Manide is a Philippine language spoken near the province of Camarines Norte in Bicol region of southern Luzon in the Philippines. Manide is spoken by nearly 4,000 Negrito people, most of which reside in the towns of Labo, Jose Panganiban, and Paracale.[3] Many of the Manide population children still grow up speaking Manide.

Camarines Norte Agta
Native toPhilippines
RegionCamarines Norte, Luzon
Native speakers
3,800 (2010)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3abd

Manide is the most divergent out of the three other Negrito languages in Southern Luzon, namely Inagta Rinconada, Inagta Partido, and Inagta Alabat.[3] In a survey of 1000 lexical items, 285 appeared to be unique, including new coinages which are forms that experienced semantic and or phonological shifts over time. In comparison, other Negrito languages such as Batak, Inagta Rinconada/ Partido, Mamanwa, or Inati have a cognate rate of over 90% with neighboring non-Negrito languages.[3]

Around 1903 and 1924, John M. Garvan (1963) visited Negrito Filipino communities in the region of Luzon and at that time, Manide was the recorded language which was documented a century ago.[3]


Lobel (2010) shows the separation of towns with Manide populations.


Phoneme Inventory of ManideEdit

Labial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Voiceless stop p t k ?
Voiced Stop b d g
Fricatives s h
Nasals m n ŋ
Lateral l
Trill r
Glide w y
i u
e ([ε]) o

Historical reflexesEdit

Reflexes are words, sounds, or writing systems which are derived from previous, older elements or systems.

Reflex of PMP *qEdit

PMP *q is reflected in Manide as /ʔ/. The glottal stop may combine with other consonants in cluster, i.e. in the sequence /ʔC/ and /Cʔ/, e.g. bag-áng /bagʔáŋ/ 'mouth'.

Reflex of PMP *REdit

The reflex of PMP *R in Manide is /g/. The reflex most likely comes from borrowed items in Tagalog.[4] For example, Manide be-gí /beʔgí/ ‘new’ is a reflex of PPH *baqəRú with the same meaning.

Reflex of PMP *sEdit

Normally, the reflex of PMP *s is /s/, but in some cases that has shifted to /h/ instead. [4]

Reflex of PMP *d, *j, and *zEdit

The reflexes of Proto Malayo Polynesian *d, *j, and *z are all /d/, with some exceptions for *j and *z.[4]

An example for *j: Manide ngádun /ŋádun/ ‘name’ < PPH *ŋájan

An example for *d: Manide dakép /dakép/ 'catch, capture' < PPH *dakə́p

An example for *z: Manide tudî /tudíʔ/ 'teach' < PMP *tuzuq ‘point’

Reflexes of PMP *ə.Edit

The reflexes of PMP *ə are /a e i u/. /e/ is the only inherited reflex of PMP *ə, with /a i u/ being borrow reflexes.

Verb MorphologyEdit

Manide is a reduced-focus language because it primarily uses mag- for the actor focus, -an for the location focus, while -en takes place of the functions from Proto Malayo Polynesian *-ən and *i-, thus marking object focus.[3] There are two present forms, with the first being possessive. The second present form is used for habitual functions. In Southern Luzon, Manide is the only language that uses CVC reduplication.

Verb Conjunctions[4]
Infinitive mag- -en -an
Past nag- i-, pi- i-...-an, pi-...-an
Present Progressive CVC- ig-CVC- ig-CVC-...-an
Present Habitual,

Near Future

pa- ipa-CVC- CVC-...-an
Future nig- ig-, pig- ig-...-an
Imperative <um>,Ø -en -an
Negative Imperative mag-, ()g- (i)g-...-a (i)g-...-i
Past Subjective (i)g- -a, pa-...-a -i, pa-...-i
Past Negative pa- igpa- ?


Pronouns in Manide make the same contrasts as in other Philippine languages.

TOP 1SG há-ku
2SG hiká
3SG hiyú
1EX kamí
1IN kitá
1IN.PL (kitáhan)†  
2PL kamú
3PL hidú††
NOM 1SG =ek
2SG =ka
3SG hiyú
1EX =kamí
1IN =kitá
1IN.PL (kitáhan)
2PL =kamú
3PL hidú
GEN 1SG =ku
2SG =mu
3SG adiyú, =ye
1EX =mì
1IN =tà
1IN.PL (=tahan)
2PL =yi
3PL adidú
OBL 1SG (di) da-kú
2SG (di) diká
3SG (di) diyú
1EX (di) dikamí
1IN (di) dikitá
1IN.PL (di dikitáhan)
2PL (di) dikamú
3PL (di) didú

Vowel ShiftsEdit

Vowel shifts are systematic sound changes in the pronunciation of vowel sounds. In Manide, there are vowel shifts following voiced stops /b d g/ and glides /w y/.[3] Low vowel fronting, back vowel fronting, and low vowel backing are all present in Manide.

Fronting refers to a change in the articulation of a vowel with shifts to vowels further forward in the mouth. (i.e., the position of the highest point of the tongue during its pronunciation).[5]

Low Vowel FrontingEdit

Low vowel fronting is the shift of *a to a front vowel such as /e/. Fronting may occur due to assimilation to nearby sounds, or it may form independently. It is part of a feature among many Negrito Filipino languages from northern Luzon to Manide. [3]

Back Vowel FrontingEdit

Back vowel fronting is the change of the vowel *u to /i/. It is related to low vowel fronting as back vowel fronting happens after /b d g/, but there are few occurrences after *b.

Manide shows 16 different forms of back vowel fronting, which generally happens after *t and *l.[4]

Low Vowel BackingEdit

In Manide, low vowel backing is the shift from *a to /u/. Low vowel backing is unique to Manide, as it is not known to occur in any other language of the Philippines. Ten occurrences of low vowel backing of the shift *a to /u/ have been recorded.[4]

Case MarkersEdit

Case markers in Manide are similar to those of other Philippine languages. The case markers show the relationships of nouns and noun phrases to a verb. The most common situations are genitive, nominative, and oblique. Something very unusual is that Manide uses the same case markers for personal names just as used with common nouns. There are no 'Personal' case markers in Manide for in the plural form, only the singular form.

Case Markers in Manide[4]
Common NOM hu (~'h)
GEN nu (~'n)
OBL di (~'d)


NOM hu
GEN nu
OBL di


  1. ^ Manide at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Camarines Norte Agta". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Lobel, Jason William. "Manide: An Undescribed Philippine Language." Oceanic Linguistics 49.2 (2010): 478-510. Web.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lobel, Jason William. Philippine and North Bornean Languages : Issues in Description, Subgrouping, and Reconstruction (2013). Web.
  5. ^ Rupert Thompson, “Vowel Fronting”, in: Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics, Managing Editors Online Edition: First Last. Consulted online on 20 March 2019 <> First published online: 2013