Buzz Aldrin (//; born Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr.; January 20, 1930) is an American engineer, former astronaut, and fighter pilot. As Lunar Module Pilot on the Apollo 11 mission, he and mission commander Neil Armstrong were the first two humans to land on the Moon.
Aldrin in July 1969
|Born||Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr.|
January 20, 1930
Glen Ridge, New Jersey, U.S.
|United States Military Academy, B.S. 1951|
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sc.D. 1963
|Rank||Colonel, United States Air Force|
Time in space
|12 days 1 hour and 53 minutes|
|Selection||NASA Astronaut Group 3|
Total EVA time
|7 hours 52 minutes|
|Missions||Gemini 12, Apollo 11|
|Retirement||July 1, 1971|
|Awards||Air Force Distinguished Service Medal (2)|
Distinguished Flying Cross (2)
Air Medal (3)
Presidential Medal of Freedom
NASA Distinguished Service Medal
NASA Exceptional Service Medal
Joan Ann Archer
(m. 1954; div. 1974)
Beverly Van Zile
(m. 1975; div. 1978)
Lois Driggs Cannon
(m. 1988; div. 2012)
Born in Glen Ridge, New Jersey, Aldrin graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1951, with a degree in mechanical engineering. He was commissioned in the United States Air Force, and served as a jet fighter pilot during the Korean War. He flew 66 combat missions and shot down two MiG-15 aircraft.
After earning a Sc.D. degree in astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Aldrin was selected as a member of NASA's Astronaut Group 3, making him the first astronaut with a doctoral degree. His doctoral thesis was Line-of-Sight Guidance Techniques for Manned Orbital Rendezvous, earning him the nickname "Dr. Rendezvous" from fellow astronauts. His first space flight was Gemini 12 during which he spent over five hours on extravehicular activity (EVA) outside the spacecraft. Aldrin set foot on the Moon at 03:15:16 on July 21, 1969 (UTC), nine minutes after Armstrong first touched the surface, while Command/Service Module pilot Michael Collins remained in lunar orbit. A Presbyterian elder, Aldrin became the first person to hold a religious ceremony on the Moon when he privately took communion.
Upon leaving NASA in 1971, he became Commandant of the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School. He retired from the Air Force in 1972, after 21 years of service. His autobiographies Return to Earth, (1973) and Magnificent Desolation (2009), recount his struggles with clinical depression and alcoholism in the years after leaving NASA. He continued to advocate for space exploration, particularly a manned mission to Mars, and developed the Aldrin cycler, a special spacecraft trajectory that makes travel to Mars possible using less time and propellant. He was accorded numerous honors, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969, and is listed in several Halls of Fame, and has plaques on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr. was born January 20, 1930, in Mountainside Hospital, in Glen Ridge, New Jersey. His parents were Edwin Eugene Aldrin Sr. and Marion Aldrin (née Moon), who lived in neighboring Montclair, New Jersey. His father was Army aviator during World War I, and the assistant commandant of the Army's test pilot school at McCook Field, Ohio, from 1919 to 1922, but left the Army in 1928, and became an executive at Standard Oil. Aldrin had two siblings, both sisters: Madeleine, who was four years older, and Fay Ann, who was a year and a half older. His nickname, which became his legal first name in 1988, arose as a result of Fay's mispronouncing "brother" as "buzzer", which was then shortened to "Buzz". He was a Boy Scout and earned the rank of Tenderfoot Scout.
Aldrin did well in school, maintaining an A average. He played football, and was the starting center for Montclair High School's undefeated 1946 state champion team. His father wanted him to go to the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, and enrolled him at nearby Severn School, a preparatory school for Annapolis, and even secured him an appointment from Albert W. Hawkes, one of the United States Senators from New Jersey. Aldrin attended Severn School in 1946, but had other ideas about his future career. He suffered from seasickness, and considered that ships would be a distraction from flying airplanes. He faced down his father and told him to ask Hawkes to change the nomination to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York.
Aldrin entered West Point in 1947. He did well academically, finishing first in his class his plebe year. He was a member of the academy track and field team. In his final year he travelled with a group of West Point cadets to Japan and the Philippines to study the military government policies of Douglas MacArthur. On June 5, 1951, he graduated third in the class in 1951, with a Bachelor of Science degree.
As one of the highest-ranking members of the class, Aldrin had his choice of assignments. He chose the United States Air Force, which had become a separate service in 1947, while Aldrin was still at West Point, and did not yet have its own academy. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant, and underwent basic flight training in T-6 Texans at Bartow Air Base in Florida. His classmates included Sam Johnson, who later became a prisoner of war in Vietnam. The two became lifelong friends. At one point, Aldrin attempted a double Immelmann turn in a T-28 Trojan and suffered a grayout. He recovered in time to pull out at 200 feet (61 m), averting what would have been a fatal crash.
When deciding what sort of aircraft he should fly, his father advised him to choose bombers. Command of a bomber crew gave an opportunity to learn and hone leadership skills, which could open up better prospects for career advancement. Aldrin chose instead to fly fighters. He moved to Nellis Air Force Base in Las Vegas, where he learned to fly the F-80 Shooting Star and the F-86 Sabre. Like most jet fighter pilots of the era, he preferred the latter.
In December 1952, Aldrin was assigned to the 16th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, which was part of the 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing. At the time it was based at Suwon Air Base, about 20 miles (32 km) south of Seoul, and was engaged in combat operations as part of the Korean War. During an acclimatization flight his main fuel system froze at 100 percent power, which would have soon used up all his fuel. He was able to override the setting manually, but this required holding a button down, which in turn made it impossible to also use his radio. He barely managed to make it back under enforced radio silence. He flew 66 combat missions in F-86 Sabres in Korea and shot down two MiG-15 aircraft.
The first was on May 14, 1953. Aldrin was flying about 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the Yalu River, when he saw two MiG-15 fighters below him. Aldrin opened fire on one of the MiGs, whose pilot may never have seen him coming. The June 8, 1953, issue of Life magazine featured gun camera footage taken by Aldrin of the pilot ejecting from his damaged aircraft.
