List of space travelers by nationality

The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary. The FAI defines spaceflight as any flight over 100 kilometres (62 mi). In the United States, professional, military, and commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of 80 kilometres (50 mi) are awarded astronaut wings. The majority of people who have flown into space have done so by entering Earth orbit. This list includes persons meeting all three criteria, in separate subdivisions.

Countries (and successor states) whose citizens have flown in space as of September 2019.
Nations' attempts of human spaceflight.
  Currently have human spaceflight programs.
  Confirmed and dated plans for human spaceflight programs.
  Plans for human spaceflight on the simplest form (suborbital spaceflight, etc.).
  Plans for human spaceflight on the extreme form (space stations, etc.).
  Once had official plans for human spaceflight programs, but have since been abandoned.

The flags indicate the space traveler's nationality at the time of their flight or flights. In cases of dual citizenship, the space traveler is listed under their primary residence. A secondary list appended to the entry for the Soviet Union shows the birth countries of space travelers not born in Russia. A similar list after the entry for the United States shows the birth countries of space travelers who are or were citizens of the U.S. but were born elsewhere. Flags shown in the secondary lists are those in use at the time of the space travelers' birth.

Names in italic are space travelers who are not part of any national astronaut program or astronaut corps (Toyohiro Akiyama, Helen Sharman, the Space Adventures customers and the sub-orbital SpaceShipOne pilots).

Except for the SpaceShipOne pilots, all of the space travelers have been crew or participants aboard flights launched by China, the Soviet Union/Russia or the United States.

StatisticsEdit

As of January 2018, people from 37 countries have traveled in space.[1] 553 people have reached Earth orbit. 556 have reached the altitude of space according to the FAI definition of the boundary of space, and 562 people have reached the altitude of space according to the American definition. 24 people have traveled beyond low Earth orbit and either circled, orbited, or walked on the Moon.

Of the 37 countries whose citizens have traveled into Earth orbit, 25 have flown a single space traveler, and four others (Belgium, Bulgaria, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) have flown two each. 94% of all space travelers have been contributed by the following eight nations:

  United States
339 (61.30%)
  Russia1
121 (21.88%)
  Japan
12 (2.17%)
  Germany2,3
11 (1.99%)
  China
11 (1.99%)
  France2
10 (1.81%)
  Canada
9 (1.63%)
  Italy2
7 (1.27%)
- Other countries
33 (5.97%)

1 Includes 72 Soviet cosmonauts and 49 Russian cosmonauts.
2 Includes both national space programme activity and European Space Agency participation.
3 Includes astronauts from the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic.

Suborbital space fliersEdit

Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsEdit

The Soviet Union never launched a spaceflight intended as suborbital. The following persons were launched aboard Soyuz 7K-T No.39 (also Soyuz 18a), intended as orbital, but which was forced to abort before reaching orbit, after reaching suborbital space.[2]

United StatesEdit

The following persons flew or were launched into the upper atmosphere, above 100 kilometres (62 mi), which counts as a space flight by Fédération Aéronautique Internationale guidelines:

The following persons flew into the upper atmosphere between 80 and 100 kilometres (50 and 62 mi), which counts as space flight by United States guidelines:

Orbital space travelersEdit

AfghanistanEdit

BrazilEdit

BulgariaEdit

CanadaEdit

ChinaEdit

CubaEdit

CzechoslovakiaEdit


European Space Agency membersEdit

Some of these astronauts participated in national space programme activity unrelated to their home country's contemporary or subsequent membership of the European Space Agency.

AustriaEdit

BelgiumEdit

DenmarkEdit

FranceEdit

GermanyEdit

ItalyEdit

NetherlandsEdit

PolandEdit

RomaniaEdit

SpainEdit

SwedenEdit

SwitzerlandEdit

United KingdomEdit

Additionally, Michael Foale was born in England to a British father and American mother and a dual citizen of the United Kingdom and the United States, and was raised and educated in England. He flew as a member of NASA's Astronaut Corps with dual British American citizenship.[4] Gregory H. Johnson has foreign (US) citizenship, having been born in the UK to American parents, while Piers Sellers, Nicholas Patrick, Richard Garriott and Mark Shuttleworth have dual nationalities.


