Metathesis (//; from Greek μετάθεσις, from μετατίθημι "I put in a different order"; Latin: trānspositiō) is the transposition of sounds or syllables in a word or of words in a sentence. Most commonly, it refers to the interchange of two or more contiguous segments or syllables, known as adjacent metathesis or local metathesis:
- foliage > **foilage (adjacent segments)
- anemone > **anenome (adjacent syllables)
- cavalry > **calvary (codas of adjacent syllables)
Metathesis may also involve interchanging non-contiguous sounds, known as nonadjacent metathesis, long-distance metathesis, or hyperthesis, as shown in these examples of metathesis sound change from Latin to Spanish:
- Latin parabola > Spanish palabra "word"
- Latin miraculum > Spanish milagro "miracle"
- Latin periculum > Spanish peligro "danger, peril"
- Latin crocodilus > Spanish cocodrilo "crocodile"
Many languages have words that show this phenomenon, and some even use it as a regular part of their grammar, such as Hebrew and Fur. The process of metathesis has altered the shape of many familiar words in English as well.
The original form before metathesis may be deduced from older forms of words in the language's lexicon or, if no forms are preserved, from phonological reconstruction. In some cases it is not possible to settle with certainty on the original version.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus was a historian and scholar in rhetoric living in 1st century BC Greece. He analysed classical texts and applied several revisions to make them sound more eloquent. One of the methods he used was re-writing documents on a mainly grammatical level: changing word and sentence orders would make texts more fluent and 'natural', he suggested. He called this way of re-writing metathesis.
Metathesis is responsible for some common speech errors, such as children acquiring spaghetti as pasketti. The pronunciation /'æsk/ (American English) for ask is now considered standard, and the spelling "ask" was used by Shakespeare and in the King James Bible. Chaucer, Caxton, and the Coverdale Bible, however, use "ax". The word "ask" derives from Proto-Germanic *aiskona.
Some other frequent English pronunciations that display metathesis are:
- nuclear > nucular /ˈnjuːkjʊlər/ (re-analysed as nuke + -cular suffix in molecular, binocular)
- prescription > perscription /pərˈskrɪpʃən/
- introduce > interduce /ɪntərˈd(j)uːs/
- asterisk > asterix /ˈæstərɪks/
- cavalry > calvary /ˈkælvəri/
- foliage > foilage /ˈfɔɪlɪdʒ/
- pretty > purty /ˈpɜːrti/
The Old English þyrl "hole" underwent metathesis to þryl. This gave rise to a verb þrylian "pierce", which became Modern English thrill, and formed the compound nosþryl "nose-hole" which became Modern English nostril (May have occurred in the early Middle English Period: 'nosþyrlu' (circa 1050); 'nos-thirlys' (c. 1500). In 1565 'nosthrille' appears. 'thirl/thurl' survived even longer until 1878).
Etymological metathesis occurs in the following French words:
- brebis from popular Latin berbex meaning "sheep" (early 12th century).
- fromage from popular Latin formaticus, meaning "formed in a mold" (1135).
- moustique (1654) from French mousquitte (1603) by metathesis. From Spanish mosquito ("little fly").
Deliberate metathesis also occurs extensively in the informal French pattern of speech called verlan (itself an example: verlan < l'envers, meaning 'the reverse'). In verlan new words are created from existing words by reversing the order of syllables. Verlanization is applied mostly to two-syllable words and the new words that are created are typically considerably less formal than the originals, and/or take on a slightly different meaning. The process often involves considerably more changes than simple metathesis of two phonemes but this forms the basis for verlan as a linguistic phenomenon. Some of these words have become part of standard French.
A few well known examples are:
- laisse tomber > laisse béton
- lourd > relou
- louche > chelou
- français > céfran
Some Verlan words are metathesized more than once:
- arabe > beur > rebeu
Old Spanish showed occasional metathesis when phonemes not conforming to the usual euphonic constraints were joined. This happened, for example, when a clitic pronoun was attached to a verb ending: it is attested that forms like dejadle "leave [plural] him" were often metathesized to dejalde (the phoneme cluster /dl/ does not occur elsewhere in Spanish). The Spanish name for Algeria (Argelia) is likely a metathesis of the Arabic name for the territory (al-Jazāʼir).
- revés > vesre "back, backwards"
- criba > brica
Some frequently heard pronunciations in Spanish display metathesis:
In Greek, the present stem often consists of the root with a suffix of y (ι˰ in Greek). If the root ends in the vowel a or o, and the consonant n or r, the y exchanges position with the consonant and is written i:
- *cháryō > chaírō "I am glad" — echárē "he was glad"
- *phányō > phaínō "I reveal" — ephánē "he appeared"
Some common mispronunciations of Danish words employ metathesis:
But metathesis has also historically changed some words:
- kros > kors " (Christian) cross"
Metathesis of liquid consonants is an important historical change during the development of the Slavic languages: a syllable-final liquid metathesized to become syllable-initial, therefore e.g. Polish mleko or Czech mléko vs. English milk.
- Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰortós > Latin hortus, German Garten, English garden, yard. c.f. Slavic cognates e.g. Czech hrad "castle", Serbo-Croatian grȃd "castle" or "town", Russian град (grad) and город (gorod) "city". The divergence in meaning is attributed to the fact that the PIE root designated an enclosed area.[circular reference]
- Proto-Indo-European *h₂ermos > Proto-Germanic *armaz "arm", Proto-Slavic *ormę "shoulder"; Proto-Germanic *armaz > German Arm, English arm "arm"; Proto-Slavic *ormę > Russian ра́мя ('rámya'), Serbo-Croatian rȁme, Czech rameno, Polish ramię "shoulder"
- Proto-Indo-European *h₂melǵ- "to milk" > Proto-Germanic *meluks "milk", Proto-Slavic *melko; Proto-Germanic *meluks "milk" > German Milch, Dutch melk, English milk; Proto-Slavic *melko > Russian молокó (moloko), Serbo-Croatian mlijéko or mléko, Czech mléko, Polish mleko "milk"
Other roots have diverged within the Slavic family:
- Proto-Indo-European *h₃meygʰ- > Proto-Slavic mьgla > Russian мгла (mgla), Polish mgła, Czech mlha, Slovak hmla, Ukrainian імла (imla), "mist". The English word is also cognate, as is the Sanskrit मेघ (megha), hence Meghalaya, "abode of clouds".
- Proto-Slavic medvědь "bear" (literally "honey eater") > Russian медве́дь (medvéd), Czech medvěd, Serbo-Croatian mèdvjed or mèdved, Polish niedźwiedź. c.f. Ukrainian ведмі́дь (vidmíd)
In western dialects of Finnish, historical stem-final /h/ has been subject to metathesis (it is lost in standard Finnish). That leads to variant word forms:
- orhi "stallion" (standard *orih > ori)
- sauhu "smoke" (standard *savuh > savu)
- valhe "lie" (standard *valeh > vale)
- venhe "boat" (standard *veneh > vene)
Some words have been standardized in the metathetized form:
- *mureh > murhe "sorrow"
- *pereh > perhe "family"
- *uroh > urho "hero"
- *valehellinen > valheellinen "untrue"
In case of a narrow range of Hungarian nouns, metathesis of a h sound and a liquid consonant occurs in nominative case, but the original form is preserved in accusative and other suffixed forms:
- kehely chalice, but kelyhet (accusative), kelyhem (possessive), kelyhek (plural)
- teher burden, but terhet (acc.), terhed (poss.), terhek (pl.)
- pehely flake, but pelyhet (acc.), pelyhe (poss.), pelyhek (pl.)
The other instances are boholy [intestinal] villus/fluff/fuzz/nap vs. bolyhok, moholy vs. molyhos down/pubescence [on plants], and the obsolete vehem animal's fetus (cf. vemhes ’pregnant [animal]’). The first of them is often used in the regular form (bolyh).
A common example of metathesis in Egyptian Arabic is when the order of the word's root consonants has changed.
- Classical Arabic zawj > Egyptian Arabic gōz "husband"
- Classical Arabic mil‘aqah > ma‘la’a "spoon"
- Persian zanjabil > Egyptian Arabic ganzabīl ~ zanzabīl "ginger"
The following examples of metathesis have been identified in Egyptian Arabic texts, but are not necessarily more common than their etymological spellings:
- Allāh yil‘an > Allāh yin‘al "God curse!"
- fir’a masṛaḥiyyah > fir’a maṛsaḥiyya "theatre troupe"
- falsafah > falfasa "philosophy"
The following loanwords are also sometimes found with metathesis:
- manalog > malanōg "monologue"
- isbitalya > istibalya "hospital"
- banalti > balanti "penalty" (in football)
The likely cause for metathesis in the word "hospital" is that the result resembles a common word pattern familiar to Arabic speakers (namely a Form X verbal noun).
Perhaps the clearest example of metathesis in Egyptian Arabic is the modern name of the city of Alexandria: (Al-)Iskandariya (الإسكندرية). In addition to the metathesis of x /ks/ to /sk/, the initial Al of Alexandria has been reanalyzed as the Arabic definite article.
In Hebrew the verb conjugation (binyan) hitpaēl (התפעל) undergoes metathesis if the first consonant of the root is an alveolar or postalveolar fricative. Namely, the pattern hiṯ1a22ē3 (where the numbers signify the root consonants) becomes hi1ta22ē3. Examples:
- No metathesis: root lbš לבש = hitlabbēš הִתְלַבֵּש ("he got dressed").
- Voiceless alveolar fricative: root skl סכל = histakkēl הִסְתַּכֵּל ("he looked [at something]").
- Voiceless postalveolar fricative: root šdl שׁדל = hištaddēl הִשְׁתַּדֵּל ("he made an effort").
- Voiced alveolar fricative: root zqn זקן = hizdaqqēn הִזְדַּקֵּן ("he grew old"); with assimilation of the T of the conjugation.
- Voiceless alveolar affricate: root t͡slm צלם = hit͡stallēm הִצְטַלֵּם ("he had a photograph of him taken"); with assimilation (no longer audible) of the T of the conjugation.
Amharic has a few minor patterns of metathesis, as shown by Wolf Leslau. For example, "matches" [kəbrit] is sometimes pronounced as [kərbit], [mogzit] "nanny" is sometimes pronounced as [mozgit]. The word 'Monday" is [säɲo], which is the base for "Tuesday" [maksäɲo], which is often metathesized as [maskäɲo]. All of these examples show a pair of consonants reversed so that the stop begins the next syllable.
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Small children commonly refer to kusuri "medicine" as sukuri[check spelling].
arata- "new" contrasts with atarashii "new".
The following are examples of argot used in the entertainment industry.
- /neta/ for /tane/ (種), the former meaning "content (of news article)", "food ingredient", "material (for joke or artwork)", the latter "seed", "species","source"
- /sisu/ for /susi/
- The word for sorry, gomen, is sometimes inverted to mengo (backslang).
In Navajo, verbs have (often multiple) morphemes prefixed onto the verb stem. These prefixes are added to the verb stem in a set order in a prefix positional template. Although prefixes are generally found in a specific position, some prefixes change order by the process of metathesis.
For example, prefix a- (3i object pronoun) usually occurs before di-, as in
- adisbąąs 'I'm starting to drive some kind of wheeled vehicle along' [ < 'a- + di- + sh- + ł + -bąąs].
However, when a- occurs with the prefixes di- and ni-, the a- metathesizes with di-, leading to an order of di- + a- + ni-, as in
- diʼnisbąąs 'I'm in the act of driving some vehicle (into something) & getting stuck' [ < di-ʼa-ni-sh-ł-bąąs < 'a- + di- + ni- + sh- + ł + -bąąs]
instead of the expected *adinisbąąs (a-di-ni-sh-ł-bąąs) (a- is reduced to -).
- The words pȟaŋkéska and kȟaŋpéska are dialectal variants of the same word, meaning "abalone" or "porcelain".
- The word čhuthúhu, meaning "rib," has its origins in čhuté "side of the body" and huhú "bone", but is more commonly metathesized as thučhúhu.
In Saanich, metathesis is used as a grammatical device to indicate "actual" aspect. The actual aspect is most often translated into English as a be ... -ing progressive. The actual aspect is derived from the "nonactual" verb form by a CV → VC metathetic process (i.e. consonant metathesizes with vowel).
|T̵X̱ÉT "shove" (nonactual)||→||T̵ÉX̱T "shoving" (actual)|
|ṮPÉX̱ "scatter" (nonactual)||→||ṮÉPX̱ "scattering" (actual)|
|T̸L̵ÉQ "pinch" (nonactual)||→||T̸ÉL̵Q "pinching" (actual)|
See Montler (1986), Thompson & Thompson (1969) for more information.
