Open main menu

Mae Carol Jemison (born October 17, 1956) is an American engineer, physician and former NASA astronaut. She became the first black woman to travel in space when she served as a mission specialist aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Jemison joined NASA's astronaut corps in 1987 and was selected to serve for the STS-47 mission, during which she orbited the Earth for nearly eight days on September 12–20, 1992.

Mae Jemison
Mae Carol Jemison.jpg
Jemison in July 1992
Born
Mae Carol Jemison

(1956-10-17) October 17, 1956 (age 62)
NationalityAmerican
Occupation
Space career
NASA astronaut
Time in space
190 hours, 30 minutes, and 23 seconds
Selection1987 NASA Group
MissionsSTS-47
Mission insignia
STS-47
RetirementMarch 1993

Born in Alabama and raised in Chicago, Jemison graduated from Stanford University with degrees in chemical engineering as well as African and African-American studies. She then earned her medical degree from Cornell University. Jemison was a doctor for the Peace Corps in Liberia and Sierra Leone from 1983 until 1985 and worked as a general practitioner. In pursuit of becoming an astronaut she applied to NASA.

Jemison left NASA in 1993 and founded a technology research company. She later formed a non-profit educational foundation and through the foundation is the principal of the 100 Year Starship project funded by DARPA. Jemison also wrote several books for children and appeared on television several times, including in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation. She holds several honorary doctorates and has been inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame and the International Space Hall of Fame.

Contents

EducationEdit

Mae Carol Jemison was born in Decatur, Alabama, on October 17, 1956,[1][2] the youngest of three children of Charlie Jemison and Dorothy Jemison (née Green).[3] Her father was a maintenance supervisor for a charity organization, and her mother worked most of her career as an elementary school teacher of English and math at the Ludwig van Beethoven Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois.[4][5] The family first lived in Woodlawn and later the Morgan Park neighborhoods.[6] Jemison knew from a young age that she wanted to study science and someday go into space.[7] The television show Star Trek, and in particular African-American actress Nichelle Nichols' portrayal of Lieutenant Uhura further stoked her interest in space.[8][9][10]

Jemison enjoyed studying nature and human physiology, using her observations to learn more about science. Her mother encouraged her curiosity[8] and both her parents were supportive of her interest in science, she did not always see the same support from her teachers.[11] When Jemison told a kindergarten teacher she wanted to be a scientist when she grew up, the teacher assumed she meant she wanted to be a nurse.[12] Seeing a lack of female astronauts during the Apollo missions also frustrated Jemison. She later recalled, "everybody was thrilled about space, but I remember being really really irritated that there were no women astronauts."[7]

Jemison began studying ballet at the age of 8 or 9 and entered high school at 12 years old, where she joined the cheerleading team and the Modern Dance Club.[13][14] She learned several styles of dance, including African and Japanese, as well as ballet, jazz, and modern dance. As a child, Jemison had aspirations of becoming a professional dancer.[15] At the age of 14, she auditioned for the leading role of Maria in West Side Story. She did not get the leading role but was selected as a background dancer.[16]

After graduating from Chicago's Morgan Park High School in 1973,[12] Jemison entered Stanford University at the age of 16.[8] Although she was young to be leaving home for college, Jemison later said it did not faze her because she was "naive and stubborn enough".[8] There were very few other African-American students in Jemison's classes and she continued to experience discrimination from her teachers.[17] In an interview with The Des Moines Register in 2008, Jemison said that it was difficult to go to Stanford at 16 but that her youthful arrogance may have helped her;[18] she asserted that some arrogance is necessary for women and minorities to be successful in a white male dominated society.[18]

At Stanford, Jemison served as head of the Black Students Union.[11] She also choreographed a musical and dance production called Out of the Shadows.[19] During her senior year in college, she struggled with the choice between going to medical school or pursuing a career as a professional dancer after graduation;[20] she graduated from Stanford in 1977, receiving a B.S. degree in chemical engineering.[1][8] and B.A. degree in African and African-American studies.[21] While at Stanford, she also pursued studies related to her childhood interest in space and first considered applying to NASA.[22]

Medical careerEdit

Jemison attended Cornell Medical School and during her training traveled to Cuba, to conduct a study funded by American Medical Student Association and to Thailand, where she worked at a Cambodian refugee camp.[23][21] She also worked for Flying Doctors stationed in East Africa.[21] During her years at Cornell, Jemison continued to study dance by enrolling in classes at the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater.[13] After graduating with a Doctorate in Medicine in 1981, she interned at Los Angeles County-USC Medical Center in 1982, and worked as a general practitioner for Ross–Loos Medical Group.[1][21]

Jemison joined the staff of the Peace Corps in 1983 and served as a medical officer until 1985. She was responsible for the health of Peace Corps volunteers serving in Liberia and Sierra Leone.[20][24] Jemison supervised the Peace Corps' pharmacy, laboratory, medical staff as well as providing medical care, writing self-care manuals, and developing and implementing guidelines for health and safety issues. She also worked with the Centers for Disease Control helping with research for various vaccines.[25]

NASA careerEdit

 
Jemison at the Kennedy Space Center in 1992.

Upon returning to the United States after serving in the Peace Corps, Jemison settled in Los Angeles, California. In Los Angeles, she entered into private practice and took graduate level engineering courses. The flights of Sally Ride and Guion Bluford in 1983 inspired Jemison to apply to the astronaut program.[4] Jemison first applied to NASA's astronaut training program in October 1985, but NASA postponed selection of new candidates after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986. Jemison reapplied in 1987 and was chosen out of roughly 2,000 applicants to be one of the fifteen people in the NASA Astronaut Group 12, the first group selected following the destruction of Challenger.[11][26] The Associated Press covered her as the "first black woman astronaut" in 1987.[27] CBS featured Jemison as one of the country's "most eligible singles" on Best Catches, a television special hosted by Phylicia Rashad and Robb Weller in 1989.[28]

Jemison's work with NASA before her shuttle launch included launch support activities at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida and verification of Shuttle computer software in the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL).[26][29][30] On September 28, 1989, She was selected to join the STS-47 crew as Mission Specialist 4 and was also designated Science Mission Specialist, a new astronaut role being tested by NASA to focus on scientific experiments.[31]

STS-47Edit

 
Jemison during Space Shuttle mission STS-47

Jemison flew her only space mission from September 12 to 20, 1992, on STS-47,[32] a cooperative mission between the United States and Japan, as well as the 50th shuttle mission.[33] Jemison logged 190 hours, 30 minutes, 23 seconds in space and orbited the earth 127 times.[34][35] The crew was split into two shifts with Jemison assigned to the Blue Shift. Throughout the eight day mission, she began communications on her shift with the salute "Hailing frequencies open", a quote from Star Trek.[36] Jemison took a poster from the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater along with her on the flight.[8][37] She also took a West African statuette[8] and a photo of Bessie Coleman, the first African American with an international pilot license.[38][8]

STS-47 carried the Spacelab Japan module, a cooperative mission between the United States and Japan that included 43 Japanese and United States life science and materials processing experiments.[31] Jemison and Japanese astronaut Mamoru Mohri were trained to use the Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE),[39] a technique developed by Patricia S. Cowings that uses biofeedback and autogenic training to help patients monitor and control their physiology as a possible treatment for motion sickness, anxiety and stress-related disorders.[40][41]

 
Jemison aboard the Spacelab Japan module on Endeavour

Aboard the Spacelab Japan module, Jemison tested NASA's Fluid Therapy System, a set of procedures and equipment to produce water for injection, developed by Sterimatics Corporation. She then used IV bags and a mixing method, developed by Baxter Healthcare, to use the water from the previous step to produce saline solution in space.[42] Jemison was also a co-investigator of two bone cell research experiments.[25] Another experiment she participated in was to induce female frogs to ovulate, fertilize the eggs and then see how tadpoles developed in zero gravity.[43]

Resignation from NASAEdit

After her return to Earth, Jemison resigned from NASA in March 1993 with the intention of starting her own company.[32][20][44] NASA training manager and author Homer Hickam, who had trained Jemison for her flight, later expressed some regret that she had departed.[8]

Post-NASA careerEdit

Jemison served on the board of directors of the World Sickle Cell Foundation from 1990 to 1992.[7] In 1993, she founded The Jemison Group Inc., a consulting firm which considers the sociocultural impact of technological advancements and design.[2][45] Jemison also founded the Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence and named the foundation in honor of her mother.[46] One of the projects of the foundation is The Earth We Share, a science camp for students aged 12 to 16. Founded in 1994,[47] camps have been held at Dartmouth College, Colorado School of Mines, Choate Rosemary Hall and other sites in the United States,[46] as well as internationally in South Africa, Tunisia, and Switzerland.[48]

