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List of spaceflight records

The first space rendezvous was accomplished by Gemini 6A and Gemini 7 in 1965.

This is a list of spaceflight records. Most of these records relate to human spaceflights, but some unmanned and animal records are listed as well.

Contents

First independent sub-orbital and orbital human spaceflight by countryEdit

Country Mission Crew Spacecraft Launch vehicle Date Type
  USSR[1] Vostok 1[1] Yuri Gagarin[1] Vostok 3KA[1] Vostok-K[1] 12 April 1961[1] Orbital[1]
  USA[2] Mercury-Redstone 3 (Freedom 7)[2] Alan Shepard[2] Mercury Spacecraft No.7[2] Mercury-Redstone[2] 5 May 1961[2] Sub-orbital[2]
  USA[3] Mercury-Atlas 6 (Friendship 7)[3] John Glenn[3] Mercury Spacecraft No.13[3] Atlas LV-3B 20 February 1962[3] Orbital[3]
  China[4] Shenzhou 5[4] Yang Liwei[4] Shenzhou spacecraft[4] Long March 2F[4] 15 October 2003[4] Orbital[4]

Most spaceflightsEdit

Duration of spaceflightEdit

Most time in spaceEdit

Gennady Padalka, who has spent 879 days in space over 5 missions, became the man who spent the most time in space when he surpassed, on 28 June 2015, the record of Sergei Krikalev who spent 803 days, 9 hours and 39 minutes, or 2.2 years in space over the span of six spaceflights on Soyuz, the Space Shuttle, Mir, and the International Space Station. Currently, second is Yuri Malenchenko who spent 828 days in space on six spaceflights.[7][8][9][10]

Ten longest human space flightsEdit

# Time in space Crew Country Launch date (Launch craft) Landing date (Landing craft) Space station or mission type
1 437.7 days[11][12] Valeri Polyakov[11]   Russia 1994-01-08 (Soyuz TM-18) 1995-03-22 (Soyuz TM-20) Mir[11]
2 379.6 days[12] Sergei Avdeyev[12]   Russia 1998-08-13 (Soyuz TM-28) 1999-08-28 (Soyuz TM-29) Mir[12]
3 365.0 days[12]   Soviet Union 1987-12-21 (Soyuz TM-4) 1988-12-21 (Soyuz TM-6) Mir[12]
4 340.4 days 2015-03-27 (Soyuz TMA-16M) 2016-03-01 (Soyuz TMA-18M) International Space Station,
ISS year long mission
5 326.5 days[13] Yury Romanenko[13]   Soviet Union 1987-02-05 (Soyuz TM-2) 1987-12-29 (Soyuz TM-3) Mir[13]
6 311.8 days[14] Sergei Krikalev[14]   Soviet Union/  Russia 1991-05-18 (Soyuz TM-12) 1992-03-25 (Soyuz TM-13) Mir[14]
7 289.2 days[15] Peggy Whitson[15]   United States 2016-11-17 (Soyuz MS-03) 2017-09-03 (Soyuz MS-04) International Space Station[15]
8 240.9 days[16] Valeri Polyakov[16]   Soviet Union 1988-08-29 (Soyuz TM-6) 1989-04-7 (Soyuz TM-7) Mir[16]
9 237.0 days[17]   Soviet Union 1984-02-08 (Soyuz T-10) 1984-10-02 (Soyuz T-11) Salyut 7[17]
10 215.4 days[18] 2006-09-18 (Soyuz TMA-9) 2007-04-21 (Soyuz TMA-9) International Space Station[18]

Longest single flight by a womanEdit

Peggy Whitson, NASA Astronaut, holds the record for the longest single spaceflight by a woman when she surpassed Italian astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti's 199 days, 16 hours during Expedition 52 in 2017. She returned to Earth in September 2017, having spent 289 days, 5 hours and 1 minute in space.[19][20] Third is American astronaut Sunita Williams with 195 days[21][22] on the ISS where she was a member of Expedition 14/Expedition 15 (2006–2007).

