Dardic languages

  (Redirected from Dard people)

The Dardic languages (also Dardu or Pisaca)[1] or Hindu-Kush Indo-Aryan languages,[2][3][4][5] are a group of several Indo-Aryan languages spoken in northern Pakistan, northwestern India and parts of northeastern Afghanistan.[6]

Dardic
Hindu-Kush Indo-Aryan
Geographic
distribution
Northern Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa)
Northwestern India (Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh)
Northeastern Afghanistan (Kapisa, Kunar, Laghman, Nangarhar, Nuristan)
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Subdivisions
GlottologNone
indo1324  (Northwestern Zone)
Dardic Language.png
Dardic languages by Georg Morgenstierne
(note: Nuristani languages such as Kamkata-vari (Kati), Kalasha-ala (Waigali), etc. are now separated)

The term "Dardic" is stated to be only a geographic convention used to denote the northwesternmost group of Indo-Aryan languages rather than any ethnic or linguistic basis.[7][8] There is no ethnic unity among the speakers of these languages nor the languages can be traced to a single linguistic tree model, being mostly very distinct from each another, with each language varying considerably among themselves.[9][10][11][6]

History

Early British efforts placed almost all the peoples and languages of the upper Indus River between Kashmir and Kabul into one unitary group, coining the distinct identities of all other peoples in the region, resulting in the formation of terms such as Dard, Dardistan, and Dardic.[12]

No people in the region refer to themselves as Dards, their country as Dardistan, or their language as Dardic.[13] The word Dard itself is unknown in any languages of the area, except as a loan word from Persian via Urdu, in which it means "pain".[14] The broad application of this term have been criticised by many scholars.[15]

In a historic context, Herodotus (4th century B.C.), in one of his stories, mentioned a war-like people by the name of Dadikai on the frontier of India.[16] Much later, Strabo and Pliny mentioned the war-like people Dardae.[17] Alexander, whose travels provide much of the data for classical geography of the subcontinent, did not meet any Dard people, but he did go to a place called Daedala, where he was reported to have fought against people called Assakenoi.[18] Herodotus Dadikai appears to be the Persian name derived from the Daradas given in the Puranic sources.[19] Rather than a specific people, they were referred to characterize a fierce people, residing in the northwest, outside the boundaries of civilization. Kalhana, in Rajatarangini, mentions the Darads as residing to the north of Kashmir, and as frequently attempting to invade and loot Kashmir.[20]

The term later became accepted through repeated usage. G.W. Leitner coined the terms Dard and Dardistan, even though the name 'Dard' was not claimed by any people in the region.[21][22] John Biddulph, who spent many years in Gilgit, also stated the name Dard was not acknowledged by any section of the tribes to whom it was commonly applied.[23] Biddulph recognized Leitner's term Dardistan as founded on a misconception, but accepted the term as a convenient way of designating the difficult, diverse, and largely unknown Karakoram between Kashmir and the Hindukush Range.[24] This usage of the term is curiously parallel to the Sanskrit usage, where it connoted nonspecific ferocious outsiders living in the mountains beyond the borders of the region.

Leitner's Dardistan, in its broadest sense, became the basis for the classification of the languages in the north-west of the Indo-Aryan linguistic area (which includes present-day eastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, and Kashmir).[25] George Abraham Grierson, with scant data, borrowed the term and proposed an independent Dardic family within the Indo-Iranian languages.[26] However, Grierson's formulation of Dardic is now considered to be incorrect in its details, and has therefore been rendered obsolete by modern scholarship.[27]

Georg Morgenstierne, who conducted an extensive fieldwork in the region during the early 20th century, revised Grierson's classification and came to the view that only the "Kafiri" (Nuristani) languages formed an independent branch of the Indo-Iranian languages separate from Indo-Aryan and Iranian families, and determined that the Dardic languages were unmistakably Indo-Aryan in character.[28]

Dardic languages contain absolutely no features which cannot be derived from old [Indo-Aryan language]. They have simply retained a number of striking archasisms, which had already disappeared in most Prakrit dialects... There is not a single common feature distinguishing Dardic, as a whole, from the rest of the [Indo-Aryan] languages... Dardic is simply a convenient term to denote a bundle of aberrant [Indo-Aryan] hill-languages which, in their relative isolation, accented in many cases by the invasion of Pathan tribes, have been in varying degrees sheltered against the expand influence of [Indo-Aryan] Midland (Madhyadesha) innovations, being left free to develop on their own.[29]