Jemison was a professor of environmental studies at Dartmouth College from 1995 to 2002 where she directed the Jemison Institute for Advancing Technology in Developing Countries.[47][49] In 1999, she also became an Andrew D. White Professor-at-Large at Cornell University.[47][50] Jemison continues to advocate strongly in favor of science education and getting minority students interested in science.[26] She is a member of various scientific organizations, such as the American Medical Association, the American Chemical Society, the Association of Space Explorers and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.[51]

In 1999, Jemison founded BioSentient Corp and obtained the license to commercialize AFTE, the technique she and Mohri tested on themselves during STS-47.[40][41]

In 2012, Jemison made the winning bid for the DARPA 100 Year Starship project through the Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence was awarded a $500,000 grant for further work. The new organization maintained the organizational name 100 Year Starship. Jemison is the current principal of the 100 Year Starship.[52]

In 2018, she collaborated with Bayer Crop Science and National 4-H Council for the initiative named Science Matters which was aimed at encouraging young children to understand and pursue agricultural sciences.[53][54]

BooksEdit

Jemison's first book, Find Where the Wind Goes (2001), is a memoir of her life written for children.[2][55] She describes her childhood, her time at Stanford, in the Peace Corps and as an astronaut.[56] School Library Journal found the stories about her earlier life to be the most appealing.[56] Book Report found that the autobiography gave a realistic view into her interactions with her professors, whose treatment of Jemison were not based on her intelligence but on stereotypes of woman of color.[57]

Her A True Book series of four children's books published in 2013 is co-authored with Dana Meachen Rau.[58] Each book in the series has a "Find the Truth" challenge, true or false questions answers to which is revealed at the end of the story.[58] School Library Journal found the series to be "properly tantalizing surveys" of the Solar System but criticized the inclusion of a few outdated theories in physics and astronomy.[59]

Public profileEdit

 
Mae Jemison at a symposium in 2009

LeVar Burton learned that Jemison was an avid Star Trek fan and asked her if she would be interested in being on the show. In 1993, Jemison appeared as Lieutenant Palmer in "Second Chances", an episode of the science fiction television series Star Trek: The Next Generation, becoming the first real-life astronaut to appear on Star Trek.[60][61] Jemison had been inspired by the character of Uhura on Star Trek and has been a lifelong fan of the show.[62]

From 1999 to 2005, Jemison was appointed an Andrew Dickson White Professor-at-Large at Cornell University.[63][64]

Jemison is an active public speaker who appears before private and public groups promoting science and technology. "Having been an astronaut gives me a platform," says Jemison,"but I'd blow it if I just talked about the Shuttle." Jemison uses her platform to speak out on the gap in the quality of health-care between the United States and the Third World. "Martin Luther King [Jr.] … didn't just have a dream, he got things done."[65] Jemison has also appeared as host and technical consultant of the Discovery Channel science series World of Wonder.[66]

In 2006, Jemison participated in African American Lives, a PBS television miniseries hosted by Henry Louis Gates, Jr., that traces the family history of eight famous African Americans using historical research and genetic techniques.[67] Jemison found to her surprise that she is 13% East Asian in her genetic makeup.[67] She also learned that some of her paternal ancestors were slaves at a plantation in Talladega County, Alabama.[68]

Jemison participated in the Red Dress Heart Truth fashion show, wearing Lyn Devon, during the 2007 New York Fashion Week to help raise money to fight heart disease.[69] In May of the same year, she was the graduation commencement speaker and only the 11th person in the 52-year history of Harvey Mudd College to be awarded an honorary D.Eng. degree.[70]

On February 17, 2008, Jemison was the featured speaker for the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Alpha Kappa Alpha, the first sorority established by African-American college women. Jemison paid tribute to Alpha Kappa Alpha by carrying the sorority's banner with her on her shuttle flight. Her space suit is a part of the sorority's national traveling Centennial Exhibit. Jemison is an honorary member of Alpha Kappa Alpha.[71]

Jemison participated with First Lady Michelle Obama in a forum for promising girls in the Washington, D.C. public schools in March 2009.[72]

In 2014, Jemison also appeared at Wayne State University for their annual Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Tribute Luncheon.[73] In 2016, she partnered with Bayer Corporation to promote and advance science literacy in schools, emphasizing hands-on experimentation.[74]

