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List of spaceflight records

The first space rendezvous was accomplished by Gemini 6A and Gemini 7 in 1965

This is a list of spaceflight records. Most of these records relate to human spaceflights, but some unmanned and animal records are listed as well.

Contents

First independent suborbital and orbital human spaceflight by countryEdit

Country Mission Crew Spacecraft Launch vehicle Date Type
  USSR[1] Vostok 1[1] Yuri Gagarin[1] Vostok 3KA[1] Vostok-K[1] 12 April 1961[1] Orbital[1]
  USA[2] Mercury-Redstone 3 (Freedom 7)[2] Alan Shepard[2] Mercury Spacecraft No.7[2] Mercury-Redstone[2] 5 May 1961[2] Sub-orbital[2]
  USA[3] Mercury-Atlas 6 (Friendship 7)[3] John Glenn[3] Mercury Spacecraft No.13[3] Atlas LV-3B 20 February 1962[3] Orbital[3]
  China[4] Shenzhou 5[4] Yang Liwei[4] Shenzhou spacecraft[4] Long March 2F[4] 15 October 2003[4] Orbital[4]

Human spaceflight firstsEdit

First Person(s) Mission Country Date
  • Person to reach space
  • Person in orbit
Yuri Gagarin Vostok 1[5]   USSR 12 April 1961
  • Person to make suborbital flight
  • Person to land in a spacecraft after spaceflight (thus the first complete human spaceflight by FAI definitions)
  • Person to pilot a craft in space
Alan Shepard Freedom 7   USA 5 May 1961
  • Person in space for over 24 hours
  • Multiple orbits during a spaceflight
Gherman Titov Vostok 2   USSR 6 August 1961 –
7 August 1961
Person to land (splashdown) in a spacecraft after orbital flight John Glenn Friendship 7   USA 20 February 1962
  • Group flight
  • Adjacent orbits
  • Spacecraft-to-spacecraft communications
  USSR 12 August 1962 –
15 August 1962
  • Woman in space
  • Civilian in space
Valentina Tereshkova Vostok 6   USSR 16 June 1963 –
19 June 1963
Spaceflight (suborbital) by winged spacecraft Joe Walker X-15 Flight 90   USA 19 July 1963
Person to enter space twice (suborbital flights above 100 kilometres (62 mi)) Joe Walker X-15 Flights 90 and 91   USA 22 August 1963
  • Three-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft
  • Persons to land in a spacecraft on hard ground
  • Manned spaceflight without pressurized spacesuits
Voskhod 1[5]   USSR 12 October 1964 –
13 October 1964
Spacewalk
Alexey Leonov Voskhod 2[5]   USSR 18 March 1965
Orbital maneuvers (change orbit) Gus Grissom, John W. Young Gemini 3[5]   USA 23 March 1965
Person to fly two orbital spaceflights Gordon Cooper   USA
  • 15 May 1963 –
    16 May 1963
  • 21 August 1965 –
    29 August 1965
Persons to spend one week in space Gemini 5   USA 21 August 1965 –
29 August 1965
  • Space rendezvous (orbital maneuver and station-keeping)
  • Four people in space at the same time
  USA 15 December 1965 –
16 December 1965
Space docking
Gemini 8 and Agena[5]   USA 16 March 1966
Multiple rendezvous Gemini 10 with Agena 10 and Agena 8   USA
  • 19 July 1966
  • 20 July 1966
Spaceflight fatality (during landing) Vladimir Komarov Soyuz 1   USSR 23 April 1967 –
24 April 1967
Person to complete three spaceflights Walter Schirra   USA 22 October 1968
  • Persons to leave low Earth orbit (LEO)
  • Persons to fully escape Earth's gravity
  • Persons to enter lunar orbit
Apollo 8   USA 24 December 1968 –
25 December 1968
  • Space docking of two manned spacecraft
  • Dual spacewalk
  • Сrew transfer (Khrunov, Yeliseyev)
  USSR 16 January 1969
Solo flight around the Moon John Young Apollo 10   USA 22 May 1969
  • Moon landing
  • Planetary surface EVA
Apollo 11   USA 20 July 1969
Five people in space at the same time   USSR 12 October 1969 –
13 October 1969
  • Triple spaceflight
  • Seven people in space at the same time
  USSR 13 October 1969 –
16 October 1969
Person to complete four spaceflights James A. Lovell   USA 17 April 1970
  • Person to fly two lunar flights
  • Person to complete two flights beyond low Earth orbit
James A. Lovell   USA 11 April 1970 –
17 April 1970
  • People to spend two weeks in space
  • Night launch
Soyuz 9   USSR 1 June 1970 –
19 June 1970
People to EVA out of sight of their spacecraft Apollo 14   USA 6 February 1971
  • Docking with space station (soft dock)
  • Night landing
  USSR 22 April 1971 –
24 April 1971
Manned space station
  USSR 7 June 1971 –
29 June 1971
In-space fatalities Soyuz 11   USSR 29 June 1971
People to travel in a wheeled vehicle on a planetary body other than Earth
 
