The Satellite Catalog Number (SATCAT, also known as NORAD (North American Aerospace Defense) Catalog Number, NORAD ID, USSPACECOM object number or simply catalog number, among similar variants) is a sequential nine-digit number assigned by the United States Space Command (USSPACECOM) in the order of launch or discovery to all artificial objects in the orbits of Earth and those that left Earth's orbit. The first catalogued object, catalog number 1, is the Sputnik 1 launch vehicle, with the Sputnik 1 satellite having been assigned catalog number 2.
Objects that fail to orbit or orbit for a short time are not catalogued. The minimum object size in the catalog is 10 centimetres (3.9 in) in diameter. As of November 15, 2022[update], the catalog listed 54,200 objects, including 14,102 satellites that had been launched into orbit since 1957 of which 7,043 were still active. 24,146 of the objects were well tracked while 1,850 were lost. In addition USSPACECOM was also tracking 20,900 analyst objects. Analyst objects are variably tracked and in constant flux, so their catalog and element set data are not published. As of November 7, 2022[update] ESA estimated there were about 36,500 pieces of orbiting debris that are large enough for USSPACECOM to track.
Permanently catalogued objects are assigned a number from 1 to 69,999 or above 99,999. Space-Track is expected to start publishing objects greater than 99,999 in 2020 starting with debris discovered by Space Fence.
Space Command shares the catalog via space-track.org, which is maintained by the 18th Space Defense Squadron (18 SDS).
Initially, the catalog was maintained by NORAD. From 1985 onwards, USSPACECOM was tasked to detect, track, identify, and maintain a catalog of all human-made objects in Earth orbit. In 2002, USSPACECOM was disestablished and merged with the United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). However, USSPACECOM was reestablished in 2019.
Before 2020, the catalog number was limited to five digits due to the TLE format limitation. In 2020, Space-Track started to provide data in CCSDS OMM (Orbit Mean-Elements Message) format, which increased the maximum catalog number to 999,999,999.
- International Designator, also known as a COSPAR ID
- Space debris
- Two-line element set (TLE)
- United States Space Surveillance Network
- ^ Kelso, T.S. (January 1998). "Frequently Asked Questions: Two-Line Element Set Format". Satellite Times. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- ^ "SL-1 R/B Satellite details 1957-001A NORAD 1". Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Space-Track.org. Retrieved July 14, 2019.
Q: What criteria are used to determine whether an orbiting object should receive a catalogue number and International Designation? A: We must be able to determine who it belongs to, what launch it correlates to, and the object must be able to be maintained (tracked well).
- ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Space-Track.org. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
10 centimeter diameter or "softball size" is the typical minimum size object that current sensors can track and 18 SPCS maintains in the catalog.
- ^ Kelso, T.S. "SATCAT Boxscore". CelesTrak. Retrieved Nov 15, 2022.
- ^ Kelso, T.S. "TLE History Statistics". CelesTrak. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- ^ "Space-Track.org Space Scoreboard". Space-Track.org. Retrieved Nov 15, 2022.
- ^ "Space debris by the numbers". ESA. 7 November 2022. Retrieved 15 November 2022.
- ^ "Conjunction Summary Message Guide" (PDF). space-track.org. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- ^ Kelso, T.S. (May 27, 2020). "A New Way to Obtain GP Data (aka TLEs)". CelesTrak. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- ^ a b @SpaceTrackOrg (25 November 2020). "The satellite catalog is growing faster than ever" (Tweet). Retrieved 1 December 2020 – via Twitter.
- ^ "USSTRATCOM expands SSA data on Space-Track.org". Air Force Space Command. October 10, 2018. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- ^ "Small Satellite Debris Catalog Maintenance Issues" (PDF). NASA. October 1, 1991. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- ^ "US Policy and Capabilities on SSA" (PDF). Secure World Foundation. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- The catalog: Space-Track.org
- CelesTrak Satellite Catalog (a partial copy of Space-Track.org catalog)