Aldrin's second aerial victory came on June 4, 1953, when he accompanied aircraft from the 39th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron in an attack on an airbase in North Korea. Their newer aircraft were faster than his, and he had trouble keeping up. He then spotted a MiG approaching from above. This time, Aldrin and his opponent spotted each other at about the same. They went through a series of scissor maneuvers, attempting to get behind the other. Aldrin was first to do so, but his gun sight jammed. He then manually sighted his gun and fired. He then had to pull out, as the two aircraft had gotten too low for the dogfight to continue. Aldrin saw the MiG's canopy open and the pilot eject, although Aldrin was uncertain whether there was sufficient time for a parachute to open. For his service in Korea, he was awarded two Distinguished Flying Crosses and three Air Medals.
Aldrin's year-long tour ended in December 1953, by which time the fighting in Korea had ended. Aldrin was assigned as an aerial gunnery instructor at Nellis. In December 1954 he became an aide-de-camp to Brigadier General Don Z. Zimmerman, the Dean of Faculty at the nascent United States Air Force Academy, which opened in 1955. That same year, he graduated from the Squadron Officer School at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama. From 1956 to 1959 he flew F-100 Super Sabres equipped with nuclear weapons as a flight commander in the 22nd Fighter Squadron, 36th Fighter Wing, stationed at Bitburg Air Base in West Germany. Among his squadron colleagues was Ed White, who had been a year behind him at West Point. After White left Germany to study for a master's degree at the University of Michigan in aeronautical engineering, he wrote to Aldrin encouraging him to do the same.
Through the Air Force Institute of Technology, Aldrin enrolled as a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1959, intending to earn a master's degree. He enjoyed the classroom work, and soon decided to pursue a doctorate instead. In January 1963, he earned a Sc.D. degree in astronautics. His doctoral thesis was Line-of-Sight Guidance Techniques for Manned Orbital Rendezvous, the dedication of which read, "In the hopes that this work may in some way contribute to their exploration of space, this is dedicated to the crew members of this country's present and future manned space programs. If only I could join them in their exciting endeavors!" Aldrin chose his doctoral thesis in the hope that it would help him be selected as an astronaut, although it meant foregoing test pilot training, which was a prerequisite at the time.
On the completion of his doctorate, Aldrin was assigned to the Gemini Target Office of the Air Force Space Systems Division in Los Angeles, working with the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation on enhancing the maneuver capabilities of the Agena target vehicle which was to be used by NASA's Project Gemini. He was then posted to the Space Systems Division's field office at NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, where he was involved in integrating Department of Defense experiments into Project Gemini flights.
Aldrin's initial application to join the astronaut corps when NASA's Astronaut Group 2 was selected in 1962 was rejected on the ground that he was not a test pilot. He was aware of the requirement, and asked for it to be waived, but this request was turned down. On May 15, 1963, NASA announced another round of selections. This time requirement was that applicants have either test pilot experience or 1,000 hours flying time in jet aircraft, and Aldrin had over 2,500 hours of flying time, of which 2,200 was in jets. His selection as one of fourteen members of NASA's Astronaut Group 3, was publicly announced on October 18, 1963. This made him the first astronaut with a doctoral degree. Combined with his expertise in orbital mechanics, it earned him his nickname from his fellow astronauts. "From the outset," Walter Cunningham, a fellow member of the 1963 group, recalled, "Buzz was referred to as 'Dr. Rendezvous' because of his obsession with rendezvous in space." Aldrin was aware that it was not always intended as a compliment.
Jim Lovell and Aldrin were selected as the backup commander and pilot respectively of Gemini 10. Backup crews usually became the prime crew of the third following mission, but in this case that was a dead end, as it would be Gemini 13 which did not exist; the last scheduled mission in the program was Gemini 12. But the February 28, 1966, deaths of the Gemini 9 prime crew, Elliot See and Charles Bassett, in an air crash, led to Lovell and Aldrin being moved up one mission on March 21 to backup for Gemini 9, which put them in position as prime crew for Gemini 12. They were officially designated its prime crew on June 17, 1966, with Gordon Cooper and Gene Cernan as their backups.
Initially, Gemini 12's mission objectives were uncertain. As the last scheduled mission, it was primarily intended to complete tasks that had not been successfully or fully carried out on earlier missions. While NASA had successfully performed rendezvous during Project Gemini, the gravity-gradient stabilization test on Gemini 11 was unsuccessful. NASA also had concerns about extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Eugene Cernan on Gemini 9 and Richard Gordon on Gemini 11 had suffered from fatigue carrying out tasks during EVA. Whereas Michael Collins had a successful EVA on Gemini 10, which suggested that the order in which he had performed his tasks was an important factor.
It therefore fell to Aldrin to complete Gemini's EVA goals. NASA formed a committee to give him a better chance of success. It dropped the test of the Air Force's astronaut maneuvering unit (AMU) test that had given Gordon trouble on Gemini 11 so Aldrin could focus on EVA. NASA revamped the training program, opting for underwater training over parabolic flight. Aircraft flying a parabolic trajectory had given astronauts an experience of weightlessness in training, but the delay between parabolae imposed a rest period. It also encouraged performing tasks quickly, whereas in space they had to be done slowly and deliberately. Training in a viscous, buoyant fluid gave a better simulation. NASA also placed additional handholds on the capsule, which were increased from 9 on Gemini 9 to 44 on Gemini 12, and created workstations that he could anchor his feet into.
Gemini 12's main objectives were to rendezvous with a target vehicle, and fly the spacecraft and target vehicle together using gravity-gradient stabilization, perform docked maneuvers using the Agena propulsion system to change orbit, conduct a tethered stationkeeping exercise and three EVAs, and demonstrate an automatic reentry. Gemini 12 also carried 14 scientific, medical, and technological experiments. It was not a trailblazing mission; rendezvous from above had already been successfully performed by Gemini 9, and the tethered vehicle exercise by Gemini 11. Even gravity-gradient stabilization had been attempted by Gemini 11, albeit unsuccessfully.
