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In linguistics, the Philippine languages are a proposal by Zorc (1986) and Robert Blust (1991, 2005) that all the languages of the Philippines and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw (languages of the "Sea Gypsies") and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages.[1][2][3] Although the Philippines is near the center of Austronesian expansion from Formosa, there is little linguistic diversity among the approximately 150 Philippine languages, suggesting that earlier diversity has been erased by the spread of the ancestor of the modern Philippine languages.[4]

Philippine
Geographic
distribution
Philippines
Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia
Eastern Sabah, Malaysia
Orchid Island, Taiwan
Linguistic classification Austronesian
Proto-language Proto-Philippine
Subdivisions
ISO 639-2 / 5 phi
Glottolog None
{{{mapalt}}}
The Philippine languages, per Adelaar and Himmelmann (2005)

Contents

ClassificationEdit

From approximately north to south, the Philippine languages are divided into the following subgroups:

In addition, the Ati, Umiray Dumaget, Manide, and Inagta Alabat languages are unclassified within the Philippine family, and are considered by Reid (2013)[5] to be early splits from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian.

Reid (2018)Edit

Lawrence Reid (1982[6], 2017[7], 2018[8]) rejects the genetic unity of the Philippine languages, and considers the Philippine languages to form a linkage rather than a unified genetic subgroup. Reid (2018)[8] lists the following branches and languages as separate Malayo-Polynesian branches.

Reid (2013)[5] accepts the following branches as well-defined subgroups spoken within the geographical Philippines.

Vocabulary comparisonEdit

Comparison chart between several selected Philippine languages spoken from north to south with Proto-Austronesian first for comparison.

English 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire
Proto-Austronesian *əsa
*isa
*duSa *təlu *Səpat *lima *Cau *Rumaq *asu *niuR *qalejaw *baqeRu *i-kita *n-anu *Sapuy
Batanic (Bashiic) 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire
Yami (Tao) ása dóa (raroa) tílo (tatlo) apat (ápat) lima tao vahay chito niyoy araw vayo yaten ango apoy
Ivatan asa dadowa tatdo apat lima tao vahay chito niyoy araw va-yo yaten ango apoy
Northern Luzon 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire
Ilokano ibbong
awan
maysa dua tallo uppat lima tao balay aso niog aldaw baro sitayo ania apoy
Ibanag awan tadday dua tallu appa' lima tolay balay kitu niuk aggaw bagu sittam anni afi
Gaddang antet addwa tallo appat lima tolay balay atu ayog aw bawu ikkanetam sanenay afuy
Pangasinan sakey dua
duara
talo
talora
apat
apatira
lima too abong aso niyog ageo balo sikatayo anto pool
Central Luzon 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire
Kapampangan ala métung
isâ
adwâ atlû ápat lima táu balé ásu ngúngut aldô báyu íkatamu nánu api
Central Philippine 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire
Tagalog wala isa dalawa tatlo apat lima tao bahay aso niyog araw bago tayo ano apoy
Bikol 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire
Central Bikol wara saro duwa tulo upat lima tawo harong ayam niyog adlaw ba-go kita ano kalayo
Rinconada Bikol əsad darwā tolō əpat lima tawō baləy ayam noyog aldəw bāgo kitā onō kalayō
Visayan 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire
Waray waray usa
sayo
duha tulo upat lima tawo balay ayam
ido
lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Hiligaynon walay isa duwa tatlo apat lima tawo balay ido lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Asi usa ruha tuyo upat lima tawo bayay iro nidog adlaw bag-o kita ni-o kayado
Romblomanon isa duha tuyo upat lima tawo bayay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Onhan isya darwa tatlo ap-at lima tawo balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Kinaray-a wara sara darwa tatlo apat lima taho balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita
tatən
ano kalayo
Aklanon uwa isaea
sambilog
daywa tatlo ap-at lima tawo baeay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kaeayo
Cebuano wala usa duha tulo upat lima tawo balay iro lubi adlaw bag-o kita unsa kalayo
Tausug isa
hambuuk
duwa tu upat lima tau bay iru' niyug adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu kayu
Danao 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire
Mëranaw isa dowa t'lo phat lima taw walay aso neyog gawi'e bago tano tonaa apoy
South Mindanao (Bilic) 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire
Tboli sotu lewu tlu fat lima tau gunu ohu lefo kdaw lomi tekuy tedu ofih
Minahasan 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire
Tombulu (Minahasa) esa zua
rua
telu epat lima tou walé asu po'po' endo weru kai
kita
apa api
Sangiric 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire
Sangirese sembau
esa'
darua tatelu epa' lima tau balé kapuna' bango' elo wuhu kité tawé putung
Gorontalo-Mongondow 0 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire
Gorontalo tuwewu duluwo totolu opato limo tawu bele 'apula sekat dulahu bohu 'ito wolo tulu
Mongondow inta' dua tolu opat lima intau baloi ungku' cekut singgai mobagu kita onda tulu'

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Zorc, R.D. The genetic relationships of Philippine languages. 1986. In Geraghty, P., Carrington, L. and Wurm, S.A. editors, FOCAL II: Papers from the Fourth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. C-94:147-173. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1986.
  2. ^ Blust, Robert (1991). "The Greater Central Philippines hypothesis". Oceanic Linguistics. 30 (2): 73–129. doi:10.2307/3623084. JSTOR 3623084. 
  3. ^ Blust, Robert A. (2005). "The linguistic macrohistory of the Philippines". In Liao, Hsiu-Chuan; Rubino, Carl R.Galvez. Current issues in Philippine linguistics pangaral kay Lawrence A. Reid. 2005: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. pp. 31–68. 
  4. ^ Adelaar & Himmelmann (2005)
  5. ^ a b Reid, Lawrence A. (2013) "Who Are the Philippine Negritos? Evidence from Language." Human Biology: Vol. 85: Iss. 1, Article 15.
  6. ^ Reid, Lawrence. 1982. The demise of Proto-Philippines. In Papers from the Third International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, Vol. 2: Tracking the travellers, ed. by Amran Halim, Lois Carrington, and Stephen Wurm, 201-216. Pacific Linguistics Series C, No. 75. Canberra: Australian National University.
  7. ^ Reid, Lawrence. 2017. Revisiting the position of Philippine languages in the Austronesian family. The Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC (BAG) Distinguished Professorial Chair Lecture, 2017, De La Salle University, Manila.
  8. ^ a b Reid, Lawrence A. 2018. "Modeling the linguistic situation in the Philippines." In Let's Talk about Trees, ed. by Ritsuko Kikusawa and Lawrence A. Reid. Osaka: Senri Ethnological Studies, Minpaku. doi:10.15021/00009006
  • K. Alexander Adelaar and Nikolaus Himmelmann, The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. Routledge, 2005.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit