Central Cordilleran languages

The Central Cordilleran languages are a group of closely related languages within the Northern Luzon subgroup of the Austronesian language family. They are spoken in the interior highlands of Northern Luzon in the Cordillera Central mountain range.[2][3]

Central Cordilleran
northern Luzon
Linguistic classificationAustronesian


Reid (1974) classifies the Central Cordilleran languages as follows:[2]

Reid (1991) has suggested that the Central Cordilleran languages are most closely related to the Southern Cordilleran languages,[4] which is supported by numerous exclusively shared innovations listed by Himes (2005).[3]


Proto-Central Cordilleran
Reconstruction ofCentral Cordilleran languages

Proto-Central Cordilleran has been reconstructed by Reid (1974; 2006).[2][5]


Front Central Back
Close *i *u
Open *a
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop voiceless *p *t *k
voiced *b *d *g
Fricative *s
Nasal *m *n
Lateral *l
Approximant *w *y

Proto-Central Cordilleran can be reconstructed with phonemic stress.


The comparison table (taken from Reid (1974)[2] illustrates the correspondences between the Central Cordilleran languages, including inherited vocabulary as well as Central Cordilleran innovations.

Comparison table
Words inherited from Proto-Austronesian (PAn)
Isinai Kalinga Ifugao PCC PAn Meaning
béoy boloy baluy *balɨy *balay 'house'
páχoy págoy páguy *págɨy *pajay 'rice'
Central Cordilleran innovations
Isinai Kalinga Ifugao PCC PAn Meaning
ʔíla ʔíla ʔíla *ʔíla (*kita) 'see'
dalit dalit dalet *dalit (*tuNa) 'eel'
kolaŋ ʔolaŋ ʔolaŋ *kɨlaŋ (*quləj) 'worm'
waŋwaŋ waŋwaŋ waŋwaŋ *waŋwaŋ (*iluR) 'river'


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Central Cordilleran". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b c d Reid, Lawrence A. (1974). "The Central Cordilleran Subgroup of Philippine Languages". Oceanic Linguistics. 13 (1/2): 511–560. JSTOR 3622752.
  3. ^ a b Himes, Ronald S. 2005. The Meso-Cordilleran Group of Philippine Languages. In Hsiu-chuan Liao and Carl R. Galvez Rubino (eds.), Current Issues in Philippine Linguistics and Anthropology: Parangal kay Lawrence A. Reid, 81-92. Manila, Philippines: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines.
  4. ^ Reid, Lawrence A. (1991). "The Alta languages of the Philippines". In Ray Harlow (ed.). VICAL 2, Western Austronesian and Contact Languages. Papers from the Fifth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. Auckland: Linguistic Society of New Zealand. pp. 265–297.
  5. ^ Reid, Lawrence A. (2006). "On reconstructing the morphosyntax of Proto-Northern Luzon, Philippines". Philippine Journal of Linguistics. 37: 1–64.

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