Longest continuous occupation of spaceEdit

An international partnership consisting of Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan and the member states of the European Space Agency have jointly maintained a continuous human presence in space since 31 October 2000 when Soyuz TM-31 was launched. Two days later it docked with the International Space Station.[5][23] Since then space has been continuously occupied for 17 years, 177 days.[5]

Longest continuous occupation of a spacecraftEdit

The International Space Station has been continuously occupied since 2 November 2000 (17 years, 175 days).[5][23] It broke the record of 9 years 358 days of the Soviet/Russian Space Station Mir on 23 October 2010.[23]

Longest solo flightEdit

Valery Bykovsky flew for 4 days and 23 hours solo in Vostok 5, 14–19 June 1963.[24] The flight set a space endurance record which was broken in 1965 by the (non-solo) Gemini 5 flight. The Apollo program included long solo spaceflight, and during the Apollo 16 mission, T.K. Mattingly orbited solo around the Moon for more than 3 days and 9 hours.

Longest time on lunar surfaceEdit

Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt of the Apollo 17 mission stayed for 74 hours 59 minutes 40 seconds (over 3 days) on the lunar surface after they landed on 11 December 1972.[25] They performed three EVAs (extra-vehicular activity) totaling 22 hours 3 minutes, 57 seconds (as commanders were always the first one out of the LM and the last to get back in, Cernan's EVA time was slightly longer).[25]

Longest time in lunar orbitEdit

Ronald Evans of Apollo 17 mission stayed in lunar orbit for 6 days and 4 hours (148 hours),[26] however for the solo portion of that flight around the Moon, T.K. Mattingly on Apollo 16 spent 1 hour 38 minutes longer than Evans' solo duration.

Animal recordsEdit

First animals in spaceEdit

Fruit flies launched by the United States in 1947 aboard a V-2 rocket to an altitude of 68 miles (108 km).[27] Also the first animals to safely return from space.[27]

First animal in orbitEdit

Laika was a Soviet female canine launched on 3 November 1957 on Sputnik 2. The technology to deorbit had not yet been developed, so there was no expectation for survival. She died several hours into flight. Belka and Strelka were the first to successfully return to Earth from orbit on 19 August 1960.

Longest canine single flightEdit

Veterok (Ветерок, "Light Wind") and Ugolyok (Уголёк, "Ember") were launched on 22 February 1966 on board Cosmos 110 and spent 22 days in orbit before landing on 16 March.

First animals beyond low–Earth orbitEdit

An assortment of animals including a pair of Russian tortoises, as well as wine flies and mealworms launched with a number of other biological specimens including seeds and bacteria on a circumlunar mission aboard the Zond 5 spacecraft.[27] It was launched by a Proton-K rocket on 15 September 1968.[27] The capsule came within 2000 km of the moon and returned to Earth, the first spacecraft in history to return safely to Earth from the moon.[27]

Speed and altitudeEdit

Farthest humans from EarthEdit

Apollo 13 crew; Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, Jack Swigert while passing over the far side of the moon at an altitude of 254 km (158 mi) from the lunar surface, were 400,171 km (248,655 mi) from Earth.[28] This record breaking distance was reached at 0:21 UTC on 15 April 1970.[28]

Highest altitude for manned non-lunar missionEdit

Gemini 11 crew Charles Conrad, Jr and Richard F. Gordon, Jr. fired their Agena Target Vehicle rocket engine on 14 September 1966, at 40 hours 30 minutes after liftoff and achieved a record apogee altitude of 739.2 nautical miles (1,369.0 km).[29]

FastestEdit

The Apollo 10 crew; Thomas Stafford, John W. Young and Eugene Cernan achieved the highest speed relative to Earth ever attained by humans; 39,897 km/h (11.082 km/s, 24,791 mph, approximately 32 times the speed of sound and approximately 0.0037 percent of the speed of light).[5] The record was set 26 May 1969.[5]

Age recordsEdit

 
John Glenn, 14 April 1998

Earliest-born to reach space (suborbital flight)Edit

Joe Walker born 20 February 1921, on X-15 Flight 90 on 19 July 1963.

Earliest-born to go into space (orbital flight)Edit

Youngest (age during space flight)Edit

  • Man – Gherman Titov, aged 25 years, on Vostok 2 on 6 August 1961.[5]
  • Woman – Valentina Tereshkova, aged 26 years on Vostok 6 on 16–19 June 1963.