She took part in the Michigan State University's lecture series, "Slavery to Freedom: An American Odyssey," in February 2017.[75] In May 2017, Jemison gave the commencement speech at Rice University.[76] She discussed the 100 Year Plan, science and education and other topics at Western Michigan University also in May 2017.[77]

In 2017, LEGO released the "Women of NASA" set, with minifigures of Jemison, Margaret Hamilton, Sally Ride, and Nancy Grace Roman.[78][79] The Google Doodle on March 8, 2019 (International Women's Day) featured a quote from Jemison: "Never be limited by other people’s limited imaginations."[80]

Personal lifeEdit

Jemison built a dance studio in her home and has choreographed and produced several shows of modern jazz and African dance.[4][20][81]

In the spring of 1996, Jemison filed a complaint against a Texas police officer, accusing him of police brutality during a traffic stop that ended in her arrest. She was pulled over by Nassau Bay, Texas officer Henry Hughes for allegedly making an illegal U-turn and arrested after Hughes learned of an outstanding warrant on Jemison for a speeding ticket.[82] In the process of arresting her, the officer twisted her wrist and forced her to the ground, as well as having her walk barefooted from the patrol car into the police station.[82][83] In her complaint, Jemison said the officer physically and emotionally mistreated her.[84] Jemison's attorney said she believed she'd already paid the speeding ticket years ago.[82] She spent several hours in jail and was treated at an area hospital after release for deep bruises and a head injury.[85] The Nassau Bay officer was suspended with pay pending an investigation,[86] but the police investigation cleared him of wrongdoing.[83] She filed a lawsuit against the city of Nassau Bay and the officer.[85]