Due to their geographic isolation, many Dardic languages have preserved archaisms and other features of Old Indo-Aryan. These features include three sibilants, several types of clusters of consonants, and archaic or antiquated vocabulary lost in other modern Indo-Aryan languages.[30]

Kalasha and Khowar are the most archaic of all modern Indo-Aryan languages, retaining a great part of Sanskrit case inflexion, and retaining many words in a nearly Sanskritic form.[31][32] For example at’hi "bone" in Kalasha is nearly identical to asthi in Sanskrit[33] and ašrú "tear" in Khowar is identical to the Sanskrit word.[15]

French Indologist Gérard Fussman points out that the term Dardic is geographic, not a linguistic expression.[34] Taken literally, it allows one to believe that all the languages spoken in Dardistan are Dardic.[35] It also allows one to believe that all the people speaking Dardic languages are Dards and the area they live in is Dardistan.[36] A term used by classical geographers to identify the area inhabited by an indefinite people, and used in Rajatarangini in reference to people outside Kashmir, has came to have ethnographic, geographic, and even political significance today.[37]

Classification

George Morgenstierne's scheme corresponds to recent scholarly consensus.[38] As such, Dardic's position as a legitimate genetic subfamily has been repeatedly called into question; it is widely acknowledged that the grouping is more geographical in nature, as opposed to linguistic.[39] Indeed, Buddruss rejected the Dardic grouping entirely, and placed the languages within Central Indo-Aryan.[40] Other scholars, such as Strand[41] and Mock,[42] have similarly voiced doubts in this regard.

However, Kachru contrasts "Midland languages" spoken in the plains, such as Punjabi and Urdu, with "Mountain languages", such as Dardic.[43] Kogan has also suggested an 'East-Dardic' sub-family; comprising the 'Kashmiri', 'Kohistani' and 'Shina' groups.[44][45]

The case of Kashmiri is peculiar. Its Dardic features are close to Shina, often said to belong to an eastern Dardic language subfamily. Kachru notes that "the Kashmiri language used by Kashmiri Hindu Pandits has been powerfully influenced by Indian culture and literature, and the greater part of its vocabulary is now of Indian origin, and is allied to that of Sanskritic Indo-Aryan languages of northern India".[43]

While it is true that many Dardic languages have been influenced by non-Dardic languages, Dardic may have also influenced neighbouring Indo-Aryan lects in turn, such as Punjabi,[46] the Pahari languages, including the Central Pahari languages of Uttarakhand,[46][47] and purportedly even further afield.[48][49] Some linguists have posited that Dardic lects may have originally been spoken throughout a much larger region, stretching from the mouth of the Indus (in Sindh) northwards in an arc, and then eastwards through modern day Himachal Pradesh to Kumaon. However, this has not been conclusively established. [50][51][52]

Subdivisions

Dardic languages have been organized into the following subfamilies:[53]

Characteristics

Loss of voiced aspiration

Virtually all Dardic languages have experienced a partial or complete loss of voiced aspirated consonants.[53][54] Khowar uses the word buum for 'earth' (Sanskrit: bhumi),1 Pashai uses the word duum for 'smoke' (Hindi: dhuan, Sanskrit: dhum) and Kashmiri uses the word dod for 'milk' (Sanskrit: dugdha, Hindi: dūdh).[53][54] Tonality has developed in some (but not all) Dardic languages, such as Khowar and Pashai, as a compensation.[54] Punjabi and Western Pahari languages similarly lost aspiration but have virtually all developed tonality to partially compensate (e.g. Punjabi kar for 'house', compare with Hindi ghar).[53]