Oldest (age during space flight)Edit

SpacewalksEdit

Most spacewalksEdit

Most spacewalks during a single missionEdit

Human spaceflight firstsEdit

First Person(s) Mission Country Date
  • Person to reach space.
  • Person in orbit.
Yuri Gagarin Vostok 1[35]   USSR 12 April 1961
  • Person to make suborbital flight
  • Person to (land) in a spacecraft after spaceflight (thus the first complete human spaceflight by FAI definitions)
  • Person to pilot a craft in space
Alan Shepard Freedom 7   USA 5 May 1961
  • Person in space for over 24 hours
  • Multiple orbits during a spaceflight
Gherman Titov Vostok 2   USSR 6 August 1961 –
7 August 1961
Person to land (splashdown) in a spacecraft after orbital flight John Glenn Friendship 7   USA 20 February 1962
  • Group flight
  • Adjacent orbits
  • Spacecraft-to-spacecraft communications
  USSR 12 August 1962 –
15 August 1962
  • Woman in space
  • Civilian in space
Valentina Tereshkova Vostok 6   USSR 16 June 1963 –
19 June 1963
Spaceflight (suborbital) by winged spacecraft Joe Walker X-15 Flight 90   USA 19 July 1963
Person to enter space twice (suborbital flights above 100 km) Joe Walker X-15 Flights 90 and 91   USA 22 August 1963
  • Three-person spaceflight, single spacecraft
  • Persons to land in a spacecraft on hard ground
  • Manned flight without pressurized spacesuits
Voskhod 1[35]   USSR 12 October 1964 –
13 October 1964
Spacewalk
Alexey Leonov Voskhod 2[35]   USSR 18 March 1965
Orbital maneuvers (change orbit) Gus Grissom, John W. Young Gemini 3[35]   USA 23 March 1965
Person to fly two orbital spaceflights Gordon Cooper   USA
  • 15 May 1963 –
    16 May 1963
  • 21 August 1965 –
    29 August 1965
Persons to spend one week in space Gemini 5   USA 21 August 1965 –
29 August 1965
  USA 15 December 1965 –
16 December 1965
Space docking
Gemini 8 and Agena[35]   USA 16 March 1966
Multiple rendezvous Gemini 10 with Agena 10 and Agena 8   USA
  • 19 July 1966
  • 20 July 1966
Spaceflight fatality (during landing) Vladimir Komarov Soyuz 1   USSR 23 April 1967 –
24 April 1967
Person to complete three spaceflights Walter Schirra   USA 22 October 1968
  • Persons to leave Low Earth orbit (LEO)
  • Persons to escape Earth's influence
  • Persons to enter lunar orbit
Apollo 8   USA 24 December 1968 –
25 December 1968
  • Space docking of two manned spacecraft
  • Dual spacewalk
  • Сrew transfer (Khrunov, Yeliseyev)
  USSR 16 January 1969
Solo flight around the Moon John Young Apollo 10   USA 22 May 1969
  • Moon landing
  • Planetary surface EVA
Apollo 11   USA 20 July 1969
Five people are in space   USSR 12 October 1969 –
13 October 1969
  • Triple spaceflight
  • Seven people in space
  USSR 13 October 1969 –
16 October 1969
Person to complete four spaceflights James A. Lovell   USA 17 April 1970
  • Person to fly two lunar flights
  • Person to complete two flights beyond low–Earth orbit
James A. Lovell   USA 11 April 1970 –
17 April 1970
  • People to spend two weeks in space
  • Night launch
Soyuz 9   USSR 1 June 1970 –
19 June 1970
People to EVA out of sight of their spacecraft Apollo 14   USA 6 February 1971
  • Docking with space station (soft dock)
  • Night landing
  USSR 22 April 1971 –
24 April 1971
Manned space station
  USSR 7 June 1971 –
29 June 1971
In-space fatalities Soyuz 11   USSR 29 June 1971
People to travel in a wheeled vehicle on a planetary body other than Earth
 