Apollo 15   USA 31 July 1971–
2 August 1971
EVA outside low Earth orbit (trans-Earth trajectory) Al Worden Apollo 15   USA 5 August 1971
Person to be in lunar orbit twice (during separate lunar expeditions) John W. Young   USA 16 April 1972 –
27 April 1972
People in orbit for four weeks Skylab 2   USA 25 May 1973 –
22 June 1973
People in orbit for eight weeks Skylab 3   USA 28 July 1973 –
25 September 1973
People in orbit for 12 weeks Skylab 4   USA 16 November 1973 –
8 February 1974
  • Spaceflight aborted during liftoff (at 145 kilometers (90 mi) altitude)
  • Re-entry with 20g acceleration (emergency)
Vasily Lazarev, Oleg Makarov Soyuz 18a   USSR 5 April 1975
Crew to visit occupied space station Vladimir Dzhanibekov, Oleg Makarov Soyuz 27 visits Salyut 6 EO-1 crew   USSR 10 January 1978 –
16 January 1978
People in orbit 19 weeks
(4 months)
Vladimir Kovalyonok, Aleksandr Ivanchenkov Salyut 6 EO-2, Soyuz 29-Soyuz 31   USSR 15 June 1978 –
2 November 1978
People in orbit 26 weeks
(6 months)
Leonid Popov, Valery Ryumin Salyut 6 EO-4, Soyuz 35-Soyuz 37   USSR 9 April 1980 –
11 October 1980
Spaceflight (orbital) by winged spacecraft STS-1   USA 12 April 1981
Person to fly four different types of spacecraft John W. Young
  • Gemini
  • Apollo
  • Lunar Module
  • STS-1
  USA 12 April 1981
Person to complete five spaceflights John W. Young   USA 14 April 1981
Four-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft STS-5   USA 11 November 1982 –
16 November 1982
Five-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft STS-7   USA 18 June 1983 –
24 June 1983
Six-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft STS-9
  •   USA
  •   West Germany
28 November 1983 –
8 December 1983
Person to complete six spaceflights John W. Young   USA 8 December 1983
Untethered spacewalk
Bruce McCandless II STS-41-B   USA 7 February 1984
Eight people in space at the same time (no docking) Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10, STS-41-B
8 February 1984 –
11 February 1984
11 people in space at the same time (no docking) STS-41-C, Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11
6 April 1984 –
11 April 1984
People to complete four spacewalks during the same mission Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov Salyut 7   USSR 26 April –
18 May 1984
Spacewalk by a woman Svetlana Savitskaya Soyuz T-12   USSR 25 July 1984
People in orbit 33 weeks (7 months) Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov, Oleg Atkov Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11   USSR 8 February 1984 –
2 October 1984
Seven-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft
STS-41-G
5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Two women in space at the same time Kathryn D. Sullivan, Sally K. Ride STS-41-G   USA 5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Partial crew exchange at a space station Alexander Volkov, Vladimir Vasyutin replace Vladimir Dzhanibekov Soyuz T-14, Salyut 7   USSR 17 September 1985 –
26 September 1985
Eight-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft
STS-61-A
  •   USA
  •   West Germany
  •   Netherlands
30 October 1985 –
6 November 1985
Fatalities during launch STS-51-L   USA 28 January 1986
  • Space station-to-space station flight
  • Space station-to-space station return flight
  • Expedition on two space stations
Soyuz T-15 from Mir to Salyut 7 back to Mir[6]   USSR 15 March 1986 –
16 July 1986
Complete crew exchange at a space station Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov replace Yuri Romanenko, Alexander Alexandrov Soyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-3, at Mir   USSR 21 December 1987 –
29 December 1987
People in orbit 52 weeks (one year) Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov Mir EO-3, Soyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-6   USSR 21 December 1987 –
21 December 1988
12 people in space at the same time (no docking) STS-35, Mir EO-7, Soyuz TM-10-Soyuz TM-11
2 December 1990 –
10 December 1990
Three women in space at the same time Millie Hughes-Fulford, Tamara E. Jernigan, M. Rhea Seddon STS-40   USA 5 June 1991 –
14 June 1991
Three-person spacewalk
STS-49   USA 13 May 1992
13 people in space at the same time (no docking) STS-67, Mir, Soyuz TM-20, Soyuz TM-21
14 March 1995 –
18 March 1995
Ten people in a single spacecraft (docking)
STS-71, Mir, Soyuz TM-21
29 June 1995 –
4 July 1995
Space tourist Dennis Tito Soyuz TM-32/31, ISS EP-1
April 28, 2001 –
May 6, 2001
Person to complete seven trips to space Jerry L. Ross   USA 19 April 2002
Privately funded human space flight (suborbital)
Mike Melvill SpaceShipOne flight 15P   USA 21 June 2004
13 people in a single spacecraft (docking)[7]
ISS, Soyuz TMA-14, Soyuz TMA-15, STS-127
17 July 2009
Four women in space at the same time
5 April 2010 –
20 April 2010
Six spacecraft docked to a space station
9 July 2018