Gemini 12 was launched from Launch Complex 19 at 20:46 UTC on November 11, 1966. The Gemini Agena Target Vehicle was launched about an hour and a half before. The mission's first major objective was to rendezvous with this target vehicle. As the target and Gemini 12 capsule drew closer together, radar contact between the two deteriorated until it became unusable, forcing the crew to rendezvous manually. Aldrin used a sextant and rendezvous charts he helped create to give Lovell the right information to put the spacecraft in position to dock with the target vehicle. Gemini 12 achieved the fourth docking with an Agena target vehicle.
The next task was to practice undocking and docking again. On undocking, one of the three latches caught, and Lovell had to use the Gemini's thrusters to free the spacecraft. Aldrin then docked again successfully a few minutes later. The flight plan then called for the Agena main engine to be fired to take the docked spacecraft into a higher orbit, but eight minutes after the Agena had been launched, it had suffered a loss of chamber pressure. The Mission and Flight Directors therefore decided not to risk the main engine. This would be the only mission objective that was not achieved. Instead, the Agena's secondary propulsion system was used to allow the spacecraft to rendezvous with a total eclipse over South America on November 12, which Lovell and Aldrin photographed through the spacecraft windows.
Aldrin performed three EVAs. The first was a standup EVA on November 12, in which the spacecraft door was opened and he stood up, but did not leave the spacecraft. The standup EVA mimicked some of the actions he would do during his free-flight EVA, so he could compare the effort expended between the two. It set an EVA record of two hours and 20 minutes. The next day Aldrin performing his free-flight EVA. He climbed across the newly installed hand-holds to the Agena and installed the cable needed for the gravity-gradient stabilization experiment. Aldrin performed numerous tasks, including as installing electrical connectors and testing tools that would be needed for Project Apollo. A dozen two-minute rest periods prevented him from becoming fatigued. His second EVA concluded after two hours and six minutes. A third, 55-minute standup EVA was conducted on November 14, during which Aldrin took photographs, conducted experiments, and discarded some unneeded items.
On November 15, the crew initiated the automatic reentry system and splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean, from whence they were picked up by a helicopter which took them to the awaiting aircraft carrier USS Wasp. After the mission, his wife realized he had fallen into a depression, something she had not seen before.
Lovell and Aldrin were assigned to an Apollo crew with Neil Armstrong as Commander, Lovell as Command Module Pilot (CMP) and Aldrin as Lunar Module Pilot (LMP). Their assignment as the backup crew of Apollo 9 was officially announced on November 20, 1967. Due to design and manufacturing delays in the Lunar Module (LM), Apollo 8 and Apollo 9 swapped prime and backup crews, and Armstrong's crew became the backup for Apollo 8. Under the normal crew rotation scheme, Armstrong was then expected to command Apollo 11. Michael Collins, the CMP on the Apollo 8 prime crew, experienced trouble with his legs that doctors diagnosed as a requiring surgery. Lovell took his place on the Apollo 8 crew. When Collins recovered he joined Armstrong's crew as CMP. In the meantime, Fred Haise filled in as backup LMP, and Aldrin as backup CMP for Apollo 8. An effect of this was that while the CMP usually occupied the center couch on takeoff, Aldrin occupied it rather than Collins, as he had already been trained in it before Collins arrived. Apollo 11 was the second all-veteran multi-person crew on an American mission, the first being that of Apollo 10. An all-veteran crew would not be flown again until STS-26 in 1988.
Early versions of the EVA checklist had the Lunar Module Pilot as the first to step onto the lunar surface. However, when Aldrin learned that this might be amended, he lobbied within NASA for the original procedure to be followed. Multiple factors contributed to the final decision, including the physical positioning of the astronauts within the compact lunar lander, which made it easier for Armstrong to be the first to exit the spacecraft. Furthermore, there was little support for Aldrin's views among other senior astronauts who would command later Apollo missions, and who may have been the first to make a lunar landing had Apollo 11 failed. Collins has commented that he thought Aldrin "resents not being first on the moon more than he appreciates being second."
Aldrin and Armstrong did not have time to perform much geological training. The first lunar landing focused more on landing on the Moon and making it safely back to Earth than the scientific aspects of the mission. The duo were briefed by NASA and USGS geologists. They made one geological training expedition to west Texas. The press followed them, and a helicopter made it hard for Aldrin and Armstrong to hear their instructor.
An estimated one million spectators watched the launch of Apollo 11 from the highways and beaches vicinity of the launch site. The launch was televised live in 33 countries, with an estimated 25 million viewers in the United States alone. Millions more listened to radio broadcasts. Propelled by a giant Saturn V rocket, Apollo 11 lifted off from Launch Complex 39 at the Kennedy Space Center on July 16, 1969, at 13:32:00 UTC (9:32:00 EDT), and entered Earth orbit twelve minutes later. After one and a half orbits, the S-IVB third-stage engine pushed the spacecraft onto its trajectory toward the Moon. About 30 minutes later, the transposition, docking, and extraction maneuver was performed: this involved separating the Command Module Columbia from the spent S-IVB stage, turning around, and docking with Lunar Module Eagle. After the Lunar Module was extracted, the combined spacecraft headed for the Moon, while the rocket stage flew on a trajectory past the Moon.
On July 19 at 17:21:50 UTC, Apollo 11 passed behind the Moon and fired its service propulsion engine to enter lunar orbit. In the thirty orbits that followed, the crew saw passing views of their landing site in the southern Sea of Tranquillity about 12 miles (19 km) southwest of the crater Sabine D. At 12:52:00 UTC on July 20, Aldrin and Armstrong entered Eagle, and began the final preparations for lunar descent. At 17:44:00 Eagle separated from the Columbia. Collins, alone aboard Columbia, inspected Eagle as it pirouetted before him to ensure the craft was not damaged, and that the landing gear was correctly deployed. Throughout the descent, Aldrin called out navigation data to Armstrong, who was busy piloting the Eagle. Five minutes into the descent burn, and 6,000 feet (1,800 m) above the surface of the Moon, the LM guidance computer (LGC) distracted the crew with the first of several unexpected alarms that indicated that it could not complete all of its tasks in real time and had to postpone some of them. The Eagle landed at 20:17:40 UTC on Sunday July 20 with about 25 seconds of fuel left.
Aldrin, a Presbyterian elder, was the first person to hold a religious ceremony on the Moon. He radioed Earth: "I'd like to take this opportunity to ask every person listening in, whoever and wherever they may be, to pause for a moment and contemplate the events of the past few hours, and to give thanks in his or her own way." He took communion, but he kept it secret because of a lawsuit brought by atheist activist Madalyn Murray O'Hair over the reading of Genesis on Apollo 8. Mindful of this controversy, NASA management had warned the Apollo 11 crew against making any explicit religious comments during the flight. Aldrin used a home communion kit given to him by his pastor at Webster Presbyterian Church, Dean Woodruff. He later noted: "It was interesting to think that the very first liquid ever poured on the Moon, and the first food eaten there, were communion elements."
On reflection, Aldrin felt that "if I had it to do over again, I would not choose to celebrate communion. Although it was a deeply meaningful experience for me, it was a Christian sacrament, and we had come to the Moon in the name of all mankind – be they Christians, Jews, Muslims, animists, agnostics, or atheists. But at the time I could think of no better way to acknowledge the enormity of the Apollo 11 experience than by giving thanks to God." However, in the final Apollo 11 TV broadcast during the return journey to Earth, Aldrin quoted from Psalm 8: "I've been reflecting the events of the past several days and a verse from the Psalms comes to mind to me. 'When I consider the heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars which thou hast ordained, what is man that thou art mindful of him?'".
Preparations for the EVA began at 23:43. Once Armstrong and Aldrin were ready to go outside, Eagle was depressurized, and the hatch was opened at 02:39:33 on 21 July. Aldrin set foot on the Moon at 03:15:16 on July 21, 1969 (UTC), nine minutes after Armstrong first touched the surface. Armstrong and Aldrin became the first and second people, respectively, to walk on the Moon. This mission allowed Aldrin to maintain his record EVA duration until it was surpassed in the Apollo 14 mission. He was also the first person to urinate while on the Moon. Aldrin's first words on the Moon were "Beautiful view", to which Armstrong asked "Isn't it magnificent?". Aldrin answered, "Magnificent desolation."
Most of the iconic photographs of an astronaut on the Moon taken by the Apollo 11 astronauts are of Aldrin; Armstrong appears in just two color photographs. "As the sequence of lunar operations evolved," Aldrin explained, "Neil had the camera most of the time, and the majority of the pictures taken on the Moon that include an astronaut are of me. It wasn't until we were back on Earth and in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory looking over the pictures that we realized there were few pictures of Neil. My fault perhaps, but we had never simulated this during our training."
"We didn't spend any time worrying about who took what pictures," Armstrong recalled. "It didn't occur to me that it made any difference, as long as they were good. I don't think Buzz had any reason to take my picture, and it never occurred to me that he should. I have always said that Buzz was the far more photogenic of the crew."
Aldrin entered Eagle first. With some difficulty they lifted film and two sample boxes containing 21.55 kilograms (47.5 lb) of lunar surface material to the hatch using a flat cable pulley device. Armstrong reminded Aldrin of a bag of memorial items in his sleeve pocket, and Aldrin tossed the bag down. It contained a mission patch for the Apollo 1 flight that Ed White never flew due to his death in the fire; medallions commemorating Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space, and Vladimir Komarov, the first man to die in a space flight, and a silicon disk etched with goodwill messages from 73 nations. After transferring to LM life support, the explorers lightened the ascent stage for the return to lunar orbit by tossing out their backpacks, lunar overshoes, an empty Hasselblad camera, and other equipment. The hatch was closed again at 05:01, and they repressurized the Lunar Module and settled down to sleep.
At 17:54 UTC, they lifted off in Eagle's ascent stage to rejoin Collins aboard Columbia in lunar orbit. After rendezvous with Columbia, the ascent stage was jettisoned into lunar orbit, and Columbia made its way back to Earth. It splashed down in the Pacific 2,660 km (1,440 nmi) east of Wake Island at 16:50 UTC (05:50 local time) on July 24. The total mission duration was 195:18:35. Divers passed biological isolation garments (BIGs) to the astronauts, and assisted them into the life raft. Though the chance of bringing back pathogens from the lunar surface was considered remote, it was still a possibility. The astronauts were winched on board the recovery helicopter, and flown to the aircraft carrier USS Hornet, where they spent the Earth-based portion of 21 days of quarantine.
On August 13, the three astronauts rode in parades in their honor in New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles. An official state dinner that evening in Los Angeles celebrated the flight. President Richard Nixon honored each of them with a presentation of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. This was the beginning of a 45-day "Giant Leap" tour that brought the astronauts to 25 foreign countries and included visits with prominent leaders such as Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. On September 16, 1969, the astronauts addressed a joint session of Congress.
With the Apollo Program coming to an end, Aldrin saw few prospects at NASA, and decided to return to the Air Force. During his NASA career, he had spent 289 hours and 53 minutes in space, of which 7 hours and 52 minutes spent was in EVA. He hoped to become Commandant of Cadets at the United States Air Force Academy, but this job was given to his West Point classmate Hoyt S. Vandenberg Jr. Aldrin was assigned as Commandant of the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on July 1, 1971. Aldrin had neither managerial nor test pilot experience, but a third of the training curriculum was devoted to astronaut training, and students flew a modified F-104 Starfighter to the edge of space. Fellow Group 3 astronaut and moonwalker Alan Bean considered him well-qualified for the job.
Aldrin did not get along well with his superior, Brigadier General Robert M. White, who had earned his astronaut wings flying the X-15. Aldrin's celebrity status led to people to defer to him more than the higher-ranking general. He was hospitalized for depression. His mother committed suicide in May 1968. Aldrin feared that his fame after Gemini 12 contributed. Her father had also committed suicide, and he believes he inherited depression from them. There were two crashes at Edwards, of an A-7 Corsair II and a T-33. No lives were lost, but the aircraft were destroyed, and their loss was attributed to insufficient supervision, which placed the blame on Aldrin.
In February 1972, General George S. Brown paid a visit to Edwards and informed Aldrin that the school was being renamed the USAF Test Pilot School, and the astronaut training was being dropped. With the Apollo Program winding down, and Air Force budgets being cut, the Air Force's interest in space diminished. Aldrin elected to retire on March 1, 1972, after 21 years of service. His father and father's close friend General Jimmy Doolittle attended the formal retirement ceremony.
Bart Sibrel incident
On September 9, 2002, Aldrin was lured to a Beverly Hills hotel on the pretext of being interviewed for a Japanese children's television show on the subject of space. When he arrived, Moon landing conspiracy theorist Bart Sibrel accosted him with a film crew and demanded he swear on a Bible that the Moon landings were not faked. After a brief confrontation, during which Sibrel followed Aldrin despite being told to leave him alone, and called him "thief, liar and coward", the 72-year-old Aldrin punched Sibrel in the jaw, which was caught on camera by Sibrel's film crew. Aldrin stated that he had acted to defend himself and his stepdaughter. Witnesses stated that Sibrel had aggressively poked Aldrin with a Bible. Additional mitigating factors were that Sibrel sustained no visible injury and did not seek medical attention, and that Aldrin had no criminal record; the police declined to press charges against Aldrin.
Detached adapter panel sighting
In 2005, while being interviewed for a documentary titled First on the Moon: The Untold Story, Aldrin told an interviewer that they saw an unidentified flying object. He told David Morrison, a NASA Astrobiology Institute senior scientist, in 2006 that the documentary makers omitted the crew's conclusion that they probably saw one of the four detached spacecraft adapter panels. Their S-IVB upper stage was 6,000 miles (9,700 km) away, but the four panels had been jettisoned before the separation maneuver so they would closely follow the Apollo 11 spacecraft until the first mid-course correction. When Aldrin appeared on The Howard Stern Show on August 15, 2007, Stern asked him about the supposed UFO sighting. Aldrin confirmed that there was no such sighting of anything deemed extraterrestrial and said they were, and are, "99.9 percent" sure that the object was the detached panel. In an interview with the Science Channel, Aldrin mentioned seeing unidentified objects, but according to Aldrin his words had been taken out of context. He made a request to the Science Channel to clarify to viewers that he did not see alien spacecraft but was refused.
In December 2016, Aldrin was part of a tourist group visiting the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica when he fell ill and was evacuated, first to McMurdo Station and from there to Christchurch, New Zealand. At 86 years of age, Aldrin's visit made him the oldest person to ever reach the South Pole. He had previously traveled to the North Pole in 1998.
Mission to Mars advocacy
After leaving NASA, Aldrin continued to advocate for space exploration. In 1985 he joined the University of North Dakota (UND)'s College of Aerospace Sciences (now the John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences) at the invitation of John D. Odegard, the dean of the college at time. Aldrin helped to develop UND's Space Studies program and brought Dr. David Webb from NASA to serve as the department's first chair. Later, he produced a computer strategy game called Buzz Aldrin's Race Into Space (1993). To further promote space exploration, and to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the first lunar landing, Aldrin teamed up with Snoop Dogg, Quincy Jones, Talib Kweli, and Soulja Boy to create the rap single and video, "Rocket Experience", with proceeds from video and song sales to benefit Aldrin's non-profit foundation, ShareSpace.
In 1985, Aldrin proposed a special spacecraft trajectory now known as the Aldrin cycler. His proposed system of cycling spacecraft makes travel to Mars possible using less propellants, with an expected five and a half month journey from the Earth to Mars, and a return trip to Earth of about the same duration on a twin-cycler. Aldrin continues to research this concept with engineers from Purdue University.
Criticism of NASA's 2003 return-to-Moon objectives
In December 2003, Aldrin published an opinion piece in The New York Times criticizing NASA's objectives. In it, he voiced concern about NASA's development of a spacecraft "limited to transporting four astronauts at a time with little or no cargo carrying capability" and declared the goal of sending astronauts back to the Moon was "more like reaching for past glory than striving for new triumphs".
Support of a manned mission to Mars
He referred to the Phobos monolith in a July 22, 2009, interview with C-SPAN: "We should go boldly where man has not gone before. Fly by the comets, visit asteroids, visit the moon of Mars. There's a monolith there. A very unusual structure on this potato shaped object that goes around Mars once in seven hours. When people find out about that they're going to say 'Who put that there? Who put that there?' The universe put it there. If you choose, God put it there."
In June 2013 opinion piece in The New York Times, Aldrin supported a manned mission to Mars and which viewed the Moon "not as a destination but more a point of departure, one that places humankind on a trajectory to homestead Mars and become a two-planet species." In August 2015, Aldrin, in association with the Florida Institute of Technology, presented a master plan to NASA for consideration where astronauts, with a tour of duty of ten years, establish a colony on Mars before the year 2040.
Awards and honors
Aldrin was awarded the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal in 1969 for his role as lunar module pilot on Apollo 11. He was awarded an oak leaf cluster in 1972 in lieu of a second Distinguished Service Medal for his role in both the Korean War and in the space program, and the Legion of Merit for his role in the Gemini and Apollo programs. During a 1966 ceremony marking the end of the Gemini program, Aldrin was awarded the NASA Exceptional Service Medal by President Johnson at LBJ Ranch. He was awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal in 1970 for the Apollo 11 mission. Aldrin was an inductee of the International Space Hall of Fame (1982), U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 1993, the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 2000, and the New Jersey Hall of Fame in 2008.
In 1999, while celebrating the 30th anniversary of the lunar landing, Vice President Al Gore, who was also the vice chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution's Board of Regents, presented the Apollo 11 crew with the Smithsonian Institution's Langley Gold Medal for aviation. After the ceremony, the crew went to the White House and presented President Bill Clinton with an encased Moon rock. The Apollo 11 crew was awarded the New Frontier Congressional Gold Medal in the Capitol Rotunda in 2011. During the ceremony, NASA administrator Charles Bolden said, "Those of us who have had the privilege to fly in space followed the trail they forged."
The Apollo 11 crew were awarded the Collier Trophy in 1969. The National Aeronautic Association president awarded a duplicate trophy to Collins and Aldrin at a ceremony. The National Space Club named the crew the winners of the 1970 Dr. Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy, awarded annually for the greatest achievement in spaceflight. They received the international Harmon Trophy for aviators in 1970, conferred to them by Vice President Spiro Agnew in 1971. Agnew also presented them the Hubbard Medal of the National Geographic Society in 1970. He told them, "You've won a place alongside Christopher Columbus in American history". In 1970, the Apollo 11 team were co-winners of the Iven C. Kincheloe award from the Society of Experimental Test Pilots along with Darryl Greenamyer who broke the world speed record for piston engine airplanes For contributions to the television industry, they were honored with round plaques on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
In 2001, President George W. Bush appointed Aldrin to the Commission on the Future of the United States Aerospace Industry. Aldrin received the 2003 Humanitarian Award from Variety, the Children's Charity, which, according to the organization, "is given to an individual who has shown unusual understanding, empathy, and devotion to mankind." In 2006, the Space Foundation awarded him its highest honor, the General James E. Hill Lifetime Space Achievement Award.
Aldrin received honorary degrees from six colleges and universities, and was named as the Chancellor of the International Space University in 2015. He was a member of the National Space Society's Board of Governors, and has served as the organization's chairman. In 2016, his hometown middle school in Montclair, New Jersey was renamed Buzz Aldrin Middle School. The Aldrin crater on the Moon near the Apollo 11 landing site and Asteroid 6470 Aldrin are named in his honor.
Aldrin has been married three times. His first marriage was in 1954 to Joan Archer, a Rutgers University and Columbia University alumna, and mother to his three children, James, Janice and Andrew. It ended in divorce in 1974. His second marriage was to Beverly Van Zile, whom he married in 1975 and divorced in 1978. His third to Lois Driggs Cannon, whom he married in 1988. Their divorce was finalized on December 28, 2012. The settlement included 50% of their $475,000 bank account, and $9,500 a month plus 30% of his annual income, estimated at more than $600,000. He has one grandson, Jeffrey Schuss, born to his daughter, Janice, and three great-grandsons. In 2018 Aldrin was involved in a legal dispute with his children Andrew and Janice and former business manager Christina Korp over their claims that he was mentally impaired through dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
Aldrin is an active supporter of the Republican Party, headlining fundraisers for its members of Congress, and endorsing its candidates. He appeared at a rally for George W. Bush in 2004, and campaigned for Nick Lampson in Texas in 2006, Paul Rancatore in Florida in 2008, Mark Treadwell in Alaska in 2014, and Dan Crenshaw in Texas in 2018. Following the 2012 death of his Apollo 11 colleague, Neil Armstrong, Aldrin said that he was "deeply saddened by the passing. I know I am joined by millions of others in mourning the passing of a true American hero and the best pilot I ever knew. I had truly hoped that on July 20th, 2019, Neil, Mike and I would be standing together to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of our moon landing.... Regrettably, this is not to be."
In 2007, he confirmed to Time magazine that he had recently had a face-lift, joking that the g-forces he was exposed to in space "caused a sagging jowl that needed some attention." He primarily resided in the Los Angeles area, including Beverly Hill and Laguna Beach and Emerald Bay. Following his third divorce, he sold his Westwood condominium. As of 2018[update], he was living in Satellite Beach, Florida.
Film and television
|1976||The Boy in the Plastic Bubble||Himself||TV movie |
|1989||After Dark||Himself||Extended appearance on British discussion program, with among others Heinz Wolff, Jocelyn Bell Burnell and Whitley Strieber|
|1994||The Simpsons||Himself (voice)||Episode: "Deep Space Homer". Aldrin accompanies Homer Simpson on a trip into space as part of NASA's plan to improve its public appearance|
|1997||Space Ghost Coast to Coast||Himself||Episodes: "Brilliant Number One" and "Brilliant Number Two"|
|1999||Disney's Recess||Himself (voice)||Episode: "Space Cadet"|
|2003||Da Ali G Show||Himself||2 episodes|
|2006||Numb3rs||Himself||Episode: "Killer Chat"|
|2007||In the Shadow of the Moon||Himself||Documentary|
|2008||Fly Me to the Moon||Himself|||
|2010||30 Rock||Himself||Episode: "The Moms"|
|2010||Dancing with the Stars||Himself/contestant||2nd eliminated in season 10|
|2011||Transformers: Dark of the Moon||Himself||Aldrin explains to Optimus Prime and the Autobots that Apollo 11's top secret mission was to investigate a Cybertronian ship on the Moon whose existence was concealed from the public.|
|2011||Futurama||Himself (voice)||Episode: "Cold Warriors"|
|2012||The Big Bang Theory||Himself||Episode: "The Holographic Excitation"|
|2012||Mass Effect 3||The Stargazer (voice)||Aldrin played a stargazer who appears in the video game's final scene|
|2015||Jorden runt på 6 steg||Himself||Successfully tested six degrees of separation|
|2016||The Late Show with Stephen Colbert||Himself||Was interviewed and took part in a skit|
|2016||Hell's Kitchen||Himself||Dining room guest and had his dinner cooked by the blue team due to their team challenge win|
|2017||Miles from Tomorrowland||Commander Copernicus (voice)||Guest stars in an episode|
Portrayed by others
Aldrin has been portrayed by:
- Cliff Robertson in Return to Earth (1976)
- Larry Williams in Apollo 13 (1995)
- Xander Berkeley in Apollo 11 (1996). He was also a technical advisor for the film.
- Bryan Cranston in From the Earth to the Moon (1998) and Magnificent Desolation: Walking on the Moon 3D (2005)
- James Marsters in Moonshot (2009)
- Cory Tucker as a younger Buzz Aldrin of 1969 in Transformers: Dark of the Moon (2011)
- Corey Stoll in First Man (2018)
- The name of the Toy Story character Buzz Lightyear was inspired by Buzz Aldrin. Aldrin acknowledged the tribute when he pulled a Buzz Lightyear doll out during a speech at NASA, a clip of which can be found on the Toy Story 10th Anniversary DVD.
- Aldrin, Edwin E. Jr. 1970. Footsteps on the Moon. Edison Electric Institute Bulletin. Vol. 38, No. 7, pp. 266–272.
- Armstrong, Neil; Michael Collins; Edwin E. Aldrin; Gene Farmer; and Dora Jane Hamblin. 1970. First on the Moon: A Voyage with Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. Boston: Little, Brown.
- Aldrin, Buzz and Wayne Warga. 1973. Return to Earth. New York, Random House.
- Aldrin, Buzz and Malcolm McConnell. 1989. Men from Earth. New York: Bantam Books.
- Aldrin, Buzz and John Barnes. 1996. Encounter with Tiber. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
- Aldrin, Buzz and John Barnes. 2000. The Return. New York: Forge.
- Aldrin, Buzz and Wendell Minor. 2005. Reaching for the Moon. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
- Aldrin, Buzz and Ken Abraham. 2009. Magnificent Desolation: The Long Journey Home from the Moon. New York: Harmony Books.
- Aldrin, Buzz and Wendell Minor. 2009. Look to the Stars. Camberwell, Vic.: Puffin Books.
- Aldrin, Buzz. 2013. Mission to Mars. Washington, D.C.: The National Geographic Society.
- Aldrin, Buzz and Marianne Dyson. 2015. Welcome to Mars: Making a Home on the Red Planet. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Children's Books.
- Aldrin, Buzz and Ken Abraham. 2016. No Dream Is Too High: Life Lessons From a Man Who Walked on the Moon. National Geographic.
- "To the Moon and beyond". The Record (Bergen County). July 20, 2009. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved July 20, 2009.
- Hansen 2005, p. 348.
- "About Buzz Aldrin". buzzaldrin.com. Archived from the original on April 2, 2008. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
- Solomon, Deborah; Oth, Christian (June 21, 2009). "Questions for Buzz Aldrin: The Man on the Moon". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- Grier, Peter (September 2016). "Buzz" (PDF). Air Force Magazine. pp. 87–92. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
- Hansen 2005, p. 349.
- Engineer, Cyrus (June 26, 2018). "How old is Buzz Aldrin, what's his net worth, what has he said about aliens and UFOs and when did he walk on the moon?". The Sun. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
- Chaikin 2007, p. 585.
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- "Buzz Aldrin... Scholar". Courier-Post. Camden, New Jersey. August 1, 1969. p. 46.
- Garda, Andrew (July 1, 2018). "Montclair 150: Dozens of Greats Who Have Played Sports in Montclair". Montchalir Local News. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
- Hansen 2005, p. 351.
- "Buzz Aldrin to Speak at Severn School". Severn School. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
- Redd, Nola Taylor (June 23, 2012). "Buzz Aldrin & Apollo 11". Space.com. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
- Cullum 1960, p. 588.
- A 1949 agreement allowed up to 25 percent of the graduating classes of West Point and Annapolis to volunteer for the Air Force. Between 1950, when the agreement became effective, and 1959, when the first class graduated from the United States Air Force Academy, about 3,200 West Point cadets and Annapolis midshipmen chose to do so. Mitchell 1996, pp. 60–61
- Aldrin & Abraham 2009, pp. 90–91.
- "Communist Pilot is Catapulted from Crippled MIG". Life. Vol. 34 no. 23. June 8, 1953. p. 29. ISSN 0024-3019. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- AldrinAbraham 2009, pp. 91–93.
- "2000 Distinguished Graduate Award". West Point Association of Graduates. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
- "Astronaut Bio: Buzz Aldrin". NASA. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
- Hansen 2005, p. 354.
- Hansen 2005, p. 353.
- Chaikin 2007, p. 139.
- Aldrin, Buzz (1963). Line-of-sight guidance techniques for manned orbital rendezvous (Sc.D.). MIT. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015.
- Burgess 2013, p. 285.
- Burgess 2013, p. 203.
- Burgess 2013, p. 199.
- "14 New Astronauts Introduced at Press Conference" (PDF). NASA. October 30, 1963. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
- Chaikin 2007, p. 143.
- Bostick, Jerry C. (February 23, 2000). "Jerry C. Bostick Oral History" (Interview). Interviewed by Carol Butler. NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Roger Ressmeyer (July 15, 1999). "Buzz Aldrin plans the next giant leap". NBC News. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Cunningham 2010, p. 56.
- Hansen 2005, p. 357.
- Hacker & Grimwood 1974, pp. 323–325.
- Chaikin 2007, p. 51.
- Hacker & Grimwood 1974, p. 354.
- Hacker & Grimwood 1974, pp. 370–371.
- Reichl 2013, pp. 137–138.
- Hacker & Grimwood 1974, pp. 372–373.
- "Gemini 12". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
- Chaikin 2007, p. 140.
- Hacker & Grimwood 1974, pp. 375–376.
- Reichl 2013, pp. 141–142.
- Reichl 2013, p. 142.
- Brooks, Grimwood & Swenson 1979, p. 374.
- Hansen 2005, pp. 312–313.
- Collins 2001, pp. 288–289.
- Cunningham 2010, p. 109.
- Collins 2001, p. 359.
- Orloff 2000, p. 90.
- Orloff 2000, p. 72.
- Chaikin 2007, p. 148.
- Collins 2001, p. 60.
- Chaikin 2007, p. 179.
- Bilstein 1980, pp. 369–370.
- Benson & Faherty 1978, p. 474.
- Loff, Sarah (December 21, 2017). "Apollo 11 Mission Overview". NASA.
- Orloff 2000, pp. 102–110.
- "Apollo-11 (27)". Historical Archive for Manned Missions. NASA. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- "Apollo 11 Lunar Landing Mission" (PDF) (Press kit). Washington, D.C.: NASA. July 6, 1969. Release No: 69-83K. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- Manned Spacecraft Center 1969, p. 9.
- Collins & Aldrin 1975, p. 209.
- Mindell 2008, p. 226.
- Collins & Aldrin 1975, pp. 210–212.
- Jones, Eric M., ed. (1995). "The First Lunar Landing". Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal. NASA. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- "James May speaks to Charles Duke". BBC Archives. 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2009.
- Chaikin 2007, p. 204.
- Farmer & Hamblin 1970, p. 251.
- Hillner, Jennifer (January 24, 2007). "Sundance 2007: Buzz Aldrin Speaks". Table of Malcontents – Wired Blogs. Retrieved May 7, 2007.
- Cresswell, Matthew (September 13, 2012). "How Buzz Aldrin's communion on the moon was hushed up". The Guardian.
- Aldrin & Abraham 2009, p. 27.
- Curry, Matt (September 19, 2007). "Aldrin note up for auction". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
- Psalm 8:3–4
- Cortright 1975, p. 215.
- Diaz, Jesus (July 20, 2011). "Buzz Aldrin Was the First Man to Pee on the Moon – 42 Years Ago Today". Gizmodo. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
- Minard, Anne (July 16, 2009). "Buzz Aldrin, First Man (to Pee) on the Moon, Sounds Off". National Geographic News. Archived from the original on July 24, 2018. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
- Graham, Jane (November 20, 2018). "Letter to my younger self – Buzz Aldrin". Big Issue. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
- Teague, Kipp, ed. (July 21, 1969). Apollo 11 – Buzz Aldrin Descends Ladder to Lunar Surface (MPEG-1). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved December 22, 2013. Lay summary – Apollo 11 Video Library (September 6, 2011).
Beautiful view. Magnificent desolation.
- Rosen, Rebecca J. (August 27, 2012). "The Missing Man: There Are No Good Pictures of Neil Armstrong on the Moon". The Atlantic. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- Jones, Eric M.; Glover, Ken, eds. (1995). "First Steps". Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal. NASA. Retrieved September 23, 2006.
- Aldrin & Abraham 2009, p. 41.
- Jones, Eric M., ed. (1995). "Trying to Rest". Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal. NASA. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- Williams, David R. "Apollo Tables". NASA. Archived from the original on October 1, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2006.
- Woods, W. David; MacTaggart, Kenneth D.; O'Brien, Frank (eds.). "Day 9: Re-entry and Splashdown". Apollo 11 Flight Journal. NASA. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- Orloff 2000, p. 98.
- Manned Spacecraft Center 1969, pp. 164–167.
- Carmichael 2010, pp. 199–200.
- Taylor, Alan (July 15, 2014). "The Year Men Walked on the Moon". The Atlantic. Retrieved October 24, 2017.
- "Richard Nixon: Remarks at a Dinner in Los Angeles Honoring the Apollo 11 Astronauts". The American Presidency Project. August 13, 1969. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
- Wilson, Bill (July 23, 1969). "Families Wait for Moon Men". The Australian Women's Weekly. Vol. 37 no. 8. Sydney. pp. 2–4. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
- "Lunar Missions: Apollo 11". Lunar Hall of Fame. 2008. Archived from the original on October 24, 2008. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- "The Apollo 11 Crew Members Appear Before a Joint Meeting of Congress". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
- Aldrin & Abraham 2009, pp. 81–87.
- Aldrin & Abraham 2009, pp. 88–89.
- Aldrin & Abraham 2009, pp. 120–121.
- Aldrin & Abraham 2009, pp. 113–114.
- Chaikin 2007, p. 570.
- Solomon, Deborah (June 15, 2009). "The Man on the Moon". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
- Aldrin & Abraham 2009, pp. 116–120.
- Seida, Jim (August 12, 2014). "Robin Williams' Death Reminds Buzz Aldrin of His Own Struggle". NBC News. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
- "After walking on moon, astronauts trod various paths". CNN. July 17, 2009. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- Read, Kimberly (January 4, 2005). "Buzz Aldrin". Bipolar. About. Archived from the original on 28 September 2008. Retrieved November 2, 2008.
- Bancroft, Colette (September 29, 2002). "Lunar Lunacy". Tampa Bay Times. St. Petersburg, Florida. p. 1F – via Newspapers.com.
- "Ex-astronaut escapes assault charge". BBC News. September 21, 2002. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- "Buzz Aldrin Punches a Jerk in the Face for Calling Him a Liar". The Week. July 21, 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
- Price, Wayne T. (April 2, 2017). "Buzz Aldrin flies with the Thunderbirds". Florida Today. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- "Apollo 11 Mission Op Report" (PDF). NASA. June 24, 1969.
- Horton, Alex (April 10, 2018). "No, Buzz Aldrin didn't see a UFO on his way to the moon". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
- Morrison, David (July 26, 2006). "NASA Ask an Astrobiologist". NASA. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011.
- "Astronaut Buzz Aldrin Recounts Apollo 11 UFO Encounter". ufoevidence.org. July 18, 1969. Archived from the original on January 31, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Morrison, David (2009). "UFOs and Aliens in Space". Skeptical Inquirer. 33 (1): 30–31. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- McCann, Erin (December 1, 2016). "Buzz Aldrin Is Evacuated From the South Pole After Falling Ill". The New York Times. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
- Wang, Amy B (December 6, 2016). "Buzz Aldrin being treated by a doctor named David Bowie (yes) after South Pole evacuation". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 6, 2016.
- Holley, Peter (December 14, 2016). "Buzz Aldrin nearly died at the South Pole. Why he insists 'it was worth it, really.'". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
- Rice, Daniel R (1992). The Clifford Years: The University of North Dakota, 1971–1992. p. 46.
- "Buzz Aldrin and Snoop Dogg reach for the stars with Rocket Experience". The Times. June 25, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- Aldrin, E. E., "Cyclic Trajectory Concepts," SAIC presentation to the Interplanetary Rapid Transit Study Meeting, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, October 1985.
- Byrnes, D. V.; Longuski, J. M.; and Aldrin, B. (1993). "Cycler Orbit Between Earth and Mars" (PDF). Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. 30 (3): 334–36. Bibcode:1993JSpRo..30..334B. doi:10.2514/3.25519. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- "Aldrin Mars Cycler". buzzaldrin.com. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
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- "Buzz Aldrin Reveals Existence of Monolith on Mars Moon". C-SPAN. July 22, 2009. Retrieved August 18, 2018 – via YouTube.
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- Gawdiak & Fedor 1994, p. 398.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Buzz Aldrin.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Buzz Aldrin|
- Official website
- "Satellite of solitude" by Buzz Aldrin: an article in which Aldrin describes what it was like to walk on the Moon, Cosmos science magazine
- Buzz Aldrin on IMDb
- Appearances on C-SPAN
| Oldest Moonwalker
Oldest Living Moonwalker
July 21, 1969 – February 5, 1971
| Oldest Living Moonwalker
July 21, 1998 – present