Apollo 15   USA 31 July 1971–
2 August 1971
EVA in outer space outside Low Earth orbit (trans-Earth trajectory) Al Worden Apollo 15   USA 5 August 1971
Person twice in lunar orbit (during separate lunar expeditions) John W. Young   USA 16 April 1972 –
27 April 1972
People in orbit for four weeks Skylab 2   USA 25 May 1973 –
22 June 1973
People in orbit for eight weeks Skylab 3   USA 28 July 1973 –
25 September 1973
People in orbit for 12 weeks Skylab 4   USA 16 November 1973 –
8 February 1974
  • Spaceflight aborted during liftoff (at 145 kilometers (90 mi) altitude)
  • Re-entry (emergency) with 20g acceleration
Vasily Lazarev, Oleg Makarov Soyuz 18a   USSR 5 April 1975
Crew to visit occupied space station Vladimir Dzhanibekov, Oleg Makarov Soyuz 27 visits Salyut 6 EO-1 crew   USSR 10 January 1978 –
16 January 1978
People in orbit 19 weeks
(4 months)
Vladimir Kovalyonok, Aleksandr Ivanchenkov Salyut 6 EO-2, Soyuz 29-Soyuz 31   USSR 15 June 1978 –
2 November 1978
People in orbit 26 weeks
(6 months)
Leonid Popov, Valery Ryumin Salyut 6 EO-4, Soyuz 35-Soyuz 37   USSR 9 April 1980 –
11 October 1980
Spaceflight (orbital) by winged spacecraft STS-1   USA 12 April 1981
Person to fly four different types of spacecraft John W. Young
  • Gemini
  • Apollo
  • Lunar Module
  • STS-1
  USA 12 April 1981
Person to complete five spaceflights John W. Young   USA 14 April 1981
Four-person spaceflight, single spacecraft STS-5   USA 11 November 1982 –
16 November 1982
Five-person spaceflight, single spacecraft STS-7   USA 18 June 1983 –
24 June 1983
Six-person spaceflight, single spacecraft STS-9
  •   USA
  •   West Germany
28 November 1983 –
8 December 1983
Person to complete six spaceflights John W. Young   USA 8 December 1983
Untethered spacewalk
Bruce McCandless II STS-41-B   USA 7 February 1984
Eight people in space, no docking Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10, STS-41-B
8 February 1984 –
11 February 1984
11 people in space, no docking STS-41-C, Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11
6 April 1984 –
11 April 1984
People to complete four spacewalks during the same mission Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov Salyut 7   USSR 26 April –
18 May 1984
Spacewalk by woman Svetlana Savitskaya Soyuz T-12   USSR 25 July 1984
People in orbit 33 weeks (7 months) Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov, Oleg Atkov Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11   USSR 8 February 1984 –
2 October 1984
Seven person spaceflight, single spacecraft
STS-41-G
5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Two women in space Kathryn D. Sullivan, Sally K. Ride STS-41-G   USA 5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Partial crew exchange at a space station Alexander Volkov, Vladimir Vasyutin replace Vladimir Dzhanibekov Soyuz T-14, Salyut 7   USSR 17 September 1985 –
26 September 1985
Eight person spaceflight, single spacecraft
STS-61-A
  •   USA
  •   West Germany
  •   Netherlands
30 October 1985 –
6 November 1985
Fatalities during launch STS-51-L   USA 28 January 1986
  • Space station to space station flight
  • Space station to space station return flight
  • Expedition on two space stations
Soyuz T-15 from Mir to Salyut 7 back to Mir[17]   USSR 15 March 1986 –
16 July 1986
Complete crew exchange at a space station Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov replace Yuri Romanenko, Alexander Alexandrov Soyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-3, at Mir   USSR 21 December 1987 –
29 December 1987
People in orbit 52 weeks (one year) Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov Mir EO-3, Soyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-6   USSR 21 December 1987 –
21 December 1988
12 people in space; no docking STS-35, Mir EO-7, Soyuz TM-10-Soyuz TM-11
2 December 1990 –
10 December 1990
Three women in space Millie Hughes-Fulford, Tamara E. Jernigan, M. Rhea Seddon STS-40   USA 5 June 1991 –
14 June 1991
Three-person spacewalk
STS-49   USA 13 May 1992
13 people in space; no docking STS-67, Mir, Soyuz TM-20, Soyuz TM-21
14 March 1995 –
18 March 1995
Ten people in one spacecraft; docking
STS-71, Mir, Soyuz TM-21
29 June 1995 –
4 July 1995
Space tourist Dennis Tito Soyuz TM-32/31, ISS EP-1
April 28, 2001 –
May 6, 2001
Person to complete seven trips to space Jerry L. Ross   USA 19 April 2002
Citizen of an independent African country in space Mark Shuttleworth Soyuz TM-34   South Africa 25 April 2002 -
5 May 2002
Privately funded human space flight (suborbital)
Mike Melvill SpaceShipOne flight 15P   USA 21 June 2004
13 people in one spacecraft; docking[5]
ISS, Soyuz TMA-14, Soyuz TMA-15, STS-127
17 July 2009
Four women in space at once
5 April 2010 –
20 April 2010

Total time in spaceEdit

The following is a list of the 50 space travelers with the most total time in space, as of 1 March 2018.[36] Travelers currently in space are ranked by total time in space of their completed missions only.

Color-key:

  •   Currently in space
  •   Active
  •   Retired
  •   Deceased
Rank Person Days Flights Status Nationality
1 Gennady Padalka 878.480 5 Retired   Russia
2 Yuri Malenchenko 827.389 6 Retired   Russia
3 Sergei Krikalev 803.371 6 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
4 Alexandr Kaleri 769.276 5 Active   Russia
5 Sergei Avdeyev 747.593 3 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
6 Valeriy Polyakov 678.690 2 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
7 Fyodor Yurchikhin 672.860 5 Active   Russia
8 Peggy A. Whitson 665.932 3 Active   United States
9 Anatoly Solovyev 651.117 5 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
10 Viktor Afanasyev 555.772 4 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
11 Yury Usachev 552.773 4 Retired   Russia
12 Sergey Volkov 547.931 3 Retired   Russia
13 Pavel Vinogradov 546.939 3 Active   Russia
14 Musa Manarov 541.021 2 Retired   Soviet Union (  Azerbaijan)
15 Jeffrey Williams 534.116 4 Active   United States
16 Oleg Kononenko 533.000 3 Active   Russia
17 Mikhail Tyurin 532.118 3 Active   Russia
18 Oleg Kotov 526.211 3 Retired   Russia
19 Scott Kelly 520.440 4 Retired[37]   United States
20 Mikhail Borisovich Korniyenko 516.417 2 Active   Russia
21 Alexander Viktorenko 489.066 4 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
22 Nikolai Budarin 444.060 3 Retired   Russia
23 Yuri Romanenko 430.765 3 Retired   Soviet Union
24 Alexander Volkov 391.495 3 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
25 Yuri I. Onufrienko 389.282 2 Retired   Russia
26 Vladimir G. Titov 387.036 4 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
27 Vasili Tsibliyev 381.662 2 Retired   Russia
28 Valery G. Korzun 381.653 2 Retired   Russia
29 Michael Fincke 381.633 3 Active   United States
30 Leonid Kizim 374.749 3 Deceased   Soviet Union
31 Michael Foale 373.763 6 Retired   United States /   United Kingdom[38]
32 Aleksandr Serebrov 372.954 4 Deceased   Soviet Union /   Russia
33 Valeri Ryumin 371.725 4 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
34 Donald Pettit 369.696 3 Active   United States
35 Anton Shkaplerov 365.001 2 Active   Russia
36 Vladimir Solovyov 361.952 2 Retired   Soviet Union
37 Thomas Reiter 350.239 2 Retired   Germany
38 Koichi Wakata 347.356 4 Active   Japan
39 Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Skvortsov 345.267 2 Active   Russia
40 Talgat Musabayev 341.408 3 Retired   Russia
41 Oleg Novitskiy 340.419 2 Active   Russia
42 Andrei Borisenko 337.377 2 Active   Russia
43 Maksim Surayev 334.508 2 Retired   Russia
44 Alexander Misurkin 334.468 2 Active   Russia
45 Roman Romanenko 333.459 2 Retired   Russia
46 Vladimir Lyakhov 333.324 3 Deceased   Soviet Union
47 Oleg Skripochka 331.521 2 Active   Russia
48 Aleksandr Samokutyayev 331.474 2 Retired   Russia
49 Yuri P. Gidzenko 329.950 3 Retired   Russia
50 Sunita Williams 321.719 2 Active   United States