Honors and awardsEdit

 
Jemison on 1996 Azeri postage stamp

InstitutionsEdit

Honorary doctoratesEdit

FilmographyEdit

PublicationsEdit

  • Jemison, Mae (2001). Find where the wind goes: moments from my life. New York: Scholastic. ISBN 978-0-439-13196-4. OCLC 44548911.
  • Jemison, Mae (2001). S.E.E.ing the Future: Science, Engineering and Education (PDF). Hanover, NH: Dartmouth College. p. 56. ERIC ED464816.
  • She contributed the piece "Outer Space: The Worldly Frontier" to the 2003 anthology Sisterhood Is Forever: The Women's Anthology for a New Millennium, edited by Robin Morgan.[119]
  • Jemison, Mae; Rau, Dana Meachen (2013). Journey Through Our Solar System (True Books: Dr. Mae Jemison and 100 Year Starship). Scholastic. ISBN 978-0-531-24061-8.
  • Jemison, Mae; Rau, Dana Meachen (2013). Discovering New Planets (True Books: Dr. Mae Jemison and 100 Year Starship). Scholastic. ISBN 978-0-531-24063-2.
  • Jemison, Mae; Rau, Dana Meachen (2013). Exploring Our Sun (True Books: Dr. Mae Jemison and 100 Year Starship). Scholastic. ISBN 978-0-531-24062-5.
  • Jemison, Mae; Rau, Dana Meachen (2013). The 100 Year Starship (True Books: Dr. Mae Jemison and 100 Year Starship). Scholastic. ISBN 978-0-531-24060-1.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Hine, Darlene Clark, ed. (2005). Black women in America (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 140. ISBN 0-19-515677-3. OCLC 57506600.
  2. ^ a b c Cavallaro, Umberto (March 2, 2017). Women Spacefarers: Sixty Different Paths to Space. Springer. p. 146. ISBN 978-3-319-34048-7.
  3. ^ Gibson, Karen (February 1, 2014). Women in Space: 23 Stories of First Flights, Scientific Missions, and Gravity-Breaking Adventures. Chicago Review Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-61374-847-3.
  4. ^ a b c Leary, Warren (September 13, 1992). "Woman in the News; A Determined Breaker of Boundaries – Mae Carol Jemison". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  5. ^ Heise, Kenan (November 3, 1993). "Author Dorothy Jemison, 64, Mother of Astronaut". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  6. ^ "African American Lives . Profiles . Mae Jemison". WNET. PBS. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
  7. ^ a b c "Mae Jemison: First African-American Woman in Space". Makers.com. AOL/PBS. c. 2012. Archived from the original on March 2, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jesse Katz. "Shooting Star: Former Astronaut Mae Jemison Brings her Message Down to Earth" (PDF). Stanford Today, July–August 1996. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  9. ^ Eschner, Kat (October 17, 2017). "This Groundbreaking Astronaut and Star Trek Fan Is Now Working on Interstellar Travel". Smithsonian. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  10. ^ Jackson, Camille (October 28, 2013). "The Legacy of Lt. Uhura: Astronaut Mae Jemison on Race in Space". today.duke.edu. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d "Mae C. Jemison". Biography.com. Archived from the original on May 26, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
  12. ^ a b Haynes, Karima A. (December 1992). "Mae Jemison: coming in from outer space". Ebony. pp. 118, 120, 124. Perhaps the most moving tribute came during a homecoming rally at Morgan Park High School, where Jemison graduated in 1973.
  13. ^ a b Brozan, Nadine (September 16, 1992). "Chronicle: A memento of the Alvin Ailey dance company goes into space". The New York Times. p. 4. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  14. ^ Raum, Elizabeth (2006). Mae Jemison. Heinemann-Raintree Library. pp. 8–11. ISBN 978-1-4034-6942-7.
  15. ^ "Interview with Mae". Scholastic. March 15, 2001. Archived from the original on August 22, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  16. ^ Barrett, Michelle (March 17, 2003). "Earth lover, space voyager Dr. Mae Jemison". Jamaica Gleaner. Archived from the original on September 14, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
  17. ^ Finnerty, Amy (July 16, 2000). "Outnumbered: Standing Out at Work". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  18. ^ a b Challender, Mary (October 16, 2008). "First black woman astronaut tells insight". Des Moines Register. p. 1E2E. Retrieved May 10, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  19. ^ "Stanford Original By Blacks". The Times. May 21, 1977. p. 48. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
  20. ^ a b c d Jemison, Mae C.; Olsen, Patricia R. (February 2, 2003). "Executive Life: The Boss; 'What was Space Like?'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  21. ^ a b c d Frazer, Jendayi; Jemison, Mae C. (1993). "Advancing African Health Care through Space Technology: An Interview with Dr. Mae C. Jemison". Africa Today. 40 (3): 70–71. ISSN 0001-9887. JSTOR 4186922.
  22. ^ Creasman, Kim (1997). "Black Birds in the Sky: The Legacies of Bessie Coleman and Dr. Mae Jemison". The Journal of Negro History. 82 (1): 160. doi:10.2307/2717501. ISSN 0022-2992. JSTOR 2717501.
  23. ^ Best, Leslie K. (2013). A Heritage of Black Excellence in Chicago. Becslie Publisher. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-9745595-2-0.
  24. ^ Black women in America. Hine, Darlene Clark. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2005. pp. 140–1. ISBN 0-19-515677-3. OCLC 57506600.CS1 maint: others (link)