From a comparative study of Dravidian vocabularies, one can observe that the retroflex consonants (ʈ, ɖ, ɳ, ɭ, ɻ) and the liquids of the alveolar series (r, ɾ, l) do not occur initially in common Dravidian etyma, but Telugu has words with these consonants at the initial position. It was shown that the etyma underwent a metathesis in Telugu, when the root word originally consisted of an initial vowel followed by one of the above consonants. When this pattern is followed by a consonantal derivative, metathesis has occurred in the phonemes of the root-syllable with the doubling of the suffix consonant (if it had been single); when a vowel derivative follows, metathesis has occurred in the phonemes of the root syllable attended by a contraction of the vowels of root and (derivative) suffix syllables. These statements and the resulting sequences of vowel contraction may be summed up as follows:
Type 1: V1C1-C² > C1V1-C²C²
Type 2: V1C1-V²- > C1V1-
- lē = lēta "young, tender" < *eɭa
- rē = rēyi "night" < *ira
- rōlu "mortar" < oral < *ural
- Close type:
- Distant type:
Urdu and HindiEdit
Like many other natural languages Urdu and Hindi also have metathesis like in this diachronic example:
American Sign LanguageEdit
In ASL, several signs which have a pre-specified initial and final location (such as the signs RESTAURANT, PARENT, TWINS) can have the order of these two locations reversed in contexts which seem to be purely phonological. While not possible with all signs, this does happen with quite a few. For example, the sign DEAF, prototypically made with the '1' handshape making contact first with the cheek and then moving to contact the jaw (as in the sentence FATHER DEAF), can have these locations reversed if the preceding sign, when part of the same constituent, has a final location more proximal to the jaw (as in the sentence MOTHER DEAF). Both forms of the sign DEAF are acceptable to native signers. A proposed prerequisite for metathesis to apply in ASL is that both signs must be within the same region on the body. Constraints on the applications of metathesis in ASL has led to discussions that the phonology breaks down the body into regions distinct from settings.
In popular cultureEdit
- Strazny, Philipp (2005). Encyclopedia of Linguistics. 2, M–Z. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 679.
- van Oostendorp, Marc; et al. (eds.). The Blackwell Companion to Phonology. Volume III, Phonological Processes. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 1381.
- Trask, Robert Lawrence (2000). The Dictionary of Historical and Comparative Linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 211.
- Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd. ed., under "ask".
- Oxford English Dictionary Online, Meriam Webster's Dictionary Online
- Meriam Webster's Dictionary Online
- Halpert, Herbert (1996). Folktales of Newfoundland: The Resilience of the Oral Tradition. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 9781317551492.
- Yard (land)
- p. 1453, http://www.bulgari-istoria-2010.com/Rechnici/Indo-europ.pdf
- Hinds, Martin; Badawi, El-Said, eds. (1986). A Dictionary of Egyptian Arabic. Lebanon: Librairie du Liban. p. 175. Missing or empty
- El-Farnawany, Refaat (1980). Ägyptisch-Arabisch als geschriebene Sprache: Probleme der Verschriftung einer Umgangssprache [Egyptian Arabic as a written language: the problems of spelling a colloquial language] (Thesis) (in German). Erlangen-Nürnberg: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität. p. 158.
- Cf. Leviticus 4:32
- Cf. Leviticus 3:7
- p. 27, 28. Wolf Leslau. 1995. Reference Grammar of Amharic. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden.
- "「雰囲気」は［フインキ］？ ［フンイキ］？｜NHK放送文化研究所". NHK放送文化研究所 (in Japanese). Retrieved 2019-06-29.
- "新しい（あたらしい） - 語源由来辞典". gogen-allguide.com. Retrieved 2019-06-29.
-  at Kotobank (in Japanese) Archived 2016-04-06 at the Wayback Machine
- New Lakota Dictionary, Lakota Language Consortium, 2008
- Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju Telugu Verbal Bases Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-2324-9 p. 51–52.
- Platts, John T. (1884). A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English. London: W. H. Allen & Co. p. 392.
- "ASL Linguistics: metathesis". Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- Sandler, Wendy (2006). Sign Language and Linguistic Universals. Cambridge University Press. pp. 124, 179. ISBN 978-0521483957.
- Hume, E., & Seyfarth, S. (2019). Metathesis. In M. Aronoff (Ed.), Oxford Bibliographies in Linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199772810-0242
- Key, T. Hewitt (1854). "On Metathesis". Transactions of the Philological Society. 1 (11): 206–216. doi:10.1111/j.1467-968X.1854.tb00767.x.
- Montler, Timothy. (1986). An outline of the morphology and phonology of Saanich, North Straits Salish. Occasional Papers in Linguistics (No. 4). Missoula, MT: University of Montana Linguistics Laboratory. (Revised version of the author's PhD dissertation, University of Hawaii).
- Thompson, Laurence C.; Thompson, M. Terry (1969). "Metathesis as a grammatical device". International Journal of American Linguistics. 35 (3): 213–219. doi:10.1086/465056. S2CID 143798020.
- Young, Robert W., & Morgan, William, Sr. (1987). The Navajo language: A grammar and colloquial dictionary, (rev. ed.). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-1014-1
- Wegner, Paul D (2006). A Student's Guide to Textual Criticism of the Bible: Its History, Methods and Results. InterVarsity Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-830-82731-2.
- Searchable database of metathesis: Ohio State University Dept. of Linguistics Metathesis Page
- Compare: 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry – metathesis process