The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T – транспортный – Transportnyi – meaning transport, M – модифицированный – Modifitsirovannyi – meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz-T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control.
|Mission duration||130 days, 20 hours, 35 minutes, 51 seconds|
|Launch mass||7,150 kilograms (15,760 lb)|
|Crew size||2 up|
|Callsign||Вулка́н (Vulkan – Volcano)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||August 1, 1990, 09:32:21UTC|
|End of mission|
|Landing date||December 10, 1990, 06:08:12UTC|
|Landing site||69 kilometres (43 mi) NW of Arkalyk|
|Perigee altitude||198 kilometres (123 mi)|
|Apogee altitude||219 kilometres (136 mi)|
|Docking with Mir|
|Position||Launching crew||Landing crew|
|Commander|| Gennadi Manakov|
|Flight Engineer|| Gennady Strekalov|
|Research Cosmonaut||None|| Toyohiro Akiyama (Reporter)|
The Soyuz arrived at Mir's aft port with four passengers: quail for cages in Kvant-2. A quail had laid an egg en route to the station. It was returned to Earth, along with 130 kg of experiment results and industrial products, in Soyuz TM-9. The spacecraft landed without incident.
It spent 131 days attached to Mir. A camera was installed in the descent module as part of the agreement with Akiyama's network to film the reactions of the returning cosmonauts.