  25. ^ a b Greene, Nick (October 17, 1956). "Dr. Mae C. Jemison: Astronaut and Visionary". ThoughtCo. Dotdash. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  26. ^ a b c John Pike (February 24, 2003). "African-Americans in Space". Global Security. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2011. I was in the first class of astronauts selected after the Challenger accident back in 1986, ... [I] actually worked the launch of the first flight after the Challenger accident.
  27. ^ "Astronaut Stresses Establishing Goals". Longview News-Journal. Associated Press. July 28, 1987. Retrieved May 26, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  28. ^ "Best Catches". Southern Illinoisan. February 28, 1989. Retrieved May 26, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  29. ^ "Official NASA biography". Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. NASA. October 17, 1956. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  30. ^ "Peace Corps biography". Peace Corps Online. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  31. ^ a b Shayler, David J.; Moule, Ian A. (April 6, 2005). Women in Space – Following Valentina. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 261–63. ISBN 978-1-85233-744-5.
  32. ^ a b c Black women in America. Hine, Darlene Clark. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2005. p. 141. ISBN 0-19-515677-3. OCLC 57506600.CS1 maint: others (link)
  33. ^ "African-American Women Astronauts Making their Mark in Space Exploration". Rediscovering Black History. March 15, 2016. Archived from the original on September 11, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  34. ^ Smith, Yvette (February 26, 2019). "Mae Jemison, First African American Woman in Space". NASA. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  35. ^ Creighton, Jolene (December 21, 2015). "Mae Jemison: The First African American Woman in Space and First Real Astronaut on Star Trek". Futurism. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  36. ^ Jesse Katz (July 1, 1996). "Shooting Star". Stanford Today. Archived from the original on June 21, 2015.
  37. ^ Anna Kisselgoff (December 12, 1992). "An Ailey Tribute to Dizzy Gillespie". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 4, 2009. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  38. ^ Jones, Christy (August 19, 2014). "No Fear of Flying Here: 12 Women Aviators to Celebrate". AAUW: Empowering Women Since 1881. Retrieved May 9, 2019.
  39. ^ Cowings, Patricia (Summer 2003). "NASA Contributes to Improving Health". NASA Innovation. 11 (2). Archived from the original on October 4, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  40. ^ a b Steiner, Victoria (January 7, 2003). "NASA Commercializes Method For Health Improvement". NASA Ames Research Center. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  41. ^ a b Bugos, Glenn E. (2014). "Atmosphere of Freedom: 75 Years at the NASA Ames Research Center" (PDF). NASA Ames Research Center. pp. 159–61. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  42. ^ Miller, Fletcher; Niederhaus, Charles; Barlow, Karen; Griffin, DeVon (January 8, 2007). "Intravenous Solutions for Exploration Missions" (PDF). 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit. Reno, Nevada: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi:10.2514/6.2007-544. hdl:2060/20070018153. ISBN 978-1-62410-012-3.
  43. ^ Dunn, Marcia (September 8, 1992). "1st Black Woman in Space Taking One Small Step for Equality". The Titusville Herald. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
  44. ^ Lipp, Paula (September 29, 1999). "Former astronaut Mae Jemison shares her philosophy on education, technology and achieving success". Graduating Engineer. Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  45. ^ Times, Birmingham (February 20, 2017). "#BlackHistoryMonth: Notable Alabamians, Part Seven". The Birmingham Times. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  46. ^ a b Gold, Lauren (July 11, 2005). "Former shuttle Endeavour astronaut Mae C. Jemison encourages students to think like scientists". Cornell University. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  47. ^ a b c "About Dr. Mae Jemison". Making Science Make Sense. Bayer U.S. Archived from the original on June 30, 2007.
  48. ^ "More TEWS Projects". Jemison Foundation. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  49. ^ Peterson, Charles A. (September 9, 2004). "Every second counts". The Granville Sentinel. Retrieved June 30, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  50. ^ "Jemison, Mae". National Women’s Hall of Fame. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  51. ^ "Official NASA biography". Jsc.nasa.gov. March 1993. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  52. ^ Weinberger, Sharon (January 5, 2012). "Former astronaut to lead starship effort". BBC News. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
  53. ^ Pittman, Taylor (March 15, 2018). "Mae Jemison: Diversity In STEM Isn't A Nicety, It's A Necessity". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on August 30, 2018. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
  54. ^ Scott, Rachel (May 23, 2018). "1st black female astronaut in space offers advice to young girls". ABC News. Archived from the original on August 29, 2018. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
  55. ^ Zaleski, Jeff (March 19, 2001). "Find Where the Wind Goes (Book Review)". Publishers Weekly. 248 (12): 101 – via EBSCOhost.
  56. ^ a b Isaacs, Kathleen (April 2001). "Find Where the Wind Goes (Book Review)". School Library Journal. 47 (4): 162 – via EBSCOhost.
  57. ^ "Find Where the Wind Goes (Book Review)". Book Report. 20 (2): 70. September 2001 – via EBSCOhost.
