Sangirese language

Sangirese, also known as Sangihé, Sangi, and Sangih, is an Austronesian language spoken on the islands linking northern Sulawesi, Indonesia, with Mindanao, Philippines by the Sangirese people.

Native toIndonesia
RegionNorth Sulawesi
Davao del Sur
Davao Occidental
Davao Oriental
Native speakers
(200,000 in Indonesia (1993)
70,000 in Philippines cited 1981–1996)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
sxn – Sangir
snl – Sangil

It belongs to the Philippine group within the Austronesian language family.[2] Some lexical influence comes from Ternate and Spanish.[3]



Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d ɡ
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative β s ɣ h
Rhotic ɾ
Lateral l ɭ̆
Approximant w j

/ɣ/ is mainly heard in the Sangihé dialect.[4]


Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Mid e o
Open a
  • Vowels /i, e, a, o, u/ may also be heard as [ɪ, ɛ, ə, ɔ, ʊ] within syllables.
  • /ɨ/ can be heard as [ɨ], [ɯ], [ə].[5]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Sangir at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Sangil at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2015. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Eighteenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version:
  3. ^ M. A. Chlenov (1998). "Sangircy". Narody i religii mira: Enciklopedija. V. A. Tishkov, Nauchnoe izdatelʹstvo "Bolʹshai︠a︡ rossiĭskai︠a︡ ėnt︠s︡iklopedii︠a︡.". Moskva: Nauchnoe izd-vo "Bolʹshai︠a︡ Rossiĭskai︠a︡ Ėnt︠s︡iklopedii︠a︡". p. 468. ISBN 5-85270-155-6. OCLC 40821169.
  4. ^ Maryott, Kenneth R. (1986). "Pre-Sangir *l, *d, *r and Associated Phonemes". Notes on Linguistics. 34: 25–40.
  5. ^ Maryott, Kenneth R. (1977). "The Phonemes of Sarangani Sangiré". Studies in Philippine Linguistics. 1 (2): 264–279.

External linksEdit