Salyut 7 (Russian: Салют-7; English: Salute 7) (a.k.a. DOS-6, short for Durable Orbital Station[1]) was a space station in low Earth orbit from April 1982 to February 1991.[1] It was first crewed in May 1982 with two crew via Soyuz T-5, and last visited in June 1986, by Soyuz T-15.[1] Various crew and modules were used over its lifetime, including 12 crewed and 15 uncrewed launches in total.[1] Supporting spacecraft included the Soyuz T, Progress, and TKS spacecraft.[1]

Salyut 7
Salyut7.jpg
Salyut 7 photographed by Soyuz T-13 crew before docking. Notice how the solar panels are slightly askew Soyuz T-13, 25 September 1985
Salyut program insignia.svg
The insignia of the Salyut Program
Station statistics
COSPAR ID1982-033A
SATCAT no.13138Edit this on Wikidata
Launch19 April 1982
19:45:00 UTC
Launch padLC-200/40, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Soviet Union
Reentry7 February 1991[1]
Mass19,824 kg
Length16 m (minimum)[1]
Width4.15 m (max)[1]
Pressurised volume90 m³ (minimum)[1]
Periapsis altitude219 km (118.25 nmi)
Apoapsis altitude278 km (150.1 nmi)
Orbital inclination51.6 degrees
Orbital period89.21minutes
Days in orbit3215 days
Days occupied816 days
No. of orbits51,917
Distance travelled2,106,297,129 km
(1,137,309,460 nmi)
Statistics as of de-orbit and reentry
Configuration
Salyut 7 and Cosmos 1686 drawing.png
Salyut 7 with docked Kosmos 1686 TKS spacecraft

It was part of the Soviet Salyut programme, and launched on 19 April 1982 on a Proton rocket from Site 200/40 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the Soviet Union. Salyut 7 was part of the transition from monolithic to modular space stations, acting as a testbed for docking of additional modules and expanded station operations. It was the eighth space station of any kind launched. Salyut 7 was the last of both the second generation of DOS-series space stations and of the monolithic Salyut Program overall, to be replaced by Mir, the modular, expandable, third generation.

DescriptionEdit

Salyut 7 was the backup vehicle for Salyut 6 and very similar in equipment and capabilities. With delays to the Mir programme it was decided to launch the back-up vehicle as Salyut 7. In orbit the station suffered technical failures though it benefited from the improved payload capacity of the visiting Progress and Soyuz craft and the experience of its crews who improvised many solutions (such as a fuel line rupture in September 1983 requiring EVAs by the Soyuz T-10 to repair). It was aloft for eight years and ten months (a record not broken until Mir), during which time it was visited by 10 crews constituting six main expeditions and four secondary flights (including French and Indian cosmonauts). The station also saw two flights of Svetlana Savitskaya making her the second woman in space since Valentina Tereshkova first flew in June 1963 and the first woman to perform an EVA during which she conducted metal cutting and welding alongside her colleague Vladimir Dzhanibekov.[2] Aside from the many experiments and observations made on Salyut 7, the station also tested the docking and use of large modules with an orbiting space station. The modules were called "Heavy Kosmos modules" though in reality were variants of the TKS spacecraft intended for the cancelled Almaz military space station. They helped engineers develop technology necessary to build Mir.

EquipmentEdit

 
Salyut 7 during assembly.

It had two docking ports, one on either end of the station, to allow docking with the Progress unmanned resupply craft, and a wider front docking port to allow safer docking with a Heavy Kosmos module. It carried three solar panels, two in lateral and one in dorsal longitudinal positions, but they now had the ability to mount secondary panels on their sides. Internally, the Salyut 7 carried electric stoves, a refrigerator, constant hot water and redesigned seats at the command console (more like bicycle seats). Two portholes were designed to allow ultraviolet light in, to help kill infections.[1] The medical, biological and exercise sections were improved, to allow long stays in the station. The BST-1M telescope used in Salyut 6 was replaced by an X-ray detection system.[3]

To support experiments in cultivating plants in space, several different plant life support systems were installed: Oasis 1A, Vazon, Svetoblok, Magnetogravistat, Biogravistat and Fiton(Phyton)-3. It was in Fiton-3 that Arabidopsis became the first plants to flower and produce seeds in the zero gravity of space.

