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In linguistics, the Philippine languages are a proposal by Zorc (1986) and Robert Blust (1991, 2005) that all the languages of the Philippines and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw (languages of the "Sea Gypsies") and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages.[1][2][3] Although the Philippines is near the center of Austronesian expansion from Formosa, there is little linguistic diversity among the approximately 150 Philippine languages, suggesting that earlier diversity has been erased by the spread of the ancestor of the modern Philippine languages.[4]

Philippine
(proposed)
Geographic
distribution
Philippines
Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia
Eastern Sabah, Malaysia
Orchid Island, Taiwan
Linguistic classificationAustronesian
Proto-languageProto-Philippine
Subdivisions
ISO 639-2 / 5phi
GlottologNone
Philippine languages map.svg
The Philippine languages, per Adelaar and Himmelmann (2005)

Contents

ClassificationEdit

From approximately north to south, the Philippine languages are divided into 12 subgroups (including unclassified languages):

CriticismEdit

The genetic unity of the Philippine languages is not universally accepted. Lawrence Reid rejects the idea of a single Philippine subgroup and considers the individual branches of the Philippine languges to be primary branches of the Malayo-Polynesian languages.[5][6][7][8] In an evaluation of the lexical innovations among the Philippine languages, Alexander Smith regards the evidence for a Philippine subgroup as weak, and concludes that "they may represent more than one primary subgroup or perhaps an innovation-defined linkage".[9]

Vocabulary comparisonEdit

Comparison chart between several selected Philippine languages spoken from north to south with Proto-Austronesian first for comparison.

English 1 2 3 4 5 person house dog coconut day new we (incl.) what fire
Proto-Austronesian *əsa
*isa
*duSa *təlu *Səpat *lima *Cau *Rumaq *asu *niuR *qaləjaw *baqəRu *i-kita *n-anu *Sapuy
Batanic (Bashiic) Yami (Tao) ása dóa (raroa) tílo (tatlo) apat (ápat) lima tao vahay chito niyoy araw vayo yaten ango apoy
Ivatan asa dadowa tatdo apat lima tao vahay chito niyoy araw va-yo yaten ango apoy
Northern Luzon Ilokano maysa dua tallo uppat lima tao balay aso niog aldaw baro sitayo ania apoy
Ibanag tadday dua tallu appa' lima tolay balay kitu niuk aggaw bagu sittam anni afi
Gaddang antet addwa tallo appat lima tolay balay atu ayog aw bawu ikkanetam sanenay afuy
Pangasinan sakey dua
duara
talo
talora
apat
apatira
lima too abong aso niyog ageo balo sikatayo anto pool
Central Luzon Kapampangan métung
isâ
adwâ atlû ápat lima táu balé ásu ngúngut aldô báyu íkatamu nánu api
Central Philippine Tagalog isa dalawa tatlo apat lima tao bahay aso niyog araw bago tayo ano apoy
Central Bikol saro duwa tulo upat lima tawo harong ayam niyog adlaw ba-go kita ano kalayo
Rinconada Bikol əsad darwā tolō əpat lima tawō baləy ayam noyog aldəw bāgo kitā onō kalayō
Waray usa
sayo
duha tulo upat lima tawo balay ayam
ido
lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Hiligaynon isa duwa tatlo apat lima tawo balay ido lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Asi usa ruha tuyo upat lima tawo bayay iro nidog adlaw bag-o kita ni-o kayado
Romblomanon isa duha tuyo upat lima tawo bayay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Onhan isya darwa tatlo ap-at lima tawo balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Kinaray-a sara darwa tatlo apat lima taho balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita
tatən
ano kalayo
Aklanon isaea
sambilog
daywa tatlo ap-at lima tawo baeay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kaeayo
Cebuano usa duha tulo upat lima tawo balay iro lubi adlaw bag-o kita unsa kalayo
Tausug isa
hambuuk
duwa tu upat lima tau bay iru' niyug adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu kayu
Danao Mëranaw isa dowa t'lo phat lima taw walay aso neyog gawi'e bago tano tonaa apoy
South Mindanao (Bilic) Tboli sotu lewu tlu fat lima tau gunu ohu lefo kdaw lomi tekuy tedu ofih
Minahasan Tombulu (Minahasa) esa zua
rua
telu epat lima tou walé asu po'po' endo weru kai
kita
apa api
Sangiric Sangirese sembau
esa'
darua tatelu epa' lima tau balé kapuna' bango' elo wuhu kité tawé putung
Gorontalo-Mongondow Gorontalo tuwewu duluwo totolu opato limo tawu bele 'apula bongo dulahu bohu 'ito wolo tulu
Mongondow inta' dua tolu opat lima intau baloi ungku' bango' singgai mobagu kita onda tulu'

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Zorc, R.D. The genetic relationships of Philippine languages. 1986. In Geraghty, P., Carrington, L. and Wurm, S.A. editors, FOCAL II: Papers from the Fourth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. C-94:147-173. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1986.
  2. ^ Blust, Robert (1991). "The Greater Central Philippines hypothesis". Oceanic Linguistics. 30 (2): 73–129. doi:10.2307/3623084. JSTOR 3623084.
  3. ^ Blust, Robert A. (2005). "The linguistic macrohistory of the Philippines". In Liao, Hsiu-Chuan; Rubino, Carl R.Galvez (eds.). Current issues in Philippine linguistics pangaral kay Lawrence A. Reid. 2005: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. pp. 31–68.
  4. ^ Adelaar & Himmelmann (2005)
  5. ^ Reid, Lawrence. 1982. The demise of Proto-Philippines. In Papers from the Third International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, Vol. 2: Tracking the travellers, ed. by Amran Halim, Lois Carrington, and Stephen Wurm, 201-216. Pacific Linguistics Series C, No. 75. Canberra: Australian National University.
  6. ^ Reid, Lawrence A. (2013) "Who Are the Philippine Negritos? Evidence from Language." Human Biology: Vol. 85: Iss. 1, Article 15.
  7. ^ Reid, Lawrence. 2017. Revisiting the position of Philippine languages in the Austronesian family. The Br. Andrew Gonzalez FSC (BAG) Distinguished Professorial Chair Lecture, 2017, De La Salle University, Manila.
  8. ^ Reid, Lawrence A. 2018. "Modeling the linguistic situation in the Philippines." In Let's Talk about Trees, ed. by Ritsuko Kikusawa and Lawrence A. Reid. Osaka: Senri Ethnological Studies, Minpaku. doi:10.15021/00009006
  9. ^ Smith, Alexander D. (2017). "The Western Malayo-Polynesian Problem". Oceanic Linguistics. 56 (2): 435–490. doi:10.1353/ol.2017.0021., p. 479
  • K. Alexander Adelaar and Nikolaus Himmelmann, The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. Routledge, 2005.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit