom teeth removed and their bottom lips pierced, then stretched, so as to allow insertion of a clay lip plate. This has become the hallmark of the Suri - as for the Mursi - and the main reason they have been sought out by tourists interested in the 'exotic'. Some women have stretched their lips so as to allow plates up to sixteen inches in diameter. Increasing with exposure to other cultures, however, a growing number of girls now refrain from this practice. Their children are sometimes painted with (protective) white clay paint, which may be dotted on the face or body.
Suri villages normally range in size from 40 to 1,000 people, but a few may reach 2,500 people. Suri life is egalitarian. The Suri 'chiefs' (called komoru) have a ritual function and are merely the most respected elders and have no executive powers. They are elected from within a certain clan lineages. Few Surma are familiar with Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia, and their literacy level is relatively low. In recent decades, however, schools have been built and the number of literate Suri is growing, with several now working in the local administration's district capital, and others studying in various towns.
According to Suri oral tradition, they came to their present territory about 200 years ago from the West (Sudan-Ethiopia border lands). First they came to the Akobo (eastwards from the Nile); then they moved in two directions, to the lower part of Kidhoa Bo and the upper part from Kidhoa Bo to Mount Shologoy. These migrants also absorbed local groups. Since the late 1890s, the Suri were constantly harassed by the Ethiopian imperial troops and northern settlers. As a result of this (politico-economically driven) harassment, numerous Suri went to the Boma Plateau in Sudan, especially after 1925.
The Suri are obviously not the only ethnic group in the south of Ethiopia: there are around 12 more, and with some of them tensions exist. The Suri have one primary enemy, the Nyangatom, a people south of them and member of the large Ateker population cluster. On a regular basis the Nyangatom and another enemy of the Suri, the Toposa (also of the Ateker group) team up to raid the Suri’s cattle. The Second Sudanese Civil War has taken additional toll on the Suri. These conflicts have pushed neighboring groups into the Suri territory and there a constant competition to defend what they have in terms of land, water sources and pasture. Clashes are most common during the dry season. Around this time the Suri move their cattle down south to find new grazing land. State authorities have been attempting to create awareness about conflict resolution and have occasionally called a 'peace conference' (as in 2008). But they also have been a main source of conflict and antagonism themselves, e.g., by confiscation of huge tracts of land for commercial agrarian projects on local groups' land and inefficient or absent mediation in cases of dispute.
Reports of displacementEdit
According to 'tribal peoples advocacy groups' (Survival International and Native Solutions to Conservation Refugees), local peoples, particularly the Suri, Nyangatom, Anywa and Mursi, are in danger of displacement and denial of access to their traditional grazing and agricultural lands. More than a decade ago the main problem for Suri and Mursi was posed by the government bringing in the African Parks Foundation, also known as African Parks Conservation, of the Netherlands. These advocacy groups reported that the Surma/Suri, Me'en and Mursi people were more or less coerced by government park officials into thumbprinting documents they could not read. The documents reportedly said the locals had agreed to give up their land without compensation, and were being used to legalise the boundaries of the Omo National Park, which African Parks then took over. This process, when finished, would have make the Suri, Mun, etc. 'illegal squatters' on their own land. A similar fate was almost befalling the other groups who also lived within or near the park, e.g. the Dizi and the Nyangatom. The current threats to Suri and neighbouring groups' livelihoods are massive state-led ventures like construction of the Gibe-3 (Omo) dam (completed in 2016) that eliminated river-bank cultivation and led to water scarcity, as well as the ongoing construction of huge mono-crop (sugar-cane) plantations in pasture and cultivation areas. These seriously affect biodiversity, take away resources, and do not lead to development of the local peoples.
Religion and beliefsEdit
The Suri have a sky god named Tumu. The Suri also believe in spirits and take recourse to (female) diviners as well. Another belief of the Suri is in rainmaking. This skill is passed down through heredity and is only given to one male in specific clans. When his services are needed, the men collect chips from a specific tree. These chips are then masticated and the remaining juice is then mixed with clay. This combination is poured and smeared over the man's body. After this process, rain is expected to fall.
The economy of the Suri is based on livestock herding and agriculture. They keep cattle and goats, the main source of wealth. Crops planted are sorghum, maize, cassava, cabbage, beans, yams, spice plants and some tobacco. During the dry season, the Suri also collect honey. The Suri pan gold in nearby streams which they sell for cash to highland traders. Suri women also used to make earthenware pots and sell them to neighbours, like the Dizi, as also sold produce of game hunting, but these activities have sharply declined in the past decades. The average married male in the Suri tribe owns somewhere between 30 and 40 cows. These cows are not usually killed, unless needed for ceremonial purposes. Every young male has a 'favourite cattle' name (next to others). Cows are very important to the Suri - economically, socially, symbolically - and at times they risk death to protect their herd; Suri men are also judged by how much cattle they own. Men also are not allowed to marry until they have a sufficient number to start paying the bride-wealth. Cows are given to his prospective wife’s family after the initial wedding ceremony. To praise their cattle or mourn their deaths, the Suri sing songs for them.
Piercing lips and lobes and inserting lip plates are a strong part of the Suri culture. At puberty most young women have their lower teeth removed in order to get their lower lip pierced. Once the lip is pierced, it is then stretched and lip plates of increasing size are then placed in the hole of the piercing. Having a lip plate is a sign of female beauty and appropriateness; a common thought is that the bigger the plate, the more cattle the woman is 'worth' for her bride price, though this is denied by some.
The Suri pride themselves on their scars and how many they carry. Women perform decorative scarification by slicing their skin with a razor blade after lifting it with a thorn. After the skin is sliced the piece of skin left over is left to eventually scar. On the other hand, the men traditionally scarred their bodies after they killed someone from an enemy group. These rituals, which are extremely painful, are said by some observers to be a way of getting the younger Suri used to seeing blood and feeling pain.