Dardic metathesis and other changes

Both ancient and modern Dardic languages demonstrate a marked tendency towards metathesis where a "pre- or postconsonantal 'r' is shifted forward to a preceding syllable".[46][55] This was seen in Ashokan rock edicts (erected 269 BCE to 231 BCE) in the Gandhara region, where Dardic dialects were and still are widespread. Examples include a tendency to spell the Classical Sanskrit words priyadarshi (one of the titles of Emperor Ashoka) as instead priyadrashi and dharma as dhrama.[55] Modern-day Kalasha uses the word driga 'long' (Sanskrit: dirgha).[55] Palula uses drubalu 'weak' (Sanskrit: durbala) and brhuj 'birch tree' (Sanskrit: bhurja).[55] Kashmiri uses drolid2 'impoverished' (Sanskrit: daridra) and krama 'work' or 'action' (Sanskrit: karma).[55] Western Pahari languages (such as Dogri), Sindhi and Lahnda (Western Punjabi) also share this Dardic tendency to metathesis, though they are considered non-Dardic, for example cf. the Punjabi word drakhat 'tree' (from Persian darakht).[38][56]

Dardic languages also show other consonantal changes. Kashmiri, for instance, has a marked tendency to shift k to ch and j to z (e.g. zon 'person' is cognate to Sanskrit jan 'person or living being' and Persian jān 'life').[38]

Verb position in Dardic

Unlike most other Indo-Aryan (or Iranian) languages, several Dardic languages present "verb second" as the normal grammatical form. This is similar to many Germanic languages, such as German and Dutch, as well as Uto-Aztecan O'odham and Northeast Caucasian Ingush. Most Dardic languages, such as Indus Kohistani, however, follow the usual Indo-Iranian subject-object-verb (SOV) pattern, similar to Japanese.[57]

Language First example sentence Second example sentence
English (Germanic) This is a horse. We will go to Tokyo.
Kashmiri (Dardic) Yi chu akh gur./ Yi thu akh gur. (Kishtwari Kashmiri) As' gatshav Tokiyo.
Sanskrit (Indo-Aryan) Ayám eka áśvaḥ ásti. Vayám Tokyaṃ gámiṣyāmaḥ.
Japanese (Japonic) Kore wa uma de aru. Watashitachi wa Tōkyō ni ikimasu.
Kamkata-vari (Nuristani) Ina ušpa âsa. Imo Tokyo âćamo.
Dari Persian (Iranian) In yak asb ast. Mâ ba Tokyo khâhem raft.
Shina (Dardic) Anu ek aspo han. Be Tokyo et bujun.
Pashto (Iranian) Masculine: Dā yo as day / Feminine: Dā yawa aspa da. Mūng/Mūnẓ̌ ba Ṭokyo ta/tar lāṛshū.
Indus Kohistani (Dardic) Sho akh gho thu. Ma Tokyo ye bum-thu.
Sindhi (Indo-Aryan) Heeu hiku ghoro aahe. Asaan Tokyo veendaaseen.
Hindi-Urdu (Indo-Aryan) Ye ek ghora hai.5 Ham Tokyo jāenge.
Punjabi (Indo-Aryan) Ae ikk kora ai. Assi Tokyo jāvange.
Nepali (Indo-Aryan) Yo euta ghoda ho. Hami Tokyo jānechhau.
Garhwali (Indo-Aryan) Seey/Si/Yi/Ai yakh guntt chh. Aami Tokyo Jaula.
Kumaoni (Indo-Aryan) Yo ek ghoda chhu. Aami Tokyo jaal.

See also

Notes

1.^ The Khowar word for 'earth' is more accurately represented, with tonality, as buúm rather than buum, where ú indicates a rising tone.
2.^ The word drolid actually includes a Kashmiri half-vowel, which is difficult to render in the Urdu, Devnagri and Roman scripts alike. Sometimes, an umlaut is used when it occurs in conjunction with a vowel, so the word might be more accurately rendered as drölid.
3.^ Sandhi rules in Sanskrit allow the combination of multiple neighboring words together into a single word: for instance, word-final 'ah' plus word-initial 'a' merge into 'o'. In actual Sanskrit literature, with the effects of sandhi, this sentence would be expected to appear as Eṣá ékóśvósti. Also, word-final 'a' is Sanskrit is a schwa, [ə] (similar to the ending 'e' in the German name, Nietzsche), so e.g. the second word is pronounced [éːkə]. Pitch accent is indicated with an acute accent in the case of the older Vedic language, which was inherited from Proto-Indo-European.
4.^ Hindi-Urdu, and other non-Dardic Indo-Aryan languages, also sometimes utilize a "verb second" order (similar to Kashmiri and English) for dramatic effect.[58] Yeh ek ghoṛā hai is the normal conversational form in Hindi-Urdu. Yeh hai ek ghoṛā is also grammatically correct but indicates a dramatic revelation or other surprise. This dramatic form is often used in news headlines in Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi and other Indo-Aryan languages.