Most spaceflightsEdit

Duration recordsEdit

Total human spaceflight time by countryEdit

Total Human Spaceflight statistics by nation [10] [11]
Nation Total persons Total person flights Total in orbit (@ update)* Total person days*+ % of Total person days
TOTAL 555 1256 6 52706.94 -
1
  Russia
  Soviet Union
123 269 2 27492.50
0.521610715789463
  United States 340 851 3 20130.87
0.38193957796654
39 64 1 2876.46
0.0545745801491766
  Japan 12 20 - 1354.76
0.0257036179692835
  Italy 7 12 - 765.92
0.0145316755536024
  Germany 11 16 1 763.67
0.014489066609239
  France 10 18 - 628.92
0.0119324895423271
  Canada 9 17 - 506.14
0.00960298128360176
  Netherlands 2 3 - 210.69
0.00399739163851545
  Belgium 2 3 - 207.65
0.00393980118236948
  United Kingdom 2 2 - 193.81
0.00367709331115133
  China 11 14 - 165.35
0.0031371976073093
   Switzerland 1 4 - 42.50
0.000806384966255302
  Sweden 1 2 - 26.73
0.000507220267730836
  Spain 1 2 - 18.78
0.000356346711719048
  Israel 1 1 - 15.93
0.000302247784028506
  Ukraine 1 1 - 15.69
0.000297689033667832
  Bulgaria 2 2 - 11.80
0.000223853088519804
  Malaysia 1 1 - 10.88
0.000206500850875273
  South Korea 1 1 - 10.88
0.000206500850875273
  South Africa 1 1 - 9.89
0.000187686123953185
  Brazil 1 1 - 9.89
0.000187580719320568
  Kazakhstan 1 1 - 9.84
0.000186750657838711
  Denmark 1 1 - 9.84
0.000186750657838711
  Afghanistan 1 1 - 8.85
0.000167935930916623
  Syria 1 1 - 7.96
0.00015104483853979
  Czechoslovakia 1 1 - 7.93
0.00015041241074409
  Austria 1 1 - 7.93
0.000150359708427781
  Poland 1 1 - 7.92
0.000150227952637011
  Slovakia 1 1 - 7.91
0.000150148899162548
  India 1 1 - 7.90
0.000149938089897315
  Hungary 1 1 - 7.86
0.000149213433048074
  Cuba 1 1 - 7.86
0.00014918708188992
  Mongolia 1 1 - 7.86
0.000149173906310843
  Vietnam 1 1 - 7.86
0.000149173906310843
  Romania 1 1 - 7.86
0.000149160730731766
  Saudi Arabia 1 1 - 7.07
0.000134101043846649
  Mexico 1 1 - 6.88
0.000130490935179526
Astronauts currently in space:
  Richard Robert II "Ricky" Arnold
  Oleg Germanovich Artemyev
  Serena Maria Auñón-Chancellor
  Sergei Valerievich Prokopyev
  Alexander Gerst
  Andrew Jay "Drew" Feustel
Crew Vehicles currently in space:
Soyuz MS-09
Soyuz MS-08
Table data accurate as of 2018-09-19 04:05 UTC
* includes those in orbit at time table was updated
+TOTAL person days in orbit will not match the sum of the totals for individual nations as some individuals are dual citizens (based solely on those identified as such by spacefacts.de - see table references).


