The Soyuz-TM were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. The Soyuz spacecraft consisted of three parts, the Orbital Module, the Descent Module and the Service Module.[1]

Soyuz-TM
Soyuz acoplada MIR.jpg
Soyuz-TM spacecraft.
ManufacturerKorolev
Country of originSoviet Union and Russia
OperatorSoviet space program/Russian Federal Space Agency
ApplicationsCarry three cosmonauts to Mir and ISS and back
Specifications
RegimeLow Earth orbit
Design lifeUp to six months docked to station
Production
StatusOut of service
Launched34
Maiden launchSoyuz TM-1, 1986
Last launchSoyuz TM-34, 2002
Related spacecraft
Derived fromSoyuz-T
DerivativesSoyuz-TMA

The first launch of the spacecraft was the uncrewed Soyuz TM-1 on May 21, 1986, where it docked with the Mir space station.[2] The final flight was Soyuz TM-34, which docked with the International Space Station and landed November 10, 2002.[3]

BackgroundEdit

After the Apollo-Soyuz Test project in 1976, the Soyuz for crewed flights had the singular mission of supporting crewed space stations.[4] The original Soyuz had a limited endurance when docked with a station, only about 60 to 90 days.[4] There were two avenues for extending the duration of missions past this. The first avenue was to make upgrades to increase the Soyuz spacecraft's endurance. The Soyuz-T could last 120 days and the Soyuz-TM could last 180 days.[4] The other was to use a Visiting Expedition to fly a new Soyuz up to the station and depart with the spacecraft nearing the end of its rated endurance.[4]

The preliminary design was released in April 1981 and the main set of working documentation was released in early 1982.[5]

Upgrades from Soyuz-TEdit

The Soyuz-TM was an upgraded version of the Soyuz-T. The TM stood for transport modified (or транспортный модифицированный in Russian).[2]

Orbital ModuleEdit

With the growth of orbital complexes, the Soyuz-T used the Igla system that required continuous orientation with the station and had high fuel costs. The Soyuz-TM was upgraded with the Kurs system that did not require the same orientation from the station and allowed measurements from a range of 200 km instead of the 30 km of the Igla.[6]

Descent ModuleEdit

It also increased the payload to 51.6° orbit by 200–250 kg and was able to return 70–90 kg more back to earth. Energia accomplished this by increasing the capabilities of the launch vehicle and decreasing the mass of the ship.[6] The parachute system mass was decreased by 120 kg (40%) by using synthetic material for the slings and lightweight material for the parachute domes.[6]

Propulsion/Service ModuleEdit

It also featured a new KTDU-80 propulsion module that permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control. It also used the baffles inside the tanks became structural, allowing further reduction in mass.

Typical Flight for Soyuz-TMEdit

TrainingEdit

Classroom training is completed on Soyuz systems and required crew operations. Cosmonauts must pass an oral test on the material for certification. Training was also completed on Soyuz mockups and simulators. Two weeks before launch, after passing all the tests, the crew is flown to Baikonur to participate in a test at the launch site to go through all the steps associated with the launch.[7]

For Flight ReadinessEdit

The final decision to launch is made by the assembly company (General Designer).[8] There is a Space Committee formed of approximately 20 people headed by a 3-star General for Air and Space with the following representation:

When different companies/countries are involved, they are represented as well at on the Space Committee. For Soyuz launches, the Ministry of Defense representative states that everything has been checked because all preparations at Baikonur are performed by the military. Independent assessment is made by the Central Institute of Machine Building for every flight.[8] Cosmonauts had to get clearance from the Russian Medical Commission, the Institute of Biomedical Problems and the GCTC at the flight readiness Review.[8]

LaunchEdit

Space StationEdit

LandingEdit

Table of FlightsEdit

Mission Launch Launch Crew Landed Landed Crew Duration Summary
Soyuz TM-1 21 May 1986 30 May 1986 9 days Uncrewed test flight
Soyuz TM-2 5 February 1987 Mir EO-2:
  Yuri Romanenko
  Aleksandr Laveykin
30 July 1987 Mir EP-1:
  Aleksandr Viktorenko
  Muhammed Faris
Mir EO-2:
  Aleksandr Laveykin
174 days
Soyuz TM-3 22 July 1987 Mir EP-1:
  Aleksandr Viktorenko
  Muhammed Faris
Mir EO-2:
  Aleksandr Pavlovich Aleksandrov
29 December 1987 Mir EO-2:
  Yuri Romanenko
  Aleksandr Pavlovich Aleksandrov
Mir LII-1:
  Anatoli Levchenko
160 days
Soyuz TM-4 21 December 1987 Mir EO-3:
  Vladimir Titov
  Musa Manarov
Mir LII-1:
  Anatoli Levchenko
17 June 1988 Mir EP-2:
  Anatoly Solovyev
  Viktor Savinykh
  Aleksandr Aleksandrov
178 days
Soyuz TM-5 7 June 1988 Mir EP-2:
  Anatoly Solovyev
  Viktor Savinykh
  Aleksandr Aleksandrov
7 September 1988 Mir EP-3:
  Vladimir Lyakhov
  Abdul Ahad Mohmand
91 days
Soyuz TM-6 29 August 1988 Mir EP-3:
  Vladimir Lyakhov
  Abdul Mohmand
  Valeri Polyakov
21 December 1988 Mir EO-3:
  Vladimir Titov
  Musa Manarov
Mir Aragatz:
  Jean-Loup Chrétien
114 days
Soyuz TM-7 26 November 1988 Mir EO-4:
  Alexander Volkov
  Sergei Krikalev
Mir Aragatz:
  Jean-Loup Chrétien
27 April 1989 Mir EO-4:
  Alexander Volkov
  Sergei Krikalev
  Valeri Polyakov
151 days
Soyuz TM-8 5 September 1989 Mir EO-5:
  Aleksandr Viktorenko
  Aleksandr Serebrov
19 February 1990 Mir EO-5:
  Aleksandr Viktorenko
  Aleksandr Serebrov
166 days
Soyuz TM-9 11 February 1990 Mir EO-6:
  Anatoly Solovyev
  Aleksandr Balandin
9 August 1990 Mir EO-6:
  Anatoly Solovyev
  Aleksandr Balandin
179 days
Soyuz TM-10 1 August 1990 Mir EO-7:
  Gennady Manakov
  Gennady Strekalov
10 December 1990 Mir EO-7:
  Gennady Manakov
  Gennady Strekalov
Reporter:
  Toyohiro Akiyama
130 days
Soyuz TM-11 2 December 1990 Mir EO-8:
  Viktor Afanasyev
  Musa Manarov
Reporter:
  Toyohiro Akiyama
26 May 1991 Mir EO-8:
  Viktor Afanasyev
  Musa Manarov
Project Juno:
  Helen Sharman
175 days
Soyuz TM-12 18 May 1991 Mir EO-9:
  Anatoly Artsebarsky
  Sergei Krikalev
Project Juno:
  Helen Sharman
10 October 1991 Mir EO-9:
  Anatoly Artsebarsky
Others:
  Toktar Aubakirov
  Franz Viehböck
144 days
Soyuz TM-13 2 October 1991 Mir EO-10:
  Alexander Volkov
Others:
  Toktar Aubakirov
  Franz Viehböck
25 March 1992 Mir EO-10:
  Alexander Volkov
  Sergei Krikalev
Other:
  Klaus-Dietrich Flade
175 days In orbit during the Dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soyuz TM-14 17 March 1992 Mir EO-11:
  Aleksandr Viktorenko
  Aleksandr Kaleri
Other:
  Klaus-Dietrich Flade
10 August 1992 Mir EO-11:
  Aleksandr Viktorenko
  Aleksandr Kaleri
Other:
  Michel Tognini
145 days
Soyuz TM-15 27 July 1992 Mir EO-12:
  Anatoly Solovyev
  Sergei Avdeyev
Other:
  Michel Tognini
1 February 1993 Mir EO-12:
  Anatoly Solovyev
  Sergei Avdeyev
188 days
Soyuz TM-16 24 January 1993 Mir EO-13:
  Gennadi Manakov
  Alexander Poleshchuk
22 July 1993 Mir EO-13:
  Gennadi Manakov
  Alexander Poleshchuk
Other:
  Jean-Pierre Haigneré
179 days
Soyuz TM-17 1 July 1993 Mir EO-14:
  Vasili Tsibliyev
  Aleksandr Serebrov
Other:
  Jean-Pierre Haigneré
14 January 1994 Mir EO-14:
  Vasili Tsibliyev
  Aleksandr Serebrov
196 days
Soyuz TM-18 8 January 1994 Mir EO-15:
  Viktor Afanasyev
  Yury Usachov
  Valeri Polyakov
9 July 1994 Mir EO-15:
  Viktor Afanasyev
  Yury Usachov
182 days
Soyuz TM-19 1 July 1994 Mir EO-16:
  Yuri Malenchenko
  Talgat Musabayev
4 November 1994 Mir EO-16:
  Yuri Malenchenko
  Talgat Musabayev
Euromir 94:
  Ulf Merbold
125 days
Soyuz TM-20 3 October 1994 Mir EO-17:
  Aleksandr Viktorenko
  Yelena Kondakova
Euromir 94:
  Ulf Merbold
22 March 1995 Mir EO-17:
  Aleksandr Viktorenko
  Yelena Kondakova
  Valeri Polyakov
169 days
Soyuz TM-21 14 March 1995 Mir EO-18:
  Vladimir Dezhurov
  Gennady Strekalov
  Norman Thagard
11 September 1995 Mir EO-19:
  Anatoly Solovyev
  Nikolai Budarin
181 days
Soyuz TM-22 3 September 1995 Mir EO-20:
  Yuri Gidzenko
  Sergei Avdeyev
Euromir 95:
  Thomas Reiter
29 February 1996 Mir EO-20:
  Yuri Gidzenko
  Sergei Avdeyev
Euromir 95:
  Thomas Reiter
179 days
Soyuz TM-23 21 February 1996 Mir EO-21:
  Yuri Onufrienko
  Yury Usachov
2 September 1996 Mir EO-21:
  Yuri Onufrienko
  Yury Usachov
Other:
  Claudie André-Deshays
193 days
Soyuz TM-24 17 August 1996 Mir EO-22:
  Valery Korzun
  Aleksandr Kaleri
Other:
  Claudie André-Deshays
2 March 1997 Mir EO-22:
  Valery Korzun
  Aleksandr Kaleri
Other:
  Reinhold Ewald
196 days
Soyuz TM-25 10 February 1997 Mir EO-23:
  Vasili Tsibliyev
  Aleksandr Lazutkin
Other:
  Reinhold Ewald
14 August 1997 Mir EO-23:
  Vasili Tsibliyev
  Aleksandr Lazutkin
184 days
Soyuz TM-26 5 August 1997 Mir EO-24:
  Anatoly Solovyev
  Pavel Vinogradov
19 February 1998 Mir EO-24:
  Anatoly Solovyev
  Pavel Vinogradov
Other:
  Léopold Eyharts
197 days
Soyuz TM-27 29 January 1998 Mir EO-25:
  Talgat Musabayev
  Nikolai Budarin
Other:
  Léopold Eyharts
25 August 1998 Mir EO-25:
  Talgat Musabayev
  Nikolai Budarin
Other:
  Yuri Baturin
207 days
Soyuz TM-28 13 August 1998 Mir EO-26:
  Gennady I. Padalka
  Sergei Avdeyev
Other:
  Yuri Baturin
28 February 1999 Mir EO-26:
  Gennady I. Padalka
Other:
  Ivan Bella
198 days
Soyuz TM-29 20 February 1999 Mir EO-27:
  Viktor Afanasyev
  Jean-Pierre Haigneré
Other:
  Ivan Bella
28 August 1999 Mir EO-27:
  Viktor Afanasyev
  Jean-Pierre Haigneré
Other:
  Sergei Avdeyev
188 days
Soyuz TM-30 4 April 2000 Mir EO-28:
  Sergei Zalyotin
  Aleksandr Kaleri
16 June 2000 Mir EO-28:
  Sergei Zalyotin
  Aleksandr Kaleri
72 days Last mission to Mir
Soyuz TM-31 31 October 2000 Expedition 1:
  Yuri Gidzenko
  Sergei Krikalev
  William Shepherd
6 May 2001 ISS EP-1:
  Talgat Musabayev
  Yuri Baturin
  Dennis Tito
186 days First Soyuz to the International Space Station
Soyuz TM-32 28 April 2001 ISS EP-1:
  Talgat Musabayev
  Yuri Baturin
  Dennis Tito
31 October 2001 ISS EP-2:
  Viktor M. Afanasyev
  Claudie Haigneré
  Konstantin Kozeyev
185 days
Soyuz TM-33 21 October 2001 ISS EP-2:
  Viktor M. Afanasyev
  Claudie Haigneré
  Konstantin Kozeyev
5 May 2002   Yuri Gidzenko
  Roberto Vittori
  Mark Shuttleworth
195 days
Soyuz TM-34 25 April 2002   Yuri Gidzenko
  Roberto Vittori
  Mark Shuttleworth
10 November 2002   Sergei Zalyotin
  Frank De Winne
  Yury Lonchakov
198 days

GalleryEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Miller, Denise (30 July 2013). "What is the Soyzu Spacecraft". nasa.gov.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ a b Portree, David S. (1995). Mir Hardware Heritage (PDF). NASA. pp. 53–59.
  3. ^ "Soyuz ISS Missions" (PDF). NASA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-12-02.
  4. ^ a b c d Portree, David S. (1995). Mir Hardware Heritage. NASA. pp. 6–7.
  5. ^ "Soyuz TM (7K-STM) spacecraft". gctc.ru.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. ^ a b c "Soyuz TM manned transport spacecraft". energia.ru.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ OSMA Assessments Team. "NASA Astronauts on Soyuz: Experience and Lessons for the Future" (PDF). sma.nasa.gov.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. ^ a b c OSMA Assessments Team (2010). NASA Astronauts on Soyuz: Experience and Lessons for the Future (PDF). NASA. pp. 12–13.