The ethnonym "Adyghe" (Adyghe: Адыгэ/Adygè, Russian: Ады́ги) is used as an endonym by the Caucasian-speaking Circassians of the North Caucasus and as a demonym for the inhabitants of the Republic of Adygea, a federal subject of Russia located in the southwestern part of European Russia, enclaved within Krasnodar Krai, where it is also rendered as Adygeans (Russian: Адыгейцы).[a] The Adygeans (of Adygea) speak the Adyghe language.
|Regions with significant populations|
|Adyghe language, Russian language|
|Sunni Islam, Irreligion|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Other Circassians and Abazgi (Abkhaz, Abazin)|
The Adyghe people are one of the Circassian peoples, along with the Cherkess (of Karachay-Cherkessia) and Kabards (of Kabardino-Balkaria), from whom they are geographically separated by the Slav-inhabited Laba region. The languages of the Adygheans, Cherkess and Kabards are mutually intelligible, however, there is a consensus that these are typologically distinct languages. The standard (literary) Adyghe language is based on the dialect of the Temirgoy tribe.
The Adygheans, known as "western Circassians" per Soviet terminology from the 1930s, use a written language separated by Soviet policy from those of the Cherkess ("central Circassians") and Kabards ("eastern Circassians"), despite the possibility to have a unified one. The Adyghe-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was established in July 1922, "Cherkess" being dropped from the name in August 1936.
The Circassian peoples are divided into tribes or clans (tlapq). There are ten Adyghe tribes (or subgroups), out of which four are identified[by whom?] as speaking mutually intelligible Adyghe dialects: Abzakh, Bzhedug, Temirgoy and Shapsug. The Shapsug were counted as a separate ethnic group in the censuses.
According to the 2010 census of Russia, the number of self-declared ethnic "Adyghe" is 124,835 (0.09%). The community included 107,048 in Adygea itself (ca. 25% of the republic's population), 13,834 in Krasnodar Krai, 569 in Moscow. The majority of the population in Adygea declare as Russians (63.6%). In 2002 it was estimated that the community numbered 131,000 in all of Russia. The other closely related groups, Kabards and Cherkess, numbered 516,826 (0.38%) and 73,184 (0.05%), respectively. Those that declared as Shapsug, who speak an Adyghe dialect and are regarded an Adyghe subgroup, numbered 3,882.
There is a significant Adyghe diaspora. It was estimated in 1997 that there were 71,000 Adyghe-speakers in Turkey, 44,000 in Jordan, and 25,000 in Syria.
The political history of the Adyghe in Adygea since the Russian Revolution is complex. On 27 July 1922, a Circassian (Adygea) Autonomous Oblast was established in the Kuban-Black Sea Oblast, which would later become Krasnodar Krai. After several name changes, the Adyghe Autonomous Oblast was established on 3 August 1928. On 5 October 1990, the Adygea ASSR was proclaimed and separated from Krasnodar Krai. On 24 March 1992, it became the Republic of Adygea. A significant population of the Adyghe community now lives in the Black Sea region of Northern Turkey where their culture is preserved in villages in the area.
- In Russian, Adygea's Circassian residents are called Adygejtsy (Адыгейцы, meaning 'those [of the Republic] of Adygea'), whereas the Circassians in general are called Adygi (Адыги, meaning 'the Adyghe'). In English terminology, on the other hand, many foreigners fail to distinguish between these Russian-specific administrative (former) and ethnolinguistic (latter) terms, and misuse the word Adyghe to refer only to the Adyghe in Republic of Adygea (only a small part of the historical Circassian lands). The majority of the Circassians in Russia today reside in neighbouring regions of Adygea.
- Официальный сайт Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года. Информационные материалы об окончательных итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года (in Russian)
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- Minahan 2002, p. 36.
- Hewitt, George (2005). "North West Caucasian" (PDF). Lingua. 115 (1–2): 17. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2003.06.003.
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- Olson, Pappas & Pappas 1994, p. 152.
- Olson, Pappas & Pappas 1994, p. 15.
- Minahan 2002, p. 37.
- 2010 census of Russia
- Anatole Lyovin (1997). An Introduction to the Languages of the World. Oxford University Press. pp. 57–. ISBN 978-0-19-508116-9.
- "Adyghe in Turkey". Archived from the original on 2011-08-21. Retrieved 2014-09-16.
- James Minahan (2002). "Adyge". Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: A-C. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32109-2.
- Alexandre Bennigsen; S. Enders Wimbush (1986). Muslims of the Soviet empire: a guide. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-33958-4.
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