  58. ^ a b Ligamari, Joanne (November 2013). "A True Book – Dr. Mae Jemison and 100 Year Starship". Library Media Connection. 32 (3): 93 – via EBSCOhost.
  59. ^ Peters, John (April 2013). "Discovering New Planets/Exploring Our Sun/Journey Through Our Solar System/The 100 Year Starship". School Library Journal. 59 (4): 98 – via EBSCOhost.
  60. ^ a b "Mae Jemison had cameo in Star Trek: The Next Generation". peacecorpsonline.org. Peace Corps Online. January 5, 2005. Archived from the original on September 7, 2018. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
  61. ^ "Transcript and images from HypaSpace featuring Dr. Mae C. Jemison". Vrrrm.com. January 5, 2005. Archived from the original on September 1, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  62. ^ Dunn, Marcia (May 24, 1993). "Astronaut Transports to Enterprise". Clarion-Ledger. p. 30. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
  63. ^ Lang, Susan A. (March 12, 2002). "Former astronaut Mae Jemison visits Cornell March 25-30 to give a lecture and meet with faculty, students and local officials". Cornell Chronicle.
  64. ^ "Andrew D. White Professors-at-Large". Program for Andrew D. White Professors-at-Large. 2019.
  65. ^ "Astronaut Mae Jemison moves to new career". Physorg. January 17, 2006. Archived from the original on September 16, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  66. ^ "Dr. Mae C. Jemison". jemisonfoundation.org. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation. 2004. Archived from the original on November 2, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  67. ^ a b Ryan, Suzanne C. (January 31, 2006). "'African American Lives' traces roots around the world". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
  68. ^ "African American Lives – Profiles: Mae Jemison". Thirteen (PBS). 2006. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
  69. ^ "Celeb models wear red for charity as NY fashion week opens 8 days of previews". February 2, 2007. Archived from the original on January 5, 2016.
  70. ^ a b "HMC Honors Grads at 49th Commencement". hmc.edu. Harvey Mudd College. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved December 26, 2016.
  71. ^ Trischitta, Linda (February 18, 2008). "Former astronaut urges audience to learn science". Sun-Sentinel.com. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  72. ^ Superville, Darlene (March 19, 2009). "First lady tells students to aim their goals high". San Diego Tribune. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  73. ^ "Former NASA astronaut Mae Jemison to deliver keynote during Wayne State's annual Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Tribute". Wayne State University. January 13, 2014. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  74. ^ Stevens, Heidi (October 4, 2015). "Stop Taking All the Fun Out of Science, Astronaut Mae Jemison Pleads". The Anniston Star. p. 34. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
  75. ^ Dozier, Vickki (February 1, 2017). "First Black Female Astronaut a Speaker". Lansing State Journal. pp. A3. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
  76. ^ Almond, B.J. "Former Astronaut Mae Jemison to speak at Rice's 2017 Commencement". Rice University. Rice University News & Media. Archived from the original on May 2, 2017. Retrieved May 15, 2017.
  77. ^ Fitzpatrick, Andy (March 25, 2017). "Blaze a Path to Alpha Centauri". Battle Creek Enquirer. pp. A3. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
  78. ^ Science (June 22, 2017). "Women of NASA Lego toy set now on sale for $24.99". Business Insider. Archived from the original on November 1, 2017. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  79. ^ Kennedy, Merrit (March 1, 2017). "Women Of NASA To Be Immortalized — In Lego Form". NPR. Archived from the original on September 10, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  80. ^ Sloat, Sarah (March 8, 2019). "On International Women's Day, Google Celebrates NASA Pioneer Mae Jemison". Inverse. Retrieved March 17, 2019. Jemison, famously the first African-American woman to go to space, is quoted from a talk she gave in 2009 at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students. Her full statement reads: Never be limited by other people’s limited imaginations… If you adopt their attitudes, then the possibility won’t exist because you’ll have already shut it out… You can hear other people’s wisdom, but you’ve got to re-evaluate the world for yourself.
  81. ^ "Mae Jemison's Aha! Moment". Oprah.com. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  82. ^ a b c "Astronaut's Arrest Leads to Officer's Suspension". The Galveston Daily News. March 1, 1996. p. 8. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
  83. ^ a b Russell-Brown, Katheryn (2009). The Color of Crime. NYU Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-8147-7617-9.
  84. ^ Gary Borg (March 1, 1996). "Ex-astronaut Jemison Accuses Cop Of Brutality". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
  85. ^ a b "Lawsuit: Ex-astronaut Roughed-Up, Handcuffed". The Galveston Daily News. April 22, 1997. p. 5. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
  86. ^ "Former Astronaut Mae Jemison Arrested in Texas; Files Complaint Against White Police Officer". Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. 89 (18): 8. March 18, 1996.
  87. ^ a b c d e f Gubert, Betty Kaplan; Sawyer, Miriam; Fannin, Caroline M. (2002). Distinguished African Americans in Aviation and Space Science. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-57356-246-1.
  88. ^ Jemison, Mae. "Fast Facts". Honorary Member. Gamma Sigma Sigma National Service Sorority, Inc. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  89. ^ a b c d Oakes, Elizabeth H. (2007). Encyclopedia of World Scientists. Infobase Publishing. p. 372. ISBN 978-1-4381-1882-6.
  90. ^ "Mae C. Jemison". The Montgomery Fellows. Dartmouth College. Archived from the original on November 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  91. ^ "The 50 Most Beautiful People in the World". People.com. 39 (17). May 3, 1993. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  92. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
  93. ^ "Mae Jemison". Texas Women's Hall of Fame. Texas Woman's University. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  94. ^ "NOW's First Annual Intrepid Awards Gala: Dr. Mae C. Jemison". National Organization for Women. July 10, 2003. Archived from the original on March 18, 2014.
  95. ^ "Mae Carol Jemison". International Space Hall of Fame. New Mexico Museum of Space History. Archived from the original on June 15, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  96. ^ "X-Prize Group Founder to Speak at Induction". El Paso Times. El Paso, Texas. October 17, 2004. p. 59 – via Newspapers.com.
  97. ^ "The Rachel Carson Award Honorees". Audubon. February 23, 2016. Archived from the original on September 10, 2016. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  98. ^ Leonard, Suzy Fleming (July 16, 2017). "Aldrin Foundation Raises Money for Space Education". Pensacola News Journal. pp. A2. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
  99. ^ a b Jemison, Mae (March 15, 2019). "Honorary Chancellor Named at 2019 Founders Day Convocation". Florida Southern News Center. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  100. ^ "Mae Jemison School / Homepage". Prairie Hills School District. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  101. ^ "About Our School / The BDJ Way: School History". Bluford Drew Jemison STEM Academy. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  102. ^ Green, Erica L. (June 11, 2013). "City school board approves three new charters". The Baltimore Sun. Baltimore. Archived from the original on February 21, 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
  103. ^ Bonvillian, Crystal (January 27, 2015). "Jemison High School, McNair Junior High construction soon to be underway". AL.com. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  104. ^ a b "Astronaut Bio: Mae C. Jemison". JSC.NASA.gov. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Archived from the original on July 20, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  105. ^ "Commencements; Remember Ethics, Graduates Are Told". The New York Times. May 31, 2000. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  106. ^ Jessee, Willa (May 23, 2005). "Kids join moms in graduation line". The Sentinel; cumberlink.com. Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  107. ^ "Worthy of note: Honors, awards, appointments, etc". Dartmouth Medicine. Summer 2006. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011.
  108. ^ "Honorary degrees bestowed upon distinguished guests". Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. May 19, 2007. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011.
  109. ^ "Class Notes". DePaul Magazine. 1 (412020): 37. Fall 2017.
  110. ^ "DePaul to Welcome Array of Luminaries at 2008 Commencements". DePaul University. June 13, 2008. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  111. ^ "Entrepreneur and Astronaut Mae Jemison To Receive Honorary Degree at Rensselaer". RPI News. May 1, 2007. Archived from the original on September 10, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  112. ^ "Susan B. Anthony Slept Here". Films Media Group. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  113. ^ "Star Trek Trip Lasts 30 Years". Marshfield News-Herald. Associated Press. October 7, 1996. p. 1. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
  114. ^ Kogan, Rick (March 9, 1993). "Real-life Wiseguys". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  115. ^ "We Owe It All to Captain Kirk". Sunday Mercury. May 21, 2006. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017 – via HighBeam Research.
  116. ^ "Mae Jemison". African American Lives. PBS. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017 – via PBS.org.
  117. ^ "No Gravity". 10:15 Productions. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  118. ^ "Talk Shows". Courier-Post. July 20, 2016. pp. D6. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017 – via Newspapers.com.
  119. ^ "Library Resource Finder: Table of Contents for: Sisterhood is forever : the women's anth". Vufind.carli.illinois.edu. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2015.

Further readingEdit

  • Blue, Rose J. Mae Jemison: Out of this World, Millbrook Press, 2003 – ISBN 0-7613-2570-0
  • Burby, Liza N. Mae Jemison: The First African American Woman Astronaut, The Rosen Publishing Group, 1997 – ISBN 0-8239-5027-1
  • Canizares, Susan. Voyage of Mae Jemison, Sagebrush Education Resources, 1999 – ISBN 0-613-22577-5
  • Ceaser, Ebraska D. Mae C. Jemison: 1st Black Female Astronaut, New Day Press, 1992.
  • Polette, Nancy. Mae Jemison, Scholastic Library Publishing, 2003 – ISBN 0-516-27783-9
  • Raum, Elizabeth. Mae Jemison, Heinemann Library, 2005 – ISBN 1-4034-6942-3
  • Sakurai, Gail. Mae Jemison: Space Scientist, Scholastic Library Publishing, 1996 – ISBN 0-516-44194-9
  • Yannuzzi, Della A. Mae Jemison: A Space Biography, Enslow Publishers, 1998 – ISBN 0-89490-813-8

External linksEdit