A sport and ritual the Suri take very seriously is ceremonial duelling with sticks. In most cases, this is engaged in by young men to get respect from their families and community. The fights usually take place between two villages during harvest time, draw large audiences, and start with 20 to 30 representatives of each side, all of whom get a chance to duel against someone from the other side. During these fights there are referees present to make sure the rules are being followed. It is not uncommon for stick fights to end within the first couple of hits, but at the same time deaths are not unheard of, especially from hits to the stomach. Shooting incidents have occasionally erupted between men who have other disputes in real life.
Ways of lifeEdit
Each household in the Suri village is managed by a married woman. The women prepare the food, take care of the children, and cultivate their own fields and gardens, and are allowed to use their profits however they wish. There are also age grades. Young men (Tegay) are the 'warrior grade', not yet fully responsible adults. They are mainly responsible for herding and defending the cattle. Junior elders (Rora) are the dominant decision-making age-grade and entrance is gained in an initiation ritual that is held every 20 to 30 years. During this initiation the young men to be 'promoted' are tried and tested by elders, and are sometimes whipped until they bleed. Decisions in the Suri community are made by men in an assembly. Women are not allowed to voice their opinions during these debates but are allowed to do so before or after the debates take place. These debates are closed and summed up by the community’s ritual chief (the komoru).
- Unseth, Peter. (1997) "Disentangling the Two Languages Called 'Suri'", Occasional Papers in the Study of Sudanese Languages, 7:49-69.
- 2007 Ethiopian census, first draft, Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency (accessed 6 May 2009)
- "Ethnologue Report: Suri". Ethnologue.org. 1999-02-19. Retrieved 2013-07-25.
- Dimmendaal, Gerrit. (2002) "Sociolinguistic survey report on Tirma, Chai, Suri Baale and Mun(Mursi)." SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2002-033
- Chmielarski, Dariusz. (2005) "Shadows of Old Africa", Tripsource.com, Ethiopia
- Close, Jánis Miglavs. (2005) "Mother Making New Lip Plate, Mursi tribe, Omo River region, Ethiopia"
- Beckwith, Carol and Angela Fisher. (1991) "The eloquent Surma of Ethiopia," National Geographic, 179.2:76-99.
- "Ethnologue Report: Mursi". Ethnologue.org. 1999-02-19. Retrieved 2013-07-25.
- "Ethnologue Report: Me'en". Ethnologue.org. 1999-02-19. Retrieved 2013-07-25.
- Native Solutions to Conservation Refugees. (2006) "Suri, Dizi, Mursi, Me'en, Nyangatom threatened by Ethiopian National Park" Archived 2006-12-07 at the Wayback Machine
- Turton, David. (2006) "African Parks Foundation and the Omo National Park" Archived 2008-02-27 at Archive-It
- Hurd, Will. (8 August 2005) "Ethiopia: Mursi land threatened by government", Survival International.
- "Lip-plates — Mursi Online". www.mursi.org. Retrieved 2018-04-13.
Sources and referencesEdit
- Abbink, Jon (1996). The Suri. In: J. Middleton & A. Rassam, volume eds., Encyclopedia of World Cultures, vol. 9 (Africa/Middle East), pp. 323-327. Boston: G.K. Hall.
- Abbink, Jon (2009). The fate of the Suri: conflict and group tension the Southwest Ethiopian frontier. In: G. Schlee & E.E. Watson, eds, Changing Identifications and Alliances in Northeast Africa. Volume I: Ethiopia and Kenya, pp. 35-51. Oxford – New York: Berghahn Books.
- BBC/Discovery Channel TV-docu series Tribe (UK)/Going Tribal (US) shows British explorer Bruce Parry living among them a few weeks
- Abbink, Jon. (1998) "Ritual and political forms of violent practice among the Suri of southern Ethiopia", Cahiers d'études africaines, 38, cah. 150/152, pp. 271–295.
- African Parks Foundation
- Woods, S. (30 October 2008) "Ethiopia's Nomad Warriors". Rolling Stone, Academic Search Premier database, Retrieved March 6, 2009.
- Abbink, Jon "Ethnic Conflict in the 'Tribal Zone': The Dizi and Suri in Southern Ethiopia", Journal of Modern African Studies, 31 (1993), pp. 675–682
- Abbink, Jon 2004. Converting Pastoralists: Reflections on missionary work and development in southern Ethiopia. In A. Kumar Giri, A. van Harskamp & O. Salemink (eds), The Development of Religion, the Religion of Development 133-142. Delft: Eburon.
- Abbink, Jon 2009. Tourism and its discontents: Suri-Tourist encounters in southern Ethiopia. In: S. Bohn Gmelch, ed., Tourists and Tourism: a Reader. Second Edition, pp. 115-136. Long Grove, Ill.: Waveland Press, Inc.
- Abbink, Jon, Michael Bryant & Daniel Bambu. 2013. Suri Orature: An Introduction to the Society, Language, and Oral Culture of the Suri People (Southwest Ethiopia). Cologne: Rudiger Köppe Publishers, 203 pp. 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Surma people.|
- The Clothing of Nature Photographer Hans Silvester documents the body paintings of the Surma and Mursi tribes
- Ethiopia's Vanishing Tribes slideshow by Life magazine
- MOJA AFRIKA (Etiopija; ljubljana - Nairobi. Z motorjem!), video of a 2006 visit to the Surma in Ethiopia (in Slovene)
- Photographer Jean Michel Voge documents the Surmas on Inspired Eye