HungaryEdit

IndiaEdit

IsraelEdit

JapanEdit

KazakhstanEdit

MalaysiaEdit

MexicoEdit

MongoliaEdit

PolandEdit

Russia and the Soviet UnionEdit

The Soviet space program came under the control of the Russian Federation in December 1991; the new program, now called the Russian Federal Space Agency, retained continuity of equipment and personnel with the Soviet program. While all Soviet and RKA cosmonauts were born within the borders of the U.S.S.R., many were born outside the boundaries of Russia, and may be claimed by other Soviet successor states as nationals of those states. These cosmonauts are marked with an asterisk * and their place of birth is shown in an appended list. All, however, claimed Soviet or Russian citizenship at the time of their space flights.

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Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside RussiaEdit

All of the locations below were part of the former U.S.S.R. at the time of the cosmonauts' birth.

Azerbaidzhan S.S.R. / AzerbaijanEdit
Byelorussian S.S.R. / BelarusEdit
Georgian S.S.R. / GeorgiaEdit
Kazakh S.S.R. / KazakhstanEdit
Kirghiz S.S.R. / KyrgyzstanEdit
Latvian S.S.R. / LatviaEdit
Turkmen S.S.R. / TurkmenistanEdit
Ukrainian S.S.R. / UkraineEdit
Uzbek S.S.R. / UzbekistanEdit

Saudi ArabiaEdit

SlovakiaEdit

South AfricaEdit

South KoreaEdit

SyriaEdit

UkraineEdit

United Arab EmiratesEdit

United StatesEdit

* Asterisked space travelers were born outside the United States

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Americans born abroadEdit

  1.   William Anders, born in Hong Kong to American parents.
  2.   Gregory Chamitoff, born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
  3.   Michael Collins, born in Rome, Italy to American parents.
  4.   Richard Garriott, born in Cambridge, England.
  5.   Gregory H. Johnson, born in South Ruislip, England.
  6.   Frederick W. Leslie, born in Ancón, Panama Canal Zone (now Panama).
  7.   Kjell N. Lindgren, born in Taipei, Taiwan.
  8.   Shannon Lucid , born in Shanghai, China (then under Japanese rule) to American parents.
  9.   James H. Newman, born in the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (now Micronesia).

Naturalized AmericansEdit

  1.   Anousheh Ansari , born in Mashhad, Iran. First Iranian-American in space. Fourth space tourist and first female space tourist.
  2.   Franklin Chang-Diaz, born in San José, Costa Rica. First Costa Rican-American in space.
  3.   Kalpana Chawla , born in Karnal, India. First Indian-American in space.
  4.   Michael Foale, born in Louth, England, dual British and American citizen.
  5.   Michael Lopez-Alegria, born in Madrid, Spain.
  6.   Carlos I. Noriega, born in Lima, Peru. First Peruvian-born person in space.
  7.   Nicholas Patrick, born in Saltburn-by-the-Sea, England, dual UK-US citizen.
  8.   Paul Scully-Power, born in Sydney, Australia.
  9.   Piers Sellers, born in Crowborough, England, dual UK-US citizen.
  10.   Charles Simonyi, born in Budapest, Hungary. Fifth space tourist.
  11.   Andrew Thomas, born in Adelaide, Australia.
  12.   Eugene Trinh, born in Saigon, State of Vietnam (now Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam). First Vietnamese-American in space.
  13.   Lodewijk van den Berg, born in Sluiskil, the Netherlands.
  14.   Taylor Wang, born in Shanghai, China. First Chinese American in space.

VietnamEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Other Wikipedia articles count Anousheh Ansari as an Iranian-American dual citizen; they may also consider Russia and the Soviet Union, or East, West, and even united Germany as distinct countries, resulting in counts of 40 or more countries.
  2. ^ "Soyuz 18-1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
  3. ^ EVA-22: Cassidy and Parmitano complete ISS spacewalk July 9, 2013
  4. ^ "Astronaut Michael Foale retires from Nasa". BBC News. 10 August 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  5. ^ Bukharbayeva, Bagila (20 June 2004). "Kazakhstan Gets a Bigger Say in Space Launch Site" – via LA Times.
  6. ^ "Kazakh cosmonaut to replace Brightman on space station trip - Sen.com".
  7. ^ Akopian, Aram (2001). Armenians and the World: Yesterday and Today. Yerevan: Noyan Tapan. p. 61. ISBN 9789993051299. James Bagian, an engineer and physician, is the first, but surely not the last, Armenian astronaut.