Total human spaceflight time by countryEdit

Total Human Spaceflight statistics by nation [39] [40]
Nation Total persons Total person flights Total in orbit (@ update)* Total person days*+ % of Total person days
TOTAL 553 1253 6 51839.76 -
1
  Russia
  Soviet Union
122 268 2 27203.44
0.524760240323311
  United States 339 850 3 19695.81
0.379936298012801
39 63 - 2771.76
0.0534677564359317
  Japan 12 20 1 1316.40
0.0253936783554172
  Italy 7 12 - 765.92
0.0147747630029654
  Germany 11 15 - 658.97
0.0127116880651431
  France 10 18 - 628.92
0.0121320975253636
  Canada 9 17 - 506.14
0.0097636209990909
  Netherlands 2 3 - 210.69
0.00406426044066613
  Belgium 2 3 - 207.65
0.00400570660510527
  United Kingdom 2 2 - 193.81
0.00373860412804098
  China 11 14 - 165.35
0.00318967699013721
   Switzerland 1 4 - 42.50
0.000819874261686418
  Sweden 1 2 - 26.73
0.000515705103542997
  Spain 1 2 - 18.78
0.000362307718274772
  Israel 1 1 - 15.93
0.000307303817837139
  Ukraine 1 1 - 15.69
0.000302668808204548
  Bulgaria 2 2 - 11.80
0.000227597727334481
  South Korea 1 1 - 10.88
0.00020995521957112
  Malaysia 1 1 - 10.88
0.00020995521957112
  South Africa 1 1 - 9.89
0.000190825757850482
  Brazil 1 1 - 9.89
0.000190718589997705
  Kazakhstan 1 1 - 9.84
0.000189874643157089
  Denmark 1 1 - 9.84
0.000189874643157089
  Afghanistan 1 1 - 8.85
0.000170745181436451
  Syria 1 1 - 7.96
0.000153571533028987
  Czechoslovakia 1 1 - 7.93
0.000152928525912327
  Austria 1 1 - 7.93
0.000152874941985939
  Poland 1 1 - 7.92
0.000152740982169968
  Slovakia 1 1 - 7.91
0.000152660606280385
  India 1 1 - 7.90
0.000152446270574832
  Hungary 1 1 - 7.86
0.000151709491586992
  Cuba 1 1 - 7.86
0.000151682699623798
  Vietnam 1 1 - 7.86
0.000151669303642201
  Mongolia 1 1 - 7.86
0.000151669303642201
  Romania 1 1 - 7.86
0.000151655907660604
  Saudi Arabia 1 1 - 7.07
0.000136344300695135
  Mexico 1 1 - 6.88
0.000132673801737534
Astronauts currently in space:
  Oleg Germanovich Artemyev
  Anton Nikolayevich Shkaplerov
  Norishige Kanai
  Andrew Jay "Drew" Feustel
  Scott David "Maker" Tingle
  Richard Robert II "Ricky" Arnold
Crew Vehicles currently in space:
Soyuz MS-08
Soyuz MS-07
Table data accurate as of 2018-04-26 04:05 UTC
* includes those in orbit at time table was updated
+TOTAL person days in orbit will not match the sum of the totals for individual nations as some individuals are dual citizens (based solely on those identified as such by spacefacts.de - see table references).


Notable unmanned spaceflightsEdit

In reference to: Spacecraft Event Origin Date
Earth MW 18014 (A-4(V-2)) First rocket to reach space (suborbital flight).   Germany 20 June 1944
Earth V-2 No. 20 First living organisms (fruit flies) in space (suborbital flight) successfully recovered.   USA 20 February 1947
Earth R-1V[41] First mammals (dogs) in space (suborbital flight) successfully recovered.   USSR 22 July 1951
Earth Sputnik 1 First satellite in orbit.[35]   USSR 4 October 1957
Earth Sputnik 2 First animal in orbit, Laika the dog.   USSR 3 November 1957
Earth Vanguard 1 Oldest satellite still in orbit, in addition to its upper launch stage—expected to stay in orbit 240 years. Ceased transmission in May 1964.   USA 17 March 1958
Earth Pioneer 1 Failed to reach the moon as intended, but reached a record–setting distance of 113,800 km from Earth.   USA 11 October 1958
Earth Jupiter AM-13 First monkey in space.   USA 13 December 1958
Earth Luna 1 First spacecraft to reach Earth's escape velocity.   USSR 4 January 1959
Moon Luna 1 First flyby, dist. of 5,995 km.   USSR 4 January 1959
Sun Luna 1 First spacecraft in heliocentric orbit.   USSR 4 January 1959
Moon Luna 2 First impact.[35]   USSR 14 September 1959
Moon Luna 3 First image of lunar far-side.[35]   USSR 7 October 1959
Earth Discoverer 13 First satellite recovered from orbit.[35]   USA 11 August 1960
Earth Korabl-Sputnik 2 First living beings recovered from orbit.[42]   USSR 19 August 1960
Venus Venera 1 First flyby, dist. of 100,000 km (lost communication contact before).[35]   USSR 19 May 1961
Moon Ranger 4 First spacecraft to impact the far side of the Moon.[43]   USA 26 April 1962
Earth Alouette 1 First satellite designed and constructed by a country other than the US or USSR (the British satellite Ariel 1, launched five months earlier, was designed and constructed by the US)[44]   Canada 29 September 1962
Venus Mariner 2 First planetary flyby, dist. of 34,762 km (with communication contact).   USA 14 December 1962
Earth Lincoln Calibration Sphere 1 Oldest spacecraft still in use, 50 years as of 2015   USA 6 May 1965
Mars Mariner 4 First Mars flyby, first planetary imaging, dist. of 9,846 km.   USA 14 July 1965
Earth Astérix First satellite launched independently by a nation other than the US or USSR (other nations had previously flown satellites launched on American rockets).   France 26 November 1965
Moon Luna 9 First soft landing, first pictures from lunar surface.[35]   USSR 3 February 1966
Venus Venera 3 First impact.[35]   USSR 1 March 1966
Moon Luna 10 First orbiter.[35]   USSR 3 April 1966
Docking Cosmos 186, Cosmos 188 First automated docking of unmanned spacecraft.   USSR 30 October 1967
Moon Zond 5
  • First to circle the Moon and return to land on Earth.
  • First animals to circle the Moon.
  USSR 15 September 1968
Moon Luna 16 First automated sample return.   USSR 24 September 1970
Moon Luna 17 First automated roving vehicle – Lunokhod 1.   USSR 17 November 1970
Venus Venera 7 First soft landing.   USSR 15 December 1970
Mars Mariner 9 First orbiter.   USA 14 November 1971
Mars Mars 2 First impact.   USSR 27 November 1971
Mars Mars 3 First soft landing, telemetry signal for 20 seconds before transmissions ceased.   USSR 2 December 1971
Sun Pioneer 10 First spacecraft to reach Sun's escape velocity.   USA 3 March 1972
Jupiter Pioneer 10 First flyby, dist. of 132,000 km.   USA 4 December 1973
Mercury Mariner 10 First flyby, dist. of 703 km.   USA 29 March 1974
Venus Venera 9
  • First orbiter.
  • First surface-level imaging of another planet.
  USSR 22 October 1975
Sun Helios 2
  • Highest velocity of a spacecraft relative to the sun, 252,792 km/h.
  • Closest ever approach to the sun at a record distance of 0.29 AU (43 million km), slightly inside the orbit of Mercury. Record still unbeaten as of November 2009 but to be beaten by the future Solar Orbiter probe (0.23 AU / 33 million km).
17 April 1976
Mars Viking 1 First surface-level imaging of Mars.   USA 20 July 1976
Saturn Pioneer 11 First flyby, dist. of 21,000 km.   USA 1 September 1979
Venus Venera 13 First sound record on another planet.   USSR 1 March 1982
Trans-Neptunian region Pioneer 10 First spacecraft to travel past the orbit of Neptune, the furthest major planet from the sun.   USA 13 June 1983
Venus Vega 1 First helium balloon atmospheric probe.   USSR 11 June 1985
Comet Giacobini-Zinner International Cometary Explorer (ICE) First flyby through comet tail, dist. of 7,800 km, no pictures.   USA 11 September 1985
Uranus Voyager 2 First flyby, dist. of 81,500 km.   USA 24 January 1986
Comet Halley Vega 1 First comet flyby with pictures returned, dist. of 8,890 km.   USSR 6 March 1986
Orbital Spaceplane Buran First fully automated orbital flight of a spaceplane (with airstrip landing).   USSR 15 November 1988
Phobos Phobos 2 First flyby, dist. of 860 km.   USSR 21 February 1989
Neptune Voyager 2 First flyby, dist. of 40,000 km.   USA 25 August 1989
951 Gaspra Galileo First asteroid flyby, dist. of 1,600 km.   USA 29 October 1991
Jupiter Galileo probe First impact.   USA 7 December 1995
Jupiter Galileo First orbiter.   USA 8 December 1995
Mars Mars Pathfinder First automated roving vehicle – Sojourner.   USA 4 July 1997
433 Eros NEAR Shoemaker First asteroid orbiter.   USA 14 February 2000
433 Eros NEAR Shoemaker First asteroid soft landing.   USA 12 February 2001
Saturn Cassini orbiter First orbiter.
1 July 2004
Solar wind Genesis First sample return from farther than the Moon.   USA 8 September 2004
Titan Huygens probe First soft landing.
14 January 2005
Comet Tempel 1 Deep Impact First comet impact.   USA 4 July 2005
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa
  • First asteroid ascent.
  • First interplanetary escape without undercarriage cutoff.
  Japan 19 November 2005
81P/Wild Stardust First sample return from comet.   USA 15 January 2006
Farthest distance from Earth Voyager 1 At greatest distance from Sun, 20.479 billion km.   USA As of November 2016[45]
Longest time in operation Voyager 2 Longest operating space probe, since August 1977   USA As of 2015
Earth to Venus trajectory IKAROS First interplanetary solar sail.   Japan set sail on 10 June 2010
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa First sample return from asteroid.   Japan 13 June 2010
Mercury MESSENGER First orbiter.   USA 17 March 2011
Earth–Sun L2 Lagrangian point Chang'e 2 First object to reach the L2 Lagrangian point directly from lunar orbit.[46]   China 25 August 2011
International Space Station SpaceX Dragon First commercial spacecraft to berth with the International Space Station.   SpaceX 25 May 2012
Interstellar Medium Voyager 1 First spacecraft to cross the Heliopause, exiting the Heliosphere and entering interstellar space.   USA 25 August 2012
4179 Toutatis Chang'e 2
  • First object to reach asteroid directly from Sun-Earth Langrangian point.
  • First probe to explore both Moon and asteroid.[47]
  China 13 December 2012
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Rosetta First comet orbiter.[48]   ESA 6 August 2014
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Philae First comet soft landing.[49]   ESA 12 November 2014
Ceres Dawn First dwarf planet orbiter.[50]   USA 6 March 2015
Mars Opportunity Longest distance traveled on surface of another world – 26.219 miles (42.195 km) (marathon-length)[51]   USA 23 March 2015 (ongoing)
Mercury MESSENGER First impact.[52]   USA 30 April 2015
Pluto New Horizons First flyby of Pluto, Charon, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos, and Styx, first up-close images of Pluto system, first images of Pluto and Charon's surfaces, first spacecraft to explore the Kuiper belt.   USA 14 July 2015
All 9 planets in the pre-IAU 2006 redefinition version of the Solar System All United States spacecrafts including New Horizons With the New Horizons flyby of Pluto, the United States is the first nation to have its space probes to explore all 9 planets in the pre-2006 IAU redefinition version of the Solar System.   USA 14 July 2015
Earth Juno Fastest man-made object relative to Earth, ca. 265,000 km/h.[53]   USA 4 July 2016
Earth Falcon 9 First reflight of orbital class rocket.[54]   SpaceX 30 March 2017
Earth Launched 72 seconds apart they hold the record for the shortest period between orbital launches [55]
  •   SpaceX
  •   Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
23 December 2017

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  55. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bHGw8cD5EYw&t=4130s.  Missing or empty |title= (help)

External linksEdit