Salyut 7 was the most advanced and most comfortable space station of the Salyut series. A set of modifications to the interior made it more liveable. There were approximately 20 windows with shades on the Salyut 7. To protect the inside of the windows, they were covered with removable glass panels. The colour scheme was improved and a refrigerator was installed. The ceiling on the Salyut 7 was white; the left wall was apple green and the right one beige,[4][5] a signature design by interior design architect, Galina Balashova, who carried on the concept through Soyuz to Mir and Buran, in an effort to replace 'survive' with 'comfort', working with seasoned cosmonauts to make living conditions better and 'closer to home'.[6] [7] Externally, in a departure from previous first generation stations, the large diameter operations section which housed the large scientific apparatus, was colored in a distinctive brown-red and white stripe pattern. This was done to differentiate between it and the outwardly similar Salyut 6 that, for several months of its life, was in orbit at the same time.

Crews and missionsEdit

 
Salyut 7 with docked spacecraft
 
Salyut-7 with Kosmos1686 and Soyuz T-15 docked, truss extended May 31 1986

Following up the use of Kosmos 1267 on Salyut 6, the Soviets launched Kosmos 1443 on 2 March 1983 from a Proton SL-13. It docked with the station on 10 March, and was used by the crew of Soyuz T-9. It jettisoned its recovery module on 23 August, and re-entered the atmosphere on 19 September. Kosmos 1686 was launched on 27 September 1985, docking with the station on 2 October. It did not carry a recovery vehicle, and remained connected to the station for use by the crew of Soyuz T-14. Ten Soyuz T crews operated in Salyut 7. Only two Interkosmos "guest cosmonauts" worked in Salyut 7. The first attempt to launch Soyuz T-10 was aborted on the launch pad when a fire broke out at the base of the vehicle. The payload was ejected, and the crew was recovered safely.

Resident crewsEdit

Salyut 7 had six resident crews.

There were also four visiting missions, crews which came to bring supplies and make shorter duration visits with the resident crews.

Technical and crew problemsEdit

The station suffered from two major problems, the first of which required extensive repair work to be performed on a number of EVAs.

LeaksEdit

On 9 September 1983, during the stay of Vladimir Lyakhov and Alexander Alexandrov, while reorienting the station to perform a radiowave transmission experiment, Lyakhov noticed the pressure of one fuel tank was almost zero. Following this, Alexandrov spotted a fuel leak when looking through the aft porthole. Ground control decided to try to repair the damaged pipes, in what was the most complex repair attempted during EVA at the time. This was to be attempted by the next crew, the current one lacking the necessary training and tools. The damage was eventually repaired by Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov, who needed four EVAs to fix two leaks. A special tool to fix the third leak was delivered by Soyuz T-12, and the leak was subsequently fixed.[8]

Loss of powerEdit

On 11 February 1985, contact with Salyut 7 was lost. The station began to drift, and all systems shut down. At this time the station was uninhabited, after the departure of Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov and Oleg Atkov, and before the next crew arrived. It was once again decided to attempt to repair the station. The work was performed by Vladimir Dzhanibekov and Viktor Savinykh on the Soyuz T-13 mission during June 1985, in what was in the words of author David S. F. Portree "one of the most impressive feats of in-space repairs in history".[1] This operation forms the basis of the 2017 Russian film Salyut 7.

All Soviet and Russian space stations were equipped with automatic rendezvous and docking systems, from the first space station Salyut 1 using the Igla system, to the Russian Orbital Segment of the International Space Station using the Kurs system. Upon arrival, on 6 June 1985, the Soyuz crew found the station was not broadcasting radar or telemetry for rendezvous, and after arrival and external inspection of the tumbling station, the crew estimated proximity using handheld laser rangefinders.

Dzhanibekov piloted his ship to intercept the forward port of Salyut 7 and matched the station's rotation. After hard docking to the station and confirming the station's electrical system was dead, Dzhanibekov and Savinykh sampled the station atmosphere prior to opening the hatch. Attired in winter fur-lined clothing, they entered the station to conduct repairs. The fault was eventually found to be an electrical sensor that determined when the batteries needed charging.

Once the batteries were replaced, the station started charging them, and warmed up over the next few days.[8] Within a week sufficient systems were brought back online to allow uncrewed Progress cargo ships to dock with the station.[1]

End of lifeEdit

 
Debris from Salyut 7, which landed on Argentina in 1991.