Most time in spaceEdit

Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, who has spent 878 days in space over five missions, became the record holder for the most time spent in space when he surpassed, on 28 June 2015, the record of cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev, who spent 803 days, 9 hours and 39 minutes (about 2.2 years) in space over the span of six spaceflights on Soyuz, the Space Shuttle, Mir, and the International Space Station. Yuri Malenchenko is currently in second place, having spent 828 days in space on six spaceflights.[9][12][13][14]

The following is a list of the 50 space travelers with the most total time in space, as of 4 June 2018.[15] Travelers currently in space are ranked by total time in space of their completed missions only.

Color key:

  •   Currently in space
  •   Active
  •   Retired
  •   Deceased
Rank Person Days Flights Status Nationality
1 Gennady Padalka 878.480 5 Retired   Russia
2 Yuri Malenchenko 827.389 6 Retired   Russia
3 Sergei Krikalev 803.371 6 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
4 Alexandr Kaleri 769.276 5 Active   Russia
5 Sergei Avdeyev 747.593 3 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
6 Valeriy Polyakov 678.690 2 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
7 Fyodor Yurchikhin 672.860 5 Active   Russia
8 Peggy A. Whitson 665.932 3 Retired   United States
9 Anatoly Solovyev 651.117 5 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
10 Viktor Afanasyev 555.772 4 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
11 Yury Usachev 552.773 4 Retired   Russia
12 Sergey Volkov 547.931 3 Retired   Russia
13 Pavel Vinogradov 546.939 3 Active   Russia
14 Musa Manarov 541.021 2 Retired   Soviet Union (  Azerbaijan)
15 Jeffrey Williams 534.116 4 Retired   United States
16 Anton Shkaplerov 533.230 3 Active   Russia
17 Oleg Kononenko 533.000 3 Active   Russia
18 Mikhail Tyurin 532.118 3 Active   Russia
19 Oleg Kotov 526.211 3 Retired   Russia
20 Scott Kelly 520.440 4 Retired[16]   United States
21 Mikhail Borisovich Korniyenko 516.417 2 Active   Russia
22 Alexander Viktorenko 489.066 4 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
23 Nikolai Budarin 444.060 3 Retired   Russia
24 Yuri Romanenko 430.765 3 Retired   Soviet Union
25 Alexander Volkov 391.495 3 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
26 Yuri I. Onufrienko 389.282 2 Retired   Russia
27 Vladimir G. Titov 387.036 4 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
28 Vasili Tsibliyev 381.662 2 Retired   Russia
29 Valery G. Korzun 381.653 2 Retired   Russia
30 Michael Fincke 381.633 3 Active   United States
31 Leonid Kizim 374.749 3 Deceased   Soviet Union
32 Michael Foale 373.763 6 Retired   United States /   United Kingdom[17]
33 Aleksandr Serebrov 372.954 4 Deceased   Soviet Union /   Russia
34 Valeri Ryumin 371.725 4 Retired   Soviet Union /   Russia
35 Donald Pettit 369.696 3 Active   United States
36 Vladimir Solovyov 361.952 2 Retired   Soviet Union
37 Thomas Reiter 350.239 2 Retired   Germany
38 Koichi Wakata 347.356 4 Active   Japan
39 Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Skvortsov 345.267 2 Active   Russia
40 Talgat Musabayev 341.408 3 Retired   Russia
41 Oleg Novitskiy 340.419 2 Active   Russia
42 Andrei Borisenko 337.377 2 Active   Russia
43 Maksim Surayev 334.508 2 Retired   Russia
44 Alexander Misurkin 334.468 2 Active   Russia
45 Roman Romanenko 333.459 2 Retired   Russia
46 Vladimir Lyakhov 333.324 3 Deceased   Soviet Union
47 Oleg Skripochka 331.521 2 Active   Russia
48 Aleksandr Samokutyayev 331.474 2 Retired   Russia
49 Yuri P. Gidzenko 329.950 3 Retired   Russia
50 Sunita Williams 321.719 2 Active   United States

Ten longest human spaceflightsEdit

# Time in space Crew Country Launch date (Launch craft) Landing date (Landing craft) Space station or mission type
1 437.7 days[18][19] Valeri Polyakov[18]   Russia 1994-01-08 (Soyuz TM-18) 1995-03-22 (Soyuz TM-20) Mir[18]
2 379.6 days[19] Sergei Avdeyev[19]   Russia 1998-08-13 (Soyuz TM-28) 1999-08-28 (Soyuz TM-29) Mir[19]
3 365.0 days[19]   Soviet Union 1987-12-21 (Soyuz TM-4) 1988-12-21 (Soyuz TM-6) Mir[19]
4 340.4 days 2015-03-27 (Soyuz TMA-16M) 2016-03-01 (Soyuz TMA-18M) International Space Station,
ISS year long mission
5 326.5 days[20] Yury Romanenko[20]   Soviet Union 1987-02-05 (Soyuz TM-2) 1987-12-29 (Soyuz TM-3) Mir[20]
6 311.8 days[21] Sergei Krikalev[21]   Soviet Union/  Russia 1991-05-18 (Soyuz TM-12) 1992-03-25 (Soyuz TM-13) Mir[21]
7 289.2 days[22] Peggy Whitson[22]   United States 2016-11-17 (Soyuz MS-03) 2017-09-03 (Soyuz MS-04) International Space Station[22]
8 240.9 days[23] Valeri Polyakov[23]   Soviet Union 1988-08-29 (Soyuz TM-6) 1989-04-7 (Soyuz TM-7) Mir[23]
9 237.0 days[6]   Soviet Union 1984-02-08 (Soyuz T-10) 1984-10-02 (Soyuz T-11) Salyut 7[6]
10 215.4 days[24] 2006-09-18 (Soyuz TMA-9) 2007-04-21 (Soyuz TMA-9) International Space Station[24]

Longest single flight by a womanEdit

NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson holds the record for the longest single spaceflight by a woman when she surpassed Italian astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti's 199 days, 16 hours during Expedition 52 in 2017. She returned to Earth in September 2017, having spent 289 days, 5 hours and 1 minute in space.[25][26] In third place is American astronaut Sunita Williams with 195 days[27][28] on the ISS, where she was a member of Expedition 14/Expedition 15 (2006–2007).

Longest continuous occupation of spaceEdit

An international partnership consisting of Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan and the member states of the European Space Agency have jointly maintained a continuous human presence in space since 31 October 2000, when Soyuz TM-31 was launched. Two days later it docked with the International Space Station.[7][29] Since then space has been continuously occupied for 17 years, 323 days.[7]

Longest continuous occupation of a spacecraftEdit

The International Space Station has been continuously occupied since 2 November 2000 (17 years, 321 days).[7][29] It broke the record of 9 years and 358 days of the Soviet/Russian Space Station Mir on 23 October 2010.[29]

Longest solo flightEdit

Valery Bykovsky flew solo for 4 days, 23 hours in Vostok 5 from 14 to 19 June 1963.[30] The flight set a space endurance record which was broken in 1965 by the (non-solo) Gemini 5 flight. The Apollo program included long solo spaceflight, and during the Apollo 16 mission, T.K. Mattingly orbited solo around the Moon for more than 3 days and 9 hours.

Longest time on the lunar surfaceEdit

Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt of the Apollo 17 mission stayed for 74 hours 59 minutes and 40 seconds (over 3 days) on the lunar surface after they landed on 11 December 1972.[31] They performed three EVAs (extra-vehicular activity) totaling 22 hours 3 minutes, 57 seconds (as commanders were always the first one out of the LM and the last to get back in, Cernan's EVA time was slightly longer).[31]

Longest time in lunar orbitEdit

Ronald Evans of Apollo 17 mission stayed in lunar orbit for 6 days and 4 hours (148 hours);[32] however, for the solo portion of that flight around the Moon, T. K. Mattingly on Apollo 16 spent 1 hour 38 minutes longer than Evans' solo duration.

Speed and altitude recordsEdit

Farthest humans from EarthEdit

The Apollo 13 crew (Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, and Jack Swigert), while passing over the far side of the moon at an altitude of 254 km (158 mi) from the lunar surface, were 400,171 km (248,655 mi) from Earth.[33] This record-breaking distance was reached at 0:21 UTC on 15 April 1970.[33]

Highest altitude for manned non-lunar missionEdit

Gemini 11 crew Charles Conrad, Jr. and Richard F. Gordon, Jr. fired their Agena Target Vehicle rocket engine on 14 September 1966, at 40 hours 30 minutes after liftoff and achieved a record apogee altitude of 739.2 nautical miles (1,369.0 km).[34]

FastestEdit

The Apollo 10 crew (Thomas Stafford, John W. Young and Eugene Cernan) achieved the highest speed relative to Earth ever attained by humans: 39,897 kilometers per hour (11.082 kilometers per second or 24,791 miles per hour, approximately 32 times the speed of sound and 0.0037 percent of the speed of light).[7] The record was set 26 May 1969.[7]

Age recordsEdit

 
John Glenn, 14 April 1998

Earliest-born to reach space (suborbital flight)Edit

Joe Walker (born 20 February 1921), on X-15 Flight 90 on 19 July 1963.

Earliest-born to reach space (orbital flight)Edit

Youngest (age during spaceflight)Edit

Oldest (age during spaceflight)Edit

Spacewalk recordsEdit

Most spacewalksEdit

Most spacewalks during a single missionEdit

Animal recordsEdit

First living organisms in spaceEdit

The first living organisms of any kind to enter space were fruit flies launched by the United States in 1947 aboard a V-2 rocket to an altitude of 68 miles (109 km).[40] They were also the first animals to safely return from space.[40]

First animal in orbitEdit

Laika was a Soviet female canine launched on 3 November 1957 on Sputnik 2. The technology to de-orbit had not yet been developed, so there was no expectation for survival. She died several hours into flight. Belka and Strelka became the first canines to safely return to Earth from orbit on 19 August 1960.

Longest canine single flightEdit

Soviet space dogs Veterok (Ветерок, "Light Wind") and Ugolyok (Уголёк, "Ember") were launched on 22 February 1966 on board Cosmos 110 and spent 22 days in orbit before landing on 16 March.

First animals beyond low-Earth orbitEdit

An assortment of animals including a pair of Russian tortoises, as well as wine flies and mealworms launched with a number of other biological specimens including seeds and bacteria on a circumlunar mission aboard the Soviet Zond 5 spacecraft on 15 September 1968.[40] It was launched by a Proton-K rocket.[40] The capsule came within 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) of the Moon and later successfully returned to Earth, the first spacecraft in history to return safely to Earth from the Moon.[40]

Notable unmanned spaceflightsEdit

In reference to: Spacecraft Event Origin Date
Earth MW 18014 (A-4(V-2)) First rocket to reach space (suborbital flight).   Germany 20 June 1944
Earth V-2 No. 20 First living organisms (fruit flies) in space (suborbital flight). Successfully recovered.   USA 20 February 1947
Earth R-1V[41] First mammals (dogs) in space (suborbital flight). Successfully recovered.   USSR 22 July 1951
Earth Sputnik 1 First satellite in orbit.[5]   USSR 4 October 1957
Earth Sputnik 2 First animal in orbit, Laika the dog.   USSR 3 November 1957
Earth Vanguard 1 Oldest satellite still in orbit, in addition to its upper launch stage. Expected to stay in orbit 240 years. Ceased transmission in May 1964.   USA 17 March 1958
Earth Pioneer 1 Failed to reach the moon as intended, but reached a record–setting distance of 113,800 kilometres (70,700 mi) from Earth.   USA 11 October 1958
Earth Jupiter AM-13 First monkey in space, Gordo, a squirrel monkey.   USA 13 December 1958
Earth Luna 1 First spacecraft to achieve Earth's escape velocity.   USSR 4 January 1959
Moon Luna 1 First flyby. Distance of 5,995 kilometres (3,725 mi).   USSR 4 January 1959
Sun Luna 1 First spacecraft in heliocentric orbit.   USSR 4 January 1959
Moon Luna 2 First impact.[5]   USSR 14 September 1959
Moon Luna 3 First image of lunar far-side.[5]   USSR 7 October 1959
Earth Discoverer 13 First satellite recovered from orbit.[5]   USA 11 August 1960
Earth Korabl-Sputnik 2 First living beings recovered from orbit.[42]   USSR 19 August 1960
Venus Venera 1 First flyby. Distance of 100,000 kilometres (62,000 mi) (lost communication contact before).[5]   USSR 19 May 1961
Moon Ranger 4 First spacecraft to impact the far side of the Moon.[43]   USA 26 April 1962
Earth Alouette 1 First satellite designed and constructed by a country other than the USA or USSR (the British satellite Ariel 1, launched five months earlier, was designed and constructed by the USA).[44]   Canada 29 September 1962
Venus Mariner 2 First planetary flyby. Distance of 34,762 kilometres (21,600 mi) (with communication contact).   USA 14 December 1962
Earth Lincoln Calibration Sphere 1 Oldest spacecraft still in use (50 years as of 2015).   USA 6 May 1965
Mars Mariner 4 First flyby and first planetary imaging. Distance of 9,846 kilometres (6,118 mi).   USA 14 July 1965
Earth Astérix First satellite launched independently by a nation other than the USA or USSR (other nations had previously flown satellites launched on American rockets).   France 26 November 1965
Moon Luna 9 First soft landing and first pictures from the lunar surface.[5]   USSR 3 February 1966
Venus Venera 3 First impact.[5]   USSR 1 March 1966
Moon Luna 10 First orbiter.[5]   USSR 3 April 1966
Docking Cosmos 186, Cosmos 188 First automated docking of unmanned spacecraft.   USSR 30 October 1967
Moon Zond 5
  • First to circle the Moon and return to land on Earth.
  • First animals to circle the Moon.
  USSR 15 September 1968
Moon Luna 16 First automated sample return.   USSR 24 September 1970
Moon Luna 17 First automated roving vehicle, Lunokhod 1.   USSR 17 November 1970
Venus Venera 7 First soft landing.   USSR 15 December 1970
Mars Mariner 9 First orbiter.   USA 14 November 1971
Mars Mars 2 First impact.   USSR 27 November 1971
Mars Mars 3 First soft landing. Maintained telemetry signal for 20 seconds before transmissions ceased.   USSR 2 December 1971
Sun Pioneer 10 First spacecraft to achieve the Sun's escape velocity.   USA 3 March 1972
Jupiter Pioneer 10 First flyby. Distance of 132,000 kilometres (82,000 mi).   USA 4 December 1973
Mercury Mariner 10 First flyby. Distance of 703 kilometres (437 mi).   USA 29 March 1974
Venus Venera 9
  • First orbiter.
  • First surface-level imaging of another planet.
  USSR 22 October 1975
Sun Helios 2
  • Highest velocity of a spacecraft relative to the Sun: 252,792 kilometres per hour (157,078 mph).
  • Closest ever approach to the Sun. Distance of 0.29 AU (43,000,000 kilometres (27,000,000 mi)), slightly inside the orbit of Mercury. Record still unbeaten as of November 2009, but expected to be beaten by the future Solar Orbiter probe (0.23 AU / 33 million km).
17 April 1976
Mars Viking 1 First surface-level imaging of Mars.   USA 20 July 1976
Saturn Pioneer 11 First flyby. Distance of 21,000 kilometres (13,000 mi).   USA 1 September 1979