Sources

Academic literature from outside South Asia

  • Morgenstierne, G. Irano-Dardica. Wiesbaden 1973;
  • Morgenstierne, G. Die Stellung der Kafirsprachen. In Irano-Dardica, 327-343. Wiesbaden, Reichert 1975
  • Decker, Kendall D. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, Volume 5. Languages of Chitral.

Academic literature from South Asia

  • The Comparative study of Urdu and Khowar. Badshah Munir Bukhari National Language Authority Pakistan 2003. [No Reference]
  • National Institute of Pakistani Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University & Summer Institute of Linguistics

References

  1. ^ "Dardic languages".
  2. ^ Liljegren, Henrik (1 March 2017). "Profiling Indo-Aryan in the Hindukush-Karakoram: A preliminary study of micro-typological patterns". Journal of South Asian Languages and Linguistics. 4 (1): 107–156. doi:10.1515/jsall-2017-0004. ISSN 2196-078X. S2CID 132833118. On the one hand, it is obvious that these languages form a continuum together with the main Indo-Aryan languages of the northwestern Subcontinent, with a gradually increased clustering of more prototypical Hindukush-Karakoram features toward the central – but in relation to the rest of Indo-Aryan more peripheral – parts of this region. On the other hand, these languages also show a high degree of diversity, with individual languages taking part in various subareal configurations or transit zones that are represented in the region, further complicating any attempts at defining them collectively in more exact, or exclusive, areal terms. We must therefore bear in mind that any collective reference to these languages, be it Hindukush Indo-Aryan or any other term, will have to be interpreted as a highly gradient notion, acknowledging the apparent lack of any complete list of innovations, let alone retentions, that would cover more than a subset of them.
  3. ^ Garbo, Francesca Di; Olsson, Bruno; Wälchli, Bernhard (2019). Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity II: World-wide comparative studies. Language Science Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-3-96110-180-1.
  4. ^ Saxena, Anju (12 May 2011). Himalayan Languages: Past and Present. Walter de Gruyter. p. 35. ISBN 978-3-11-089887-3.
  5. ^ Liljegren, Henrik (26 February 2016). A grammar of Palula. Language Science Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-3-946234-31-9.
  6. ^ a b Strand, Richard F. (13 December 2013). "Dardic and Nūristānī languages". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John Abdallah; Rowson, Everett (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam - Three 2013-4. Brill. pp. 101–103. ISBN 978-90-04-25269-1. The seventeen Dardic languages constitute a geographic group of the northwestern-most Indo-Aryan languages. They fall into several small phylogenetic groups of Indo-Aryan, but together they show no common phonological innovations that demonstrate that they share any phylogenetic unity as a "Dardic branch" of the Indo-Aryan languages.
  7. ^ Prakāśaṃ, Vennelakaṇṭi (2008). Encyclopaedia of the Linguistic Sciences: Issues and Theories. Allied Publishers. pp. 142–147. ISBN 978-81-8424-279-9. Dardic languages contain absolutely no features which cannot be derived from old [Indo-Aryan language]. They have simply retained a number of striking archasisms, which had already disappeared in most Prakrit dialects... There is not a single common feature distinguishing Dardic, as a whole, from the rest of the [Indo-Aryan] languages... Dardic is simply a convenient term to denote a bundle of aberrant [Indo-Aryan] hill-languages which, in their relative isolation, accented in many cases by the invasion of Pathan tribes, have been in varying degrees sheltered against the expand influence of [Indo-Aryan] Midland (Madhyadesha) innovations, being left free to develop on their own.
  8. ^ Kaw, M. K. (2004). Kashmir and It's People: Studies in the Evolution of Kashmiri Society. APH Publishing. p. 295. ISBN 978-81-7648-537-1. The term Dardic is stated to be only a geographical convention and not a linguistic expression.
  9. ^ Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George (26 July 2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 822. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9. The designation "Dardic" implies neither ethnic unity among the speakers of these languages nor that they can all be traced to a single stammbaum-model node.
  10. ^ Verbeke, Saartje (20 November 2017). Argument structure in Kashmiri: Form and function of pronominal suffixation. BRILL. p. 2. ISBN 978-90-04-34678-9. Nowadays, the term "Dardic" is used as an areal term that refers to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, without claiming anything specific about their mutual relatedness.
  11. ^ "Dards, Dardistan, and Dardic: an Ethnographic, Geographic, and Linguistic Conundrum". www.mockandoneil.com. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  12. ^ "Dards, Dardistan, and Dardic: an Ethnographic, Geographic, and Linguistic Conundrum". www.mockandoneil.com. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
  13. ^ Foundation, Encyclopaedia Iranica. "Welcome to Encyclopaedia Iranica". iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 10 May 2022. The terms Dardic or Dardestān are not, however, in common use in the region; rather, they were adopted by Western scholars after G. W. Leitner used them in his books in the late 19th century (1877, 1887, 1893, 1894, 1895).
  14. ^ "Dards, Dardistan, and Dardic: an Ethnographic, Geographic, and Linguistic Conundrum". www.mockandoneil.com. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  15. ^ a b Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George (26 July 2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 973. ISBN 978-1-135-79710-2.
  16. ^ Kellner, Birgit (8 October 2019). Buddhism and the Dynamics of Transculturality: New Approaches. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. pp. 72–73. ISBN 978-3-11-041314-4.
  17. ^ Soothill, William Edward; Hodous, Lewis (1977). A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms: With Sanskrit and English Equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali Index. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 284. ISBN 978-81-208-0319-0.
  18. ^ Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A.D. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 89. ISBN 978-81-269-0027-5.
  19. ^ Kellner, Birgit (8 October 2019). Buddhism and the Dynamics of Transculturality: New Approaches. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. pp. 72–73. ISBN 978-3-11-041314-4. Different ancient sources vaguely place the Dards (the Dadikai of Herodotus; the Daradas of the Puranic lists; the Daedalae of Curtius Rufus; the Derbikes of Ctesia) in the north of modern-day Pakistan. Today, the term Dardic survives in linguistic science as an extended geographic reference that embraces all the Indo-Arian languages spoken in this region. However, the ancient land of the Dards has not yet acquired any defined historical, geographical and cultural characterisation.
  20. ^ Transfer of Buddhism Across Central Asian Networks (7th to 13th Centuries). BRILL. 5 October 2015. p. 161. ISBN 978-90-04-30743-8.
  21. ^ Leitner, G. W. (1996). Dardistan in 1866, 1886, and 1893: Being an Account of the History, Religions, Customs, Legends, Fables, and Songs of Gilgit, Chilas, Kandia (Gabrial), Dasin, Chitral, Hunsa, Nagyr, and Other Parts of the Hindukush, as Also a Supplement to the Second Edition of the Hunza and Nagyr Handbook and an Epitome of Part III of the Author's The Languages and Races of Dardistan. Asian Educational Services. p. 59. ISBN 978-81-206-1217-4. The name "Dard" itself was not claimed by any of the race that I met . If asked whether they were "Dards" they said "certainly", thinking I mispronounced the word "dáde" of the Hill Panjabi...
  22. ^ Bhan, Mona (11 September 2013). Counterinsurgency, Democracy, and the Politics of Identity in India: From Warfare to Welfare?. Routledge. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-134-50983-6.
  23. ^ Biddulph, John (1880). Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh. Office of the superintendent of government printing. p. 156. The name "Dard" is not acknowledged by any section of the tribes to whom it has been so sweepingly applied.
  24. ^ Biddulph, John (1880). Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh. Office of the superintendent of government printing. pp. 8–9. His scanty opportunities, however, have caused him to fall into the error of believing that the tribes which he has classed under the name of Dard are all of the same race, and he has applied the term of Dardistan, a name founded on a misconception, to a tract of country inhabited by several races, speaking distinct languages, who differ considerably amongst themselves. As, however, there is no one name which will properly apply to the peoples and countries in question, it will be perhaps convenient to retain the names of Dard and Dardistan when speaking collectively of the tribes in question and the countries they inhabit.
  25. ^ Bhan, Mona (11 September 2013). Counterinsurgency, Democracy, and the Politics of Identity in India: From Warfare to Welfare?. Routledge. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-134-50983-6.
  26. ^ Masica 1993, p. 461.
  27. ^ Emeneau, Murray B.; Fergusson, Charles A. (21 November 2016). Linguistics in South Asia. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 285. ISBN 978-3-11-081950-2.
  28. ^ Prakāśaṃ, Vennelakaṇṭi (2008). Encyclopaedia of the Linguistic Sciences: Issues and Theories. Allied Publishers. pp. 142–147. ISBN 978-81-8424-279-9. Dardic languages contain absolutely no features which cannot be derived from old [Indo-Aryan language]. They have simply retained a number of striking archasisms, which had already disappeared in most Prakrit dialects... There is not a single common feature distinguishing Dardic, as a whole, from the rest of the [Indo-Aryan] languages... Dardic is simply a convenient term to denote a bundle of aberrant [Indo-Aryan] hill-languages which, in their relative isolation, accented in many cases by the invasion of Pathan tribes, have been in varying degrees sheltered against the expand influence of [Indo-Aryan] Midland (Madhyadesha) innovations, being left free to develop on their own.
  29. ^ Koul 2008, p. 142.
  30. ^ Kaw, M. K. (2004). Kashmir and It's People: Studies in the Evolution of Kashmiri Society. APH Publishing. p. 341. ISBN 978-81-7648-537-1.
  31. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan (2001). History of Northern Areas of Pakistan: Upto 2000 A.D. Sang-e-Meel Publcations. p. 66. ISBN 978-969-35-1231-1. Khowar and Kalasha are among the most archaic Indo-Aryan languages. Both are related to Gandhari and share some very characteristic archaisms (for instance old Indo-Aryan -t-, disappeared from other Indo-Ayran languages, -l/r- in Kalasha and Khowar).
  32. ^ Morgenstierne, Georg (1974). "Languages of Nuristan and surrounding regions". In Jettmar, Karl; Edelberg, Lennart (eds.). Cultures of the Hindukush: selected papers from the Hindu-Kush Cultural Conference held at Moesgård 1970. Beiträge zur Südasienforschung, Südasien-Institut Universität Heidelberg. Vol. Bd. 1. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. pp. 1–10. ISBN 978-3-515-01217-1.
  33. ^ Baldi, Sergio (28 November 2016). "Kalasha Grammar Based on Fieldwork Research, written by Elizabeth Mela-Athanasopoulou". Annali Sezione Orientale. 76 (1–2): 265–266. doi:10.1163/24685631-12340012.
  34. ^ Prakāśaṃ, Vennelakaṇṭi (2008). Encyclopaedia of the Linguistic Sciences: Issues and Theories. Allied Publishers. p. 143. ISBN 978-81-8424-279-9.
  35. ^ Prakāśaṃ, Vennelakaṇṭi (2008). Encyclopaedia of the Linguistic Sciences: Issues and Theories. Allied Publishers. p. 143. ISBN 978-81-8424-279-9.
  36. ^ Prakāśaṃ, Vennelakaṇṭi (2008). Encyclopaedia of the Linguistic Sciences: Issues and Theories. Allied Publishers. p. 143. ISBN 978-81-8424-279-9.
  37. ^ "Dards, Dardistan, and Dardic: an Ethnographic, Geographic, and Linguistic Conundrum". www.mockandoneil.com. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  38. ^ a b c Masica 1993.
  39. ^ Bashir, Elena (2007). Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George (eds.). The Indo-Aryan languages. p. 905. ISBN 978-0415772945. 'Dardic' is a geographic cover term for those Northwest Indo-Aryan languages which [..] developed new characteristics different from the IA languages of the Indo-Gangetic plain. Although the Dardic and Nuristani (previously 'Kafiri') languages were formerly grouped together, Morgenstierne (1965) has established that the Dardic languages are Indo-Aryan, and that the Nuristani languages constitute a separate subgroup of Indo-Iranian.
  40. ^ Buddruss, Georg (1985). "Linguistic Research in Gilgit and Hunza". Journal of Central Asia. 8 (1): 27–32.
  41. ^ Strand, Richard (2001), "The Tongues of Peristân"
  42. ^ Mock, John (2011), "http://www.mockandoneil.com/dard.htm"
  43. ^ a b Kachru, Braj B. (1981), Kashmiri Literature, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, pp. 4–5, ISBN 978-3-447-02129-6
  44. ^ Kogan, Anton (2013), "https://jolr.ru/index.php?article=130"
  45. ^ Kogan, Anton (2015), "https://jolr.ru/index.php?article=157"
  46. ^ a b c Masica 1993, p. 452: ... [Chaterji] agreed with Grierson in seeing Rajasthani influence on Pahari and 'Dardic' influence on (or under) the whole Northwestern group + Pahari. Masica 1993, p. 209: Throughout the northwest, beginning with Sindhi and including 'Lahnda', Dardic, Romany and West Pahari, there has been a tendency to [the] transfer of 'r' from medial clusters to a position after the initial consonant.
  47. ^ Arun Kumar Biswas (editor) (1985), Profiles in Indian languages and literatures, Indian Languages Society, ... greater Dardic influence in the western dialects of Garhwali ... {{citation}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  48. ^ Dayanand Narasinh Shanbhag; K. J. Mahale (1970), Essays on Konkani language and literature: Professor Armando Menezes felicitation volume, Konkani Sahitya Prakashan, ... Konkani is spoken. It shows a good deal of Dardic (Paisachi) influence ...
  49. ^ Gulam Allana (2002), The origin and growth of Sindhi language, Institute of Sindhology, ISBN 9789694050515, ... must have covered nearly the whole of the Punjabi ... still show traces of the earlier Dardic languages that they superseded. Still further south, we find traces of Dardic in Sindhi ...
  50. ^ Irach Jehangir Sorabji Taraporewala (1932), Elements of the science of language, University of Calcutta, retrieved 12 May 2010, At one period, the Dardic languages spread over a very much wider extent, but before the oncoming 'outer Aryans' as well as owing to the subsequent expansion of the 'Inner Aryans', the Dards fell back to the inaccessible ...
  51. ^ Sharad Singh Negi (1993), Kumaun: the land and the people, Indus Publishing, ISBN 81-85182-89-2, retrieved 12 May 2010, It may be possible that the Dardic speaking Aryans were still in the process of settling in other parts of the western Himalaya in the Mauryan times ...
  52. ^ Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya (1973), Racial affinities of early North Indian tribes, Munshiram Manoharlal, retrieved 12 May 2010, ... the Dradic branch remained in northwest India – the Daradas, Kasmiras, and some of the Khasas (some having been left behind in the Himalayas of Nepal and Kumaon) ...
  53. ^ a b c d S. Munshi, Keith Brown (editor), Sarah Ogilvie (editor) (2008), Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Elsevier, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7, retrieved 11 May 2010, Based on historical sub-grouping approximations and geographical distribution, Bashir (2003) provides six sub-groups of the Dardic languages ... {{citation}}: |author= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  54. ^ a b c George Cardona; Dhanesh Jain (2007), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5, retrieved 11 May 2010, In others, traces remain as tonal differences (Khowar buúm, 'earth', Pashai dum, 'smoke') ...
  55. ^ a b c d e Timothy Lenz; Andrew Glass; Dharmamitra Bhikshu (2003), A new version of the Gandhari Dharmapada and a collection of previous-birth stories, University of Washington Press, ISBN 0-295-98308-6, retrieved 11 May 2010, ... 'Dardic metathesis,' wherein pre- or postconsonantal 'r' is shifted forward to a preceding syllable ... earliest examples come from the Aśokan inscriptions ... priyadarśi ... as priyadraśi ... dharma as dhrama ... common in modern Dardic languages ...
  56. ^ Amar Nath Malik (1995), The phonology and morphology of Panjabi, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, ISBN 81-215-0644-1, retrieved 26 May 2010, ... drakhat 'tree' ...
  57. ^ Stephen R. Anderson (2005), Aspects of the theory of clitics: Volume 11 of Oxford studies in theoretical linguistics, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-927990-6, The literature on the verb-second construction has concentrated largely on Germanic ... we can compare with the Germanic phenomena, however: Kashmiri ... in two 'Himachali' languages, Kotgarhi and Koci, he finds word-order patterns quite similar ... they are sometimes said to be part of a 'Dardic' subfamily ...
  58. ^ Hindi: language, discourse, and writing, Volume 2, Mahatma Gandhi International Hindi University, 2001, retrieved 28 May 2010, ... the verbs, positioned in the middle of the sentences (rather than at the end) intensify the dramatic quality ...

Bibliography