Salyut 7 was last inhabited in 1986 by the crew of Soyuz T-15, who ferried equipment from Salyut 7 to the new Mir space station. Between 19 and 22 August 1986, engines on Kosmos 1686 boosted Salyut 7 to a record-high mean orbital altitude of 475 km to forestall reentry until 1994. Retrieval at a future date by a Buran shuttle was also planned.[9]

However, unexpectedly high solar activity in the late 1980s and early 1990s increased atmospheric drag on the station and sped its orbital decay. It finally underwent an uncontrolled reentry on 7 February 1991 over the town of Capitán Bermúdez in Argentina after it overshot its intended entry point, which would have placed its debris in uninhabited portions of the southern Pacific Ocean.[10][11]

Expeditions and visiting spacecraftEdit

Notation:

  • EO (Russian: ЭО, Экспедиция Основная) or PE means Principal Expedition
  • EP (Russian: ЭП, Экспедиция Посещения) or VE means Visiting Expedition

ExpeditionsEdit

Expedition Crew Launch date Flight up Landing date Flight
down
Duration
(days)
Salyut 7 – EO-1 Anatoli Berezovoy,
Valentin Lebedev[1]
13 May 1982
09:58:05 UTC
Soyuz T-5 10 December 1982
19:02:36 UTC
Soyuz T-7 211.38
Salyut 7 – EP-1 Vladimir Dzhanibekov,
Aleksandr Ivanchenkov,
Jean-Loup Chrétien – France
24 June 1982
16:29:48 UTC
Soyuz T-6 2 July 1982
14:20:40 UTC
Soyuz T-6 7.91
Salyut 7 – EP-2 Leonid Popov,
Aleksandr Serebrov,
Svetlana Savitskaya
19 August 1982
17:11:52 UTC
Soyuz T-7 27 August 1982
15:04:16 UTC
Soyuz T-5 7.91
Salyut 7 – EO-2 Vladimir Lyakhov,
Aleksandr Pavlovich Aleksandrov
27 June 1983
09:12:00 UTC
Soyuz T-9 23 November 1983
19:58:00 UTC
Soyuz T-9 149.45
Salyut 7 – EO-3 Leonid Kizim,
Vladimir Solovyov,
Oleg Atkov
8 February 1984
12:07:26 UTC
Soyuz T-10 2 October 1984
10:57:00 UTC
Soyuz T-11 236.95
Salyut 7 – EP-3 Yury Malyshev,
Gennady Strekalov,
Rakesh Sharma – India
3 April 1984
13:08:00 UTC
Soyuz T-11 11 April 1984
10:48:48 UTC
Soyuz T-10 7.90
Salyut 7 – EP-4 Vladimir Dzhanibekov,
Svetlana Savitskaya,
Igor Volk
17 July 1984
17:40:54 UTC
Soyuz T-12 29 July 1984
12:55:30 UTC
Soyuz T-12 11.80
Salyut 7 – EO-4-1a Viktor Savinykh 6 June 1985
06:39:52 UTC
Soyuz T-13 21 November 1985
10:31:00 UTC
Soyuz T-14 168.16
Salyut 7 – EO-4-1b Vladimir Dzhanibekov 6 June 1985
06:39:52 UTC
Soyuz T-13 26 September 1985
09:51:58 UTC
Soyuz T-13 112.13
Salyut 7 – EP-5 Georgi Grechko 17 September 1985
12:38:52 UTC
Soyuz T-14 26 September 1985
09:51:58 UTC
Soyuz T-13 8.88
Salyut 7 – EO-4-2 Vladimir Vasyutin,
Alexander Volkov
17 September 1985
12:38:52 UTC
Soyuz T-14 21 November 1985
10:31:00 UTC
Soyuz T-14 64.91
Salyut 7 – EO-5 Leonid Kizim,
Vladimir Solovyov
13 March 1986
12:33:09 UTC
Soyuz T-15 16 July 1986
12:34:05 UTC
Soyuz T-15 125.00
50 on S7

SpacewalksEdit

Spacecraft Spacewalker Start – UTC End – UTC Duration Comments
Salyut 7 – PE-1 – EVA 1 Lebedev, Berezevoi[1] 30 July 1982
02:39
30 July 1982
05:12
2 h, 33 min Retrieve experiments
Salyut 7 – PE-2 – EVA 1 Lyakhov, Alexandrov 1 November 1983
04:47
1 November 1983
07:36
2 h, 50 min Add solar array
Salyut 7 – PE-2 – EVA 2 Lyakhov, Alexandrov 3 November 1983
03:47
3 November 1983
06:42
2 h, 55 min Add solar array
Salyut 7 – PE-3 – EVA 1 Kizim, Solovyov 23 April 1984
04:31
23 April 1984
08:46
4 h, 20 min ODU repair
Salyut 7 – PE-3 – EVA 2 Kizim, Solovyov 26 April 1984
02:40
26 April 1984
07:40
4 h, 56 min Repair ODU
Salyut 7 – PE-3 – EVA 3 Kizim, Solovyov 29 April 1984
01:35
29 April 1984
04:20
2 h, 45 min Repair ODU
Salyut 7 – PE-3 – EVA 4 Kizim, Solovyov 3 May 1984
23:15
4 May 1984
02:00
2 h, 45 min Repair ODU
Salyut 7 – PE-3 – EVA 5 Kizim, Solovyov 18 May 1984
17:52
18 May 1984
20:57
3 h, 05 min Add solar array
Salyut 7 – VE-4 – EVA 1 Savitskaya, Dzhanibekov 25 July 1984
14:55
25 July 1984
18:29
3 h, 35 min First woman EVA
Salyut 7 – PE-3 – EVA 6 Kizim, Solovyov 8 August 1984
08:46
8 August 1984
13:46
5 h, 00 min Complete ODU repair
Salyut 7 – PE-4 – EVA 1 Dzhanibekov, Savinykh 2 August 1985
07:15
2 August 1985
12:15
5 h, 00 min Augment solar arrays
Salyut 7 – PE-6 – EVA 1 Kizim, Solovyov 28 May 1986
05:43
28 May 1986
09:33
3 h, 50 min Test truss, retrieve samples
Salyut 7 – PE-6 – EVA 2 Kizim, Solovyov 31 May 1986
04:57
31 May 1986
09:57
5 h, 00 min Test truss

Docking operationsEdit

On three occasions, a visiting Soyuz craft was transferred from the station's aft port to its forward port. This was done to accommodate upcoming Progress shuttles, which could only refuel the station using connections available at the aft port. Typically, the resident crew would first dock at the forward port, leaving the aft port available for Progress craft and visiting Soyuz support crews. When a support crew docked at the aft port and left in the older, forward Soyuz, the resident crew would move the new vehicle forward by boarding it, undocking, and translating some 100–200 meters away from Salyut 7. Then, ground control would command the station itself to rotate 180 degrees, and the Soyuz would close and re-dock at the forward port. Soyuz T-7, T-9 and T-11 performed the operation, piloted by resident crews.[12]

SpecificationsEdit

Specifications of the baseline 1982 Salyut 7 module, from Mir Hardware Heritage (1995, NASA RP1357):[1]

  • Length – about 16 m
  • Maximum diameter – 4.15 meters
  • Habitable volume – 90 m³
  • Weight at launch – 19,824 kg
  • Launch vehicle – Proton rocket (three-stage)
  • Orbital inclination – 51.6°
  • Span across solar arrays – 17 m
  • Area of solar arrays – 51 m²
  • Number of solar arrays – 3
  • Electricity available – 4.5 kW
  • Resupply carriers – Soyuz-T, Progress, TKS spacecraft
  • Docking System – Igla or manual approach
  • Number of docking ports – 2
  • Total manned missions – 12
  • Total unmanned missions – 15
  • Total long-duration missions – 6
  • Number of main engines – 2
  • Main engine thrust (each) – 300 kg

Visiting spacecraft and crewsEdit

(Launched crews. Spacecraft launch and landing dates listed.)

In popular cultureEdit

The repair and reactivation of the station by Soyuz T-13 is the subject of the 2017 Russian historical drama Salyut 7. These events also served as a plot base for the Polish novel Połowa nieba (pol. Half the sky), by Bartek Biedrzycki (first published 2018), collected in Zimne światło gwiazd in 2020.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p David Portree – Mir Hardware Heritage (1995) – Page 90-95 – NASA RP1357
  2. ^ "Space welding anniversary!". Orbiter-Forum. Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd. 16 July 2009. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  3. ^ "Salyut 7". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  4. ^ Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra. (2011). Architecture for astronauts : an activity-based approach. Vienna: SpringerWienNewYork. ISBN 9783709106679. OCLC 759926461.
  5. ^ Bluth, B. J. (1986). Soviet space stations as analogs. NASA headquarters. OCLC 33099311.
  6. ^ "Soviet space programme: Philipp Meuser lifts the lid on the seminal cosmic design of Galina Balashova". July 2015.
  7. ^ Meuser, Philipp (2015). Galina Balashova : architect of the Soviet space programme. Knowles, Clarice. Berlin. ISBN 978-3-86922-355-1. OCLC 903080663.
  8. ^ a b Leaving Earth, by Robert Zimmerman, ISBN 0-309-08548-9, 2003.
  9. ^ Astronautix, Salyut 7.
  10. ^ aero.org, Spacecraft Reentry FAQ:
  11. ^ McQuiston, John T. (7 February 1991). "Salyut 7, Soviet Station in Space, Falls to Earth After 9-Year Orbit". New York Times. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  12. ^ Portree, Mir Hardware Heritage, pp. 90-102.

External linksEdit

Preceded by Salyut programme
1982–1991
Succeeded by