Venus Venera 13 First sound recording made on another planet.   USSR 1 March 1982
Trans-Neptunian region Pioneer 10 First to travel past the orbit of Neptune, the furthest major planet from the Sun.   USA 13 June 1983
Venus Vega 1 First helium balloon atmospheric probe.   USSR 11 June 1985
Comet Giacobini-Zinner International Cometary Explorer (ICE) First flyby through a comet tail (no pictures). Distance of 7,800 kilometres (4,800 mi).   USA 11 September 1985
Uranus Voyager 2 First flyby. Distance of 81,500 kilometres (50,600 mi).   USA 24 January 1986
Comet Halley Vega 1 First comet flyby (with pictures returned). Distance of 8,890 kilometres (5,520 mi).   USSR 6 March 1986
Orbital Spaceplane Buran First fully automated orbital flight of a spaceplane (with airstrip landing).   USSR 15 November 1988
Phobos Phobos 2 First flyby. Distance of 860 kilometres (530 mi).   USSR 21 February 1989
Neptune Voyager 2 First flyby. Distance of 40,000 kilometres (25,000 mi).   USA 25 August 1989
951 Gaspra Galileo First asteroid flyby. Distance of 1,600 kilometres (990 mi).   USA 29 October 1991
Jupiter Galileo probe First impact.   USA 7 December 1995
Jupiter Galileo First orbiter.   USA 8 December 1995
Mars Mars Pathfinder First automated roving vehicle, Sojourner.   USA 4 July 1997
433 Eros NEAR Shoemaker First asteroid orbiter.   USA 14 February 2000
433 Eros NEAR Shoemaker First asteroid soft landing.   USA 12 February 2001
Saturn Cassini orbiter First orbiter.
1 July 2004
Solar wind Genesis First sample return from farther than the Moon.   USA 8 September 2004
Titan Huygens probe First soft landing.
14 January 2005
Comet Tempel 1 Deep Impact First comet impact.   USA 4 July 2005
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa
  • First asteroid ascent.
  • First interplanetary escape without undercarriage cutoff.
  Japan 19 November 2005
81P/Wild Stardust First sample return from comet.   USA 15 January 2006
Earth Voyager 1
  • Farthest distance from Earth.
  • Farthest distance from the Sun (20.479 billion km).
  USA As of November 2016[45]
Longest time in operation Voyager 2 Longest continually operating space probe (since August 1977).   USA As of 2015
Earth to Venus trajectory IKAROS First interplanetary solar sail.   Japan Set sail on 10 June 2010
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa First sample return from an asteroid.   Japan 13 June 2010
Mercury MESSENGER First orbiter.   USA 17 March 2011
Earth–Sun L2 Lagrangian point Chang'e 2 First object to reach the L2 Lagrangian point directly from lunar orbit.[46]   China 25 August 2011
International Space Station SpaceX Dragon First commercial spacecraft to berth with the International Space Station.   SpaceX 25 May 2012
Interstellar medium Voyager 1 First spacecraft to cross the heliopause, thereby exiting the heliosphere and entering interstellar space.   USA 25 August 2012
4179 Toutatis Chang'e 2
  • First object to reach an asteroid directly from a Sun-Earth Langrangian point.
  • First probe to explore both the Moon and an asteroid.[47]
  China 13 December 2012
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Rosetta First comet orbiter.[48]   ESA 6 August 2014
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Philae First comet soft landing.[49]   ESA 12 November 2014
Ceres Dawn First dwarf planet orbiter.[50]   USA 6 March 2015
Mars Opportunity Longest distance traveled on surface of another world (26.219 miles (42.195 km), marathon-length).[51]   USA 23 March 2015 (ongoing)
Mercury MESSENGER First impact.[52]   USA 30 April 2015
Pluto New Horizons
  USA 14 July 2015
All 9 planets in the pre-IAU redefinition version of the Solar System All United States spacecrafts including New Horizons With the New Horizons flyby of Pluto, the United States is the first nation to have its space probes explore all 9 planets in the pre-2006 IAU redefinition version of the Solar System.   USA 14 July 2015
Earth Juno Fastest man-made object relative to Earth (c. 265,000 kilometres per hour (165,000 mph)).[53]   USA 4 July 2016
Earth Falcon 9 First re-flight of orbital class rocket.[54]   SpaceX 30 March 2017
Earth Shortest period between orbital launches (launched 72 seconds apart).[55]
  •   SpaceX
  •   Